• Title, Summary, Keyword: Acid Rain

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An Understanding of Elementary School Students on the Acid-Base, Acid Rain and Soil Acidification (초등학생들의 산-염기, 산성비, 토양산성화에 대한 이해)

  • KIM, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1764-1782
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the understanding on the acid-base, acid rain and soil acidification of the elementary students. The participants in the current study were 280 6th graders from a elementary school in Gyeongnam Province. A questionnaire consists of four categories: understanding of (a) acid-base basic knowledge, (b) acid rain and (c) soil acidification. (d) In addition, students were asked to comment about the introduction of the acid rain experiment in the science textbook. The results are as follows; First, the results regarding acid-base basic knowledge. They know the classification, characteristics, and properties of acid-based solutions well but they don't know the acid-base neutralization, examples using properties and application in real life. Second, the results regarding acid rain, students know the definition and damage of acid rain but they don't know the causing substances, emission source and way of solution of acid rain for lack of knowledge. Third, the results regarding soil acidification was the well-known part for the students because they had continued learning about the soil from the lesson of acid rain. Also, we looked into the difference in gender and region about the understanding of acid-base, acid rain and soil acidification. According to the gender of the data about the understanding of acid-base, acid rain and soil acidification, the percentage of correct answers of female was higher than male's. Also we expected that urban students were higher than rural students on the understanding of acid-base, acid rain and soil acidification, but the understanding of urban students were similar to rural students. Fourth, we got positive answers and negative answers to the introduction of acid rain experiment. Most of the positive opinion were I want to know a lot acid rain experiment", followed by "It is possible to prevent the risk of the damage and It seems to having fun and new order. Most of the negative opinion were Acid rain experiment may be difficult and complicated followed by Just a theory in the book is enough, Acid rain experiment were boring and not fun, Acid rain experiment is dangerous, There are many to study in this order.

A Study on Resistant Comparisons of Landscape Trees by Simulated Acid Rain (인공산성우에 대한 조경수목의 내성 비교)

  • 정용문
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.208-218
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    • 1991
  • To compare the resistance of landscape trees by acid rain, simulated acid rain was treated on the seeds of 6 coniferous species (Pinus densiflora, Pinus thunbergii, Pinus koraiensis, Taxus cuspidata, Cedrus deodara, Thuja occidentalis) and 6 broad-leafed species (Ligustrum obtusifolium, Acer Buergerianum, Acer Ginnala, Styrax obassia, Cornus Kousa, Magnolia obovata). The experimental design of randomized block arrangement with three replications was implemented in the experimental field of Yesan National Agri-Tech Junior College. The seeds of 12 tree species were planted on the nursery soil in the early spring of 1991. The regime of artificial acid rain, in terms of spray frequency per monthly and spray amount at year records. Simulated acid rain (pH 2.0, pH 4.0, pH 5.6 as control) containing sulfuric and nitric acid in the ratio of 3:2 (chemical equivalant basis) diluted ground water, were treated on the experimental plants under condition of cutting off the natural precipitation with vinyl tunnel, during the growing season (April 8 to August 31) in 1991. Seedling establishment, seedling growth and nutrient contents in needles and leaves were measured and compared among the treatment. The results were summerized as follows; 1. In general, coniferous species were more resistant than broad-leafed species in the resistant comparisons of landscape trees by simulated acid rain. But there were resistant tree species to acid rain among the broad-leafed species. 2. Among 6 coniferous species used in this experiment, Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, Taxus cuspidata, Cedrus deodara and Pinus thunbergii revealed the resistant tree species to acid rain. But Thuja occidentalis was very susceptible to acid rain, because of no germination in pH 2.0 treatment plot of acid rain. 3. Among 6 broad-leafed species used in this study, Magnolia obovata, Styrax obassia and Ligustrum obtusifolium showed relative resistant tree species to acid rain. But Acer Buergerianum, Acer Ginnala and Cornus Kousa were very susceptible to acid rain, because of no germination in pH 2.0 plot of acid rain treatment.

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Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on Histology, Water Status and Growth of Pinus densiflora (인공산성빗물이 소나무의 조직, 수분수지 및 생장에 미치는 영향)

  • 이창석;길지현;유영한
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 1998
  • To clarify the effects of acid precipitates on histological damage, water status, and growth of Pinus densiflora green house experiment applyin simulated acid rain was carried out. Contact angle of water droplet on needles of P. densiflora seedlings treated with simulated acid rain of different pHs simulated acid rain was, the more rapid transpiration was. Leaf water potential after water withdrawal was also reduced rapidly in proportion to acidity of simulated acid rain. Height growth of P. densiflora seedlings treated with simulated acid rain of pH 2 decreased, while growth of seedlings treated with that of pH 3 and 4 increased comparing with that treated with normal rain of pH 5.6. pH of cultivated soil in pH 2 plot was acidified with the amount of simulated acid rain applied but that in pH 3 and 4 plots did not show any directional change. From those results, it could be interpreted that decrease of height growth in pH 2 plot was originated from multiple effects of water deficit from rapid transpiration and soil acidification. On the other hand, increased of height growth in pH 3 and 4 plots would be originated from the supply of N and S included in simulated acid rain.

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A Comparative Analysis of Descriptions about the Acid Rain in the 10 year Science Textbooks according to the 7th Science Curriculum (7차 교육과정에 따른 10학년 과학교과서에 제시된 산성비 관련 내용 진술의 비교 분석)

  • Kong, Young-Tae;Kim, Sung-Kyu
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.811-821
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    • 2013
  • A purpose of this study was to provide the helpful information about operation of revised science curriculum by analyzing many contents about acid rain with various aspects, which was written in science textbook of 10 year according to the 7th national curriculum. The results show that there was the lack of educational systemicity among elementary school, middle school, and high school science curriculum and the lack of explanation for occurrence and standard level of acid rain, pH 5.6. And It could be categorized the effect of acid rain into four groups and experiment or experiment activities into three groups.

Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Water Status of Pinus densiflora and P. koraiensis (인공 산성비가 소나무와 잣나무 잎의 수분상태에 미치는 영향)

    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.10-19
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    • 1999
  • The water status of Pinus densiflora and P. koraiensis was observed after the treatment of simulated acid rain for every month August 1997 to March 1998. Both of the species showed increase of dry weight, water saturation deficit and epidermis transpiration after treatment of simulated acid rain (pH 3.5) for first three months. On the contrary, water content was decreased in both the species after three month of simulated acid rain treatment. The effect of simulated acid rain, however, became weaker after that and no big difference was observed after seven month of treatment. Water potential of the leaf of both species became lower than that of the control(pH 5.6) after seven month treatment of simulated acid rain. The cuticle layers of the epidermis and florins ring were damaged seriously and the size of the gap between stomata became bigger after the treatment of simulated acid rain.

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Effects of Simulated Sulfuric and Nitric Acid Rain on Growth and Seed Germination of Arabidopsis thaliana (인공 황산비 및 질산비가 애기장대의 생장과 종자발아에 미치는 영향)

  • 이석찬;박정안;박종범
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.659-664
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    • 2003
  • The experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of sulfuric acid and nitric acid among the main components of simulated acid rain (SAR) on the growth of vegetative organs and seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana. The Arabidopsis treated with SAR supplemented with sulfuric and nitric acids, respectively, showed 28% and 30% decrease of shoot and root growth compared to the control plants, and also many necrotic spots on leaf surfaces after SAR treatment were observed. The shoot and root length for plants grown with nitric acid rain was 14% and 17% lower, respectively, compared to the control, whereas those grown with sulfuric acid rain was 24% and 25% lower than control plants. When Arabidopsis seeds were sown in distilled water, germination rate was 100% after 7 days. However, 80% in SAR medium supplemented with sulfuric and nitric acids, 88% in sulfuric acid rain medium and 93% in nitric acid rain medium. The germination abilities of seeds harvested from SAR supplemented with sulfuric and nitric acids, sulfuric acid rain, and nitric acid rain were 73%, 73% and 94%, respectively. Consequently, sulfuric acids showed more inhibitory effects than nitric acids on the growth of vegetative organs as well as germination rates in Arabidopsis.

Effects of Acid Rain Treatment on Height Growth of Several Landscape Tree Species, pH Value and $Al^{3+}$ Concentration in Soil: Comparison after 5 Years [I] (人工酸性雨 處理가 5年後 몇 가지 造景樹種의 樹高生長, 土壤 酸度와 可溶性 알루미늄의 濃度에 미치는 影響 [I])

  • 정용문;우수영;김판기
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 1997
  • To identify the long-term influence of acid rain treatment on tree growth, acid rain of various composition (pH 2.0, pH 4.0 and pH 5.6 as control) was applied to several landscape trees for five months (April through August, 1991). Tree height, pH values and $Al^{3+}$ concentration in soil were investigated. Acid rain treatments seemed to promote height growth in the first year (1991), but have become an inhibiting factor over five years. All of coniferous species and most broad-leaved species, except Acer ginnala, showed opposite trends in height responses to acid rain treatments between the first (1991) and last (1996) year. In contrast, Acer ginnala showed similar trends to acid rain treatments in the height growth between 1991 and 1996. This result suggested that Acer ginnala has a characteristic adapability to acid rain stress. pH values of surface soil were lower than those of 30 cm soil depth. This fact suggested that acid rain treatments made surface soil acidic condition. In addition, physiological characteristics (photosynthesis, stomatal condition and biomass) have to be investigated to identify the relationship between long-term effects of $AL^{3+}$ concentration and growth.

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Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Water Status and Growth of Glycine soja S. et. Z. (인공산성비가 돌콩의 생육과 잎의 수분 상태에 미치는 영향)

  • 윤의수
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 2000
  • The effects of the simulated acid rain on the growth response and water status of Glycine soja was observed in 2 months-old seedlings. The seedlings were treated with acid rain(pH 3.5), three times per week. Glycine soja showed significant reduction in the total length, total weight, dry weight, water contents and top/root ratio after treatment of simulated acid rain(pH 3.5) for 56 days. The growth of shoot was more susceptible to acid rain than that of roots. On the contray, Number of lateral roots, water saturation deficit and epidermis transpiration was higher than that of control(pH 5.6) after 56 days treatment of simulated acid rain.

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Investigation on the Mechanism of Concrete due to Acid Rain (산성비에 의한 콘크리트 열화의 메카니즘에 대한 고찰)

  • Koh, Kyung-Taek;Lee, Jong-Suk;Kim, Do-Gyeong;Kim, Sung-Wook;Lee, Jang-Hwa
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.209-212
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    • 2005
  • Concrete structures such as buildings and bridges etc in urban areas may be damaged due to exposure to cloud water with high acidity for a long time. Acid precipitation with a pH level raining between 3.0 and 5.0 will affect concrete. A pH level of rain acid in Korea is between 4.3 and 5.3. However, few studies have been systematically investigated for the effect of rain acid on concrete structures. Therefore, this study is investigated the domestic situation of acid rain and the effect of acid rain on concrete deterioration by existing literatures as a study to analyze the effect of rain acid on concrete structures.

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Development of Acid Rain Model Instrument and Its Application in Environmental Education

  • Ma, Chang-Jin;Shin, Eun-Sang
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.222-227
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    • 2015
  • The environmental education with ideal teaching tools (e.g., a small-scaled experimental kit) is essential for raising the public's, especially student's, awareness of many environmental issues. This study was undertaken to develop a do-it-yourself model instrument of acid rain and estimating its applicability to the environmental education. Our novel model tool consists of a body (17 cm width, 6 cm depth, and 17 cm height), an acid gas injector, acid four rain reservoirs, and a drop supply pump. An alternative model instrument that can be more readily assembled was also suggested. Based on our novel approach, we carried out several model experiments with educatees (i.e., high school and college students, and adults). The results of questionnaires indicated that educatees achieved a very deep understanding of acid rain through an experienced model experiment. A 77 to 89% of educatees experienced the reappearance experiment of acid rain by our model instrument felt that it was very useful as a teaching tool of environmental education.