• Title, Summary, Keyword: Acrosome

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Acceleration of Early Embryonic Development by Induction of Acrosome Reaction in Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (세포질내 정자주입술 시행시 정자의 첨체반응이 수정란의 초기 발생과 임신율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Y.J.;Lee, D.R.;Lee, J.E.;Kim, H.J.;Paik, H.R.;Yoon, H.S.;Shim, H.N.;Cho, J.H.;Roh, S.I.
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.311-318
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    • 1997
  • Bypassing acrosome reaction and fusion process in intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI), most of injected spermatozoa still contain intact acrosome contents and plasma membrane. It Is not known yet what acrosome contents and plasma membrane of spermatozoa have effect on the development of embryo. For further understanding of fertilization process after ICSI, we studied the time of pronucleus formation, disappearance and first cleavage in human zygote, and pregnancy rate in relation to acrosome reaction rate of spermatozoa after ICSI. Seventy cycles undergoing ICSI program were randomly selected. Sperm suspension from 38 cycles were treated 50% human follicular fluid(hFF) for 3 hours in order to induce acrosome reaction, others were not treated as control. Acrosome reaction in hFF treated and non-treated group was assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC)-conjugated Arachis hypogea(PNA) and Pisum sativum agglutinin(PSA). Oocytes were classified into 'good' and 'poor' according to their morphology. After ICSI, fertilization of oocytes were assessed by detection of two pronuclei at 16 hours. The pronuclei disappearance and first cleavage of zygotes were observed at 24 hours, and then embryos were transferred to uterus after culture for 72 hours. The rate of acrosome reaction of spermatozoa in hFF treated group was significantly higher than that in control(p<0.01). Fertilization rates of good oocytes were not different both control and hFF treated group(81.3%(174/206) vs. 72.1%(102/130)). But, in poor oocytes, the fertilization rates in hFF treated group(72.1%(149/183)) were increased compared than those of control group (63.6%(98/140), p<0.01). In either good or poor oocytes, the rates of pronuclei disappearance in hFF treated-spermatozoa injected oocytes were higher than control (59.1%(103/174), 56.4%(84/149) vs. 32.4%(33/102), 37.8%(37/98), p<0.01). Also, the rates of thirst cleavage were increased in hFF treated group (31%(54/174), 24.1%(36/149)) compared than those of control group (10.8%(11/102), 13.2%(13/98), p<0.01). The pregnancy rates of hFF treated group (42.1%(16/38)) were slightly higher than control group (28.1%(9/32), p>0.05). But, the pregnancy rate of group which possessed more than one cleavaged zygote at 24 hours was higher than group which did not (45.2%(19/42) vs. 21.4%(6/28), p<0.05). From these results, the development of zygotes were faster in higher acrosome reacted sperm group than lower acrosome reacted sperm group after ICSI. Our results may be explained that acrosomal membrane and plasma membrane are easily detached from spermatozoa in acrosome reacted spermatozoa compared with acrosome intact sperm in the cytoplasm of oocyte during pronuclear formation. We conclude that the injection of acrosome reacted spermatozoa will increase the pregnancy rate as they can induce fast embryonic development in ICSI.

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Changes in the Ultrasturcture of the Spermatozoa Korean Native Cattle During Maturation (한우정자의 성숙에 따른 미세구조의 변화)

  • 배대식;김종욱
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 1979
  • The maturation changes in morphology were studied with the spermatozoa collected from the testis and three successive parts of the epididymis in Korean native Cattle. Acrosomal granules were observed in the testis. Avoiding the cap and acrosome phases, the tail base and the striated column of the neck were formed in spermatides. The volume of the acrosome was decreased during transit from the testis to the epididymis. The cell membranes were also separated from the acrosome or damage during the spermatozoan passage through successive parts of the reproductive tract. Cytoplasmic droplets were observed in the spermatozoa collected from various parts of the reproductive tract.

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Effects of Nitric Oxide Modulating Drugs on Acrosome Reaction in Mouse Spermatozoa

  • Gye, Myung Chan
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.151-155
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    • 2000
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive free radical which plays important roles in animal physiology. To investigate involvement of NO in acrosome reaction (AR), effects of drugs which modulate the intracellular NO level were examined in mouse spermatozoa. N (G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), a potent inhibitor of NO synthesis, decreased AR in a reversible manner, On the other hand, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO generating agent, increased spontaneous AR. Preincubation of sperm in the presence of L-NA potentiated AR after sperm transfer into plain- or SNP-media. Methylene blue, a NO scavenging agent, decreased spontaneous AR. Taken together, it is concluded that NO positively controls AR.

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Morphological Changes of Golgi Apparatus during Spermiogenesis in the Long-fingered Bat, Miniopterus schreibersi fuliginosus (한국산 긴날개박쥐, Miniopterus schreibersi fuliginosus의 정자변태과정 중 Golgi Apparatus의 형태적 변화)

  • 손성원
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 1997
  • To study the function and structure of Golgi apparatus in the spermiogenesis of long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersi fuliginosus), the testis obtained from adult bat was treated with the prolonged osmification or fixed with ferrocyanide reduced osmium. golgi apparatus was oval shape in early Golgi phase, and was composed of cortex and medullar enclosing acrosome in mid Golgi phase. The vesicles of crescent shape Golgi apparatus were closed or fused with small or large vesicles at the periphery of acrosome. Golgi apparatus moved behing the acrosome face in cap phase, but the Golgi apparatus was still active. According to this, Golgi apparatus appears to be involved in the formation of acrosome and sperm tail. Transfer of materials from Golgi to acrosme seems to be carried out not only by fusion of large vesicles with acrosomal vesicles but also by detachment of coated vesicle from various cisternae of Golgi fusing with acrosomal vesicle.

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Effects of Diluent Component, Freezing Rate, Thawing Time and Thawing Temperature on Acrosome Morphology and Motility of Frozen-thawed Boar Sperm

  • Yi, Y.J.;Kwon, Y.A.;Ko, H.J.;Park, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1553-1558
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to obtain informations regarding the effect of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in the LEY (lactoseegg yolk) diluent according to incubation time in 5 ml maxi-straw and the effects of freezing rate, thawing temperature and thawing time in the LEN (lactose-egg yolk and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) diluent on acrosome morphology and motility of frozen-thawed boar sperm. The study showed that the LEN diluent was higher post-thaw NAR (normal apical ridge) acrosome than the LEY diluent for 0.5 h incubation at 37$^{\circ}C$. However, there were no differences between the LEN and LEY diluents on post-thaw sperm motility according to incubation time. The straws frozen from 5.0 cm (20$^{\circ}C$/min) to 17.0 cm (1$^{\circ}C$/min) above the liquid nitrogen surface did not show any significant differences on post-thaw sperm motility. However, the straws frozen above 5.0 cm from the liquid nitrogen surface were higher NAR acrosome than those frozen above 17.0 cm. The post-thaw percentages of motile sperm and NAR acrosome were significantly higher (p<0.05) for the maxi-straws submerged for 40 or 45 sec in a 52$^{\circ}C$ water bath than for 30, 35, 50 or 55 sec. The mean sample temperatures of maxi-straws after 40 or 45 sec submersion were 20.7 or 26.4$^{\circ}C$. In conclusion, the sample temperature of the thawed semen was very important for post-thaw sperm survival in the LEN diluent of 5 ml maxi-straw. When the temperature of the thawed semen was 20.7$^{\circ}C$, the percentages of motile sperm and NAR acrosome were highest.

Effect of X-537A on Hydrogen Ion Concentration in Sperm Washed Solution and Sperm Acrosome Reacton in Bovine (X-537A가 정자세척액내 수소이온농도와 소 정자의 첨모반응에 미치는 영향)

  • 박영식;임경순
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 1991
  • This study was carried out ot investigate effects of X-537A on hydrogen ion concentration insperm washed solution and sperm acrosome reaction. The results obtained were as follows. 1. When bovine sperm was twice washed with SHP solutions of pH 6.8 and 7.4 and again washed with SHP solution containing 4$\mu$M of X-537A, in case of pH 6.8 the sperm washed with 4$\mu$M of X-537A showed signifciantly(p<0.01) higher hydrogen ion concentration in sperm washed solution than the sperm washed without X-537A. 2. When the sperm was twice washed with SHP solution and then washed with SHP solution containing 4$\mu$M of X-537A, sperm acrosome rection rate was signifciantly(p<0.01) increased from 12min after incubation in the sperm washed without X-537A, but was signifciantly(p<0.01) increased from 8 min after incubation in the sperm washed with 4$\mu$M of X-537A. 3. When the sperm was twice washed with SHP solution and then washed with SHP solution containing 0, 4 and 40$\mu$M of X-537A, and then incubated in m-TALP for 120 min, sperm acrosome reaction rate was significantly(p<0.01) increased from 15 min after incubation in 0, 4 and 40$\mu$m OF X-537A. However at 60 min incubation 40$\mu$M of X-537A showed significantly(p<0.01) higher sperm acrosome reaction rate than 0 and 4$\mu$M and at 120 min incubation 4 and 40$\mu$M of X-537A showed signifciantly(p<0.01) higher acrosome reaction rate than 0$\mu$M of X-537A.

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Glucose and Its Role in Generating Reactive Oxygen Species Required for Mouse Sperm Fertilizing Ability

  • Lin, S.C.;Chen, M.C.;Huang, A.J.;Salem, B.;Li, K.C.;Chou, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.748-756
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    • 2000
  • Effects of xanthine (X), xanthine oxidase (XO), and catalase (C), $H_2O_2$, and carbohydrates on sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction, and fertilizing ability in vitro were examined. Glucose alone, but not fructose, supported the maximum rate of sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. However, in the combination of X, XO, and C (XXOC) or $H_2O_2$, fructose alone also supported maximum capacitation, acrosome reaction, and fertilization. Either insufficient or excessive amounts of $H_2O_2$ decreased sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction. In order to understand how glucose generates $H_2O_2$ or other reactive oxygen species in sperm cells, 6-aminonicotinamide, an inhibitor of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP), and apocynin, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, were added to sperm suspensions in glucose-containing medium. Results appeared that sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction, and fertilization were consequently inhibited by either one of these compounds. These inhibitory effects were nullified by addition of XXOC. These results support the hypothesis that glucose, in addition to being a substrate for glycolysis, facilitates sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction by generating reactive oxygen species through G-6-P dehydrogenase and NADPH oxidase.

Effect of Dimethyl Amiloride on the Acrosome Reaction in Mouse Epididymal Sperm in vitro (생쥐 정자의 첨체반응에 미치는 Dimethyl Amiloride의 영향)

  • 계명찬
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 1999
  • The possible role of Na$^{+}$/H$^{+}$ antiporter in both the capacitation and the acrosome reaction (AR) was examined in mouse epididymal spermatozoa. Spontaneous acrosome reaction was inhibited by dimethyl amiloride (DMA), a specific inhibitor of Na$^{+}$/H$^{+}$ antiporter, with dose dependent manner. Follicular fluid- or A23l 87-induced acrosome reaction was not inhibited by DMA. It suggests that change in pH$_{i}$ by monovalent cation transport through the Na$^{+}$/H$^{+}$ antiporter is possibly engaged in the capacitation and that agonist- as well as A23l87-induced AR in capacitated sperm might be independent from the Na$^{+}$/H$^{+}$ antiporter. Conclusively, changes in pH$_{i}$ through the Na$^{+}$/H$^{+}$ antiporter might be important for sperm capacitation and it virtually occurs upstream of the $Ca^{2+}$ influx which precedes the acrosome reaction in mouse epididymal spermatozoa.pididymal spermatozoa.

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Effects of L-Carnitine during the Storage of Fresh Semen in Miniature Pigs

  • Lee, Yeon-Ju;Lee, Sang-Hee;Lee, Eunsong;Lee, Seung Tae;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Lee, Seunghyung;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2014
  • L-Carnitine is an antioxidant for the transport of fatty acids in mitochondria and breakdown of lipids for metabolic energy. Some studies have suggested that carnitine improves sperm motility in mammals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine on the characteristics in fresh semen of miniature pigs. The collected fresh semen was stored in modena B medium with L-carnitine (0, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/ml) for 10 days at $18^{\circ}C$. The semen quality of viability, acrosome reaction and mitochondria integrity was analyzed on 0, 3, 7, and 10 day of semen storage. The percentages of live and dying sperm were not different among treatment groups with different concentrations of L-carnitine during the storage period. In acrosome reaction analysis, when the sperm stored for 7 day, the percentages of live sperm with acrosome reaction were significantly (p<0.05) lower in 1 ($9.0{\pm}0.9%$), 2 ($7.6{\pm}0.2%$) or 4 mg/ml ($7.9{\pm}0.8%$) L-carnitine-treated groups than the control group (0 mg/ml L-carnitine) ($11.12{\pm}0.2%$). However, there were no difference in percentages of live sperm with acrosome reaction for 3 and 10 days of storage with each concentrations of L-carnitine. When sperm was stored for 3 and 10 days, the percentages of live sperm with mitochondria integrity were significantly higher in 2 mg/ml of L-carnitine-treated group than control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the L-carnitine has a positive effect on acrosome reaction and mitochondria integrity in liquid state of fresh semen in miniature pigs.

Observation of the Incidence of Acrosome Reaction in Human Spermatozoa Treated with Mibefradil as a T-type $Ca^{2+}i$ Channels Inhibitor (T-형 $Ca^{2+}$ 채널 길항제인 Mibefradil을 첨가한 인간 정자의 첨체반응 관찰)

  • Lee, Jae-Ho;Son, Weon-Young;Lee, Jung-Ha;Lee, In-Sun;Kim, Young-Chan;Han, Ching-Tack
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2000
  • Objective: The sperm acrosome reaction is a $Ca^{2+}$-dependent exocytotic event that is triggered by adhesion to the mammalian egg's zona pellucida. Previous studies suggested a role of $Ca^{2+}$ channels in acrosome reactions. This study was conducted to investigate the T-type calcium channel is operated in acrosome reaction of human spermatozoa. Method: Human semen samples were obtained from healthy donors with normal criteria. The spermatozoa were divided into five groups: Group 1 were non-treated as a control; Group 2 where spermatozoa were exposed to 5 ${\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}$ A23187 $(Ca^{2+}i)$; Group 3 where spermatozoa were exposed 5 ${\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}i$ and mibefradil; Group 4 where spermatozoa were exposed 5 ${\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}i$ and nifedipine, and Group 5 where spermatozoa were treated with 5 ${\mu}M$ $Ca^{2+}i$ and both of mibefradil and nifedipine. Spermatozoa in all groups were retrieved after incubation for 15 and 30 minutes at $37^{\circ}C$. After staining with PSA-FITC, fluorescence was observed under a fluorescence microscope, and AR was evaluated on a total>100 spermatozoa/side. Result and Conclusion: We observed on acrosome reaction inhibition rate in human spermatozoa the various of concentration of mibefradil, nifedipine. Maximum response was noted with 1.0 ${\mu}M$ mibefradil and the decrease of acrosome reaction inhibition rate 45%. Nifedipine in acrosome reaction inhibition rate was only about 25%. The $Ca^{2+}i$-induced AR of spermatozoa was significantly suppressed by mibefradil. Incidence of the suppression was depending on concentration of mibefradil. Results from the present study suggest that the human spermatozoa possess T-type channel. The observation that reversible inhibitor of T channels in male germ cells provides a new mechanism of contraceptive action.

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