• Title, Summary, Keyword: Achievement Motivation

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A Content Analysis on Learning Experience of K-MOOC(Korea-Massive Open Online Course) : Focused on Korean University Students (한국 대학생의 K-MOOC 학습 경험에 대한 내용 분석)

  • Park, Tae-Jung;Rah, Ilju
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.446-457
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of the study was to understand the various aspects of learning experiences of Korean university students on K-MOOC. Analyses on the major motivation of the enrollment in a certain MOOC class, the actual learning experiences in the class and the perception of the achievement of the class were the three main foci of the current study. The study employed inductive content analysis as a major analysis tool. Reflective journals from 94 students who enrolled in K-MOOC classes were collected and analyzed at the end of the semester. The result of this study indicated that most of students selected the specific K-MOOC classes based on their general interests on the topics the class offered. Other factors such as intellectual curiosity, practical reasons for their study or work and popularity were also influential on the selection of MOOC classes. Watching videos, taking quizzes and taking tests were the three major sources of the students' satisfaction. Most students felt that K-MOOC is technically satisfactory. However, some students reported on simple errors and absence of advanced functions in the platform. Students perceived positively on their academic achievements of obtaining knowledge(remembering and understanding), attitudes (receiving), and skills through K-MOOC. This study ultimately showed a new awareness of learning experiences around K-MOOC from the perspective of the students. Future research is needed to understand the relationships between the students' learning experience and the students' performance in MOOC classes.

Effect of ego-resilience, adult attachment, interpersonal competence on the academic stress of nursing students (간호대학생의 자아탄력성, 성인애착, 대인관계유능성이 학업스트레스에 미치는 영향)

  • Byun, Eun Kyung;Kim, Mi Young
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.223-230
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ego-resilience, adult attachment, and interpersonal competence on academic stress in nursing students and to provide the basic data of to control academic stress. Data were collected from 287 nursing students in B and C city and analyzed by t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression using SPSS/WIN 22.0. The degree of academic stress in nursing students was 2.28±.46. There were significant differences in academic stress with respect to grade(F=16.342, p<.001), economic status(F=3.331, p=.037), number of alcohol drinking(F=3.393, p=.035), satisfaction of major(F=40.539, p<.001), college life satisfaction(F=67.304, p<.001). There was positive correlation between academic stress and adult attachment(r=.557, p<.001), negative correlation were found between academic stress and ego-resilience(r=-.379, p<.001), between academic stress and interpersonal competence(r=-.423, p<.001). The factors affecting the academic stress of the study subjects were ego-resilience(r=-.379, p<.001), adult attachment(r=.557, p<.001), with an explanatory power of 34%. Through this research requires the fellow study to determine the factors affecting academic stress of nursing students.

Application and Effectiveness of a Preceptorship for the Improvement of Clinical Education (임상실습 교육개선을 위한 일 실습지도자 활용모델 (preceptorship model)의 적용 및 효과에 관한 연구 -암센타, 재활센타, 중환자실 실습을 중심으로-)

  • 이원희;김소선;한신희;이소연;김기연
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.581-596
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    • 1995
  • Clinical practice in nursing education provides an opportunity for students, through the process of ap-plying theoretical knowledge to practice, and to learn nursing skills as well as being socialized into nursing and as such decrease the reality shock of actual nursing practice. Because of a shortage of nursing faculty, the job of achieving the objectives of the clinical practice had been turned over to the head nurses. This resulted in many problems, such as, unclear location of responsibilities and inadequate feedback from head nurses. Therefore this study was done to introduce and evaluate the use of preceptors as a way to minimize the above problems, and to maximize the achievement of the clinical practice objectives. Using an adaptation of Zerbe's (1991) three-tiered team model, clinical practice was done using a preceptor, a head nurse and a clinical instructor, each with different and well defined roles. The subjects of this study were 67 senior students of the College of Nursing of Y University in Seoul whose clinical practice in adult nursing was carried out between May 1, 1994 and December 8, 1994. There were 22 preceptors who had at least two years of clinical experience and who were recommended by their head nurses. They were given additional education on the philosophy and objectives of the College of Nursing, on communication skills, on the theory and practice of education, and on nursing diagnosis and education evaluation. The role of the preceptor was to work one-to-one with students in their practice. The role of the head nurse was to supervise and evaluate the preceptors. The role of the clinical instructor was to provide the education program for the preceptors, to provide ad-vice and suggestions to the preceptors and to maintain lines of communication with the college. With each of these roles in place, it was thought that the effectiveness and efficiency of the clinical practice could be increased significantly. To evaluate the effectiveness of the preceptorship, the three - tiered model, Lowery's Teacher Evaluation Opinion Form translated and adapted to Korea was used to measure student statisfaction. The Clinical Practice Compentency Evaluation Tool developed by Lee et ai was also used to measure student competencies. The results of this study are as follows 1. The satisfaction with clinical practice was higher with the introduction of the perceptors than it was before they were used. (t=-5.96, p=<.005) 2. The clinical practice competencies were higher with the introduction of the preceptors than it was before they were used(t=-5.l3, p<.005) 3. In order to analyze areas not measured by the quantitative tools additional analysis of the open questions was done. The results of this analysis showed that : 1) The students felt positive about their sense of security, confidence, handling of responsbility, and being systematic. They also felt positive about improvements in knowledge, opportunities for direct care, and socialization. 2) The students felt negative about the technical part of their role, lack of knowledge by the preceptor, unprofessional attitudes on the part of the preceptor, difficulty in the role of the professional nurse(student). 3) The preceptors felt positive about their responsibility, motivation, and relationship with the college. 4) The preceptors felt negative about their bur-den. Introduction of the preceptorship model will lead to change and improvement in the negative factors discussed above, solve problems in the present clinical education system, increase continuity in the education of the students, help with socialization of the students and motivation of the preceptors to up-grade their education and increase their confidence. These objectives must be obtained to further the development of professional nursing, and thus, making the preceptorship a reality is our job for the future.

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An Empirical Study in Relationship between Franchisor's Leadership Behavior Style and Commitment by Focusing Moderating Effect of Franchisee's Self-efficacy (가맹본부의 리더십 행동유형과 가맹사업자의 관계결속에 관한 실증적 연구 - 가맹사업자의 자기효능감의 조절효과를 중심으로 -)

  • Yang, Hoe-Chang;Lee, Young-Chul
    • Journal of Distribution Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.49-71
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    • 2010
  • Franchise businesses in South Korea have contributed to economic growth and job creation, and its growth potential remains very high. However, despite such virtues, domestic franchise businesses face many problems such as the instability of franchisor's business structure and weak financial conditions. To solve these problems, the government enacted legislation and strengthened franchise related laws. However, the strengthening of laws regulating franchisors had many side effects that interrupted the development of the franchise business. For example, legal regulations regarding franchisors have had the effect of suppressing the franchisor's leadership activities (e.g. activities such as the ability to advocate the franchisor's policies and strategies to the franchisees, in order to facilitate change and innovation). One of the main goals of the franchise business is to build cooperation between the franchisor and the franchisee for their combined success. However, franchisees can refuse to follow the franchisor's strategies because of the current state of franchise-related law and government policy. The purpose of this study to explore the effects of franchisor's leadership style on franchisee's commitment in a franchise system. We classified leadership styles according to the path-goal theory (House & Mitchell, 1974), and it was hypothesized and tested that the four leadership styles proposed by the path-goal theory (i.e. directive, supportive, participative and achievement-oriented leadership) have different effects on franchisee's commitment. Another purpose of this study to explore the how the level of franchisee's self-efficacy influences both the franchisor's leadership style and franchisee's commitment in a franchise system. Results of the present study are expected to provide important theoretical and practical implications as to the role of franchisor's leadership style, as restricted by government regulations and the franchisee's self-efficacy, which could be needed to improve the quality of the long-term relationship between the franchisor and franchisee. Quoted by Northouse(2007), one problem regarding the investigation of leadership is that there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it. But despite the multitude of ways in which leadership has been conceptualized, the following components can be identified as central to the phenomenon: (a) leadership is a process, (b) leadership involves influence, (c) leadership occurs in a group context, and (d) leadership involves goal attainment. Based on these components, in this study leadership is defined as a process whereby franchisor's influences a group of franchisee' to achieve a common goal. Focusing on this definition, the path-goal theory is about how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals. Drawing heavily from research on what motivates employees, path-goal theory first appeared in the leadership literature in the early 1970s in the works of Evans (1970), House (1971), House and Dessler (1974), and House and Mitchell (1974). The stated goal of this leadership theory is to enhance employee performance and employee satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation. In brief, path-goal theory is designed to explain how leaders can help subordinates along the path to their goals by selecting specific behaviors that are best suited to subordinates' needs and to the situation in which subordinates are working (Northouse, 2007). House & Mitchell(1974) predicted that although many different leadership behaviors could have been selected to be a part of path-goal theory, this approach has so far examined directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented leadership behaviors. And they suggested that leaders may exhibit any or all of these four styles with various subordinates and in different situations. However, due to restrictive government regulations, franchisors are not in a position to change their leadership style to suit their circumstances. In addition, quoted by Northouse(2007), ssubordinate characteristics determine how a leader's behavior is interpreted by subordinates in a given work context. Many researchers have focused on subordinates' needs for affiliation, preferences for structure, desires for control, and self-perceived level of task ability. In this study, we have focused on the self-perceived level of task ability, namely, the franchisee's self-efficacy. According to Bandura (1977), self-efficacy is chiefly defined as the personal attitude of one's ability to accomplish concrete tasks. Therefore, it is not an indicator of one's actual abilities, but an opinion of the extent of how one can use that ability. Thus, the judgment of maintain franchisee's commitment depends on the situation (e.g., government regulation and policy and leadership style of franchisor) and how it affects one's ability to mobilize resources to deal with the task, so even if people possess the same ability, there may be differences in self-efficacy. Figure 1 illustrates the model investigated in this study. In this model, it was hypothesized that leadership styles would affect the franchisee's commitment, and self-efficacy would moderate the relationship between leadership style and franchisee's commitment. Theoretically, quoted by Northouse(2007), the path-goal approach suggests that leaders need to choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and the work they are doing. According to House & Mitchell (1974), the theory predicts that a directive style of leadership is best in situations in which subordinates are dogmatic and authoritarian, the task demands are ambiguous, and the organizational rule and procedures are unclear. In these situations, franchisor's directive leadership complements the work by providing guidance and psychological structure for franchisees. For work that is structured, unsatisfying, or frustrating, path-goal theory suggests that leaders should use a supportive style. Franchisor's Supportive leadership offers a sense of human touch for franchisees engaged in mundane, mechanized activity. Franchisor's participative leadership is considered best when a task is ambiguous because participation gives greater clarity to how certain paths lead to certain goals; it helps subordinates learn what actions leads to what outcome. Furthermore, House & Mitchell(1974) predicts that achievement-oriented leadership is most effective in settings in which subordinates are required to perform ambiguous tasks. Marsh and O'Neill (1984) tested the idea that organizational members' anger and decline in performance is caused by deficiencies in their level of effort and found that self-efficacy promotes accomplishment, decreases stress and negative consequences like depression and emotional instability. Based on the extant empirical findings and theoretical reasoning, we posit positive and strong relationships between the franchisor's leadership styles and the franchisee's commitment. Furthermore, the level of franchisee's self-efficacy was thought to maintain their commitment. The questionnaires sent to participants consisted of the following measures; leadership style was assessed using a 20 item 7-point likert scale developed by Indvik (1985), self-efficacy was assessed using a 24 item 6-point likert scale developed by Bandura (1977), and commitment was assessed using a 6 item 5-point likert scale developed by Morgan & Hunt (1994). Questionnaires were distributed to Korean optical franchisees in Seoul. It took about 20 days to complete the data collection. A total number of 140 questionnaires were returned and complete data were available from 137 respondents. Results of multiple regression analyses testing the relationships between the each of the four styles of leadership shown by the franchisor as independent variables and franchisee's commitment as the dependent variable showed that the relationship between supportive leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.13, p<.001),and the relationship between participative leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.07, p<.001)were significant. However, when participants divided into high and low self-efficacy groups, results of multiple regression analyses showed that only the relationship between achievement-oriented leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.14, p<.001) was significant in the high self-efficacy group. In the low self-efficacy group, the relationship between supportive leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.17, p<.001),and the relationship between participative leadership style and commitment ($\beta$=.10, p<.001) were significant. The study focused on the franchisee's self-efficacy in order to explore the possibility that regulation, originally intended to protect the franchisee, may not be the most effective method to maintain the relationships in a franchise business. The key results of the data analysis regarding the moderating role of self-efficacy between leadership behavior style as proposed by path-goal and commitment theory were as follows. First, this study proposed that franchisor should apply the appropriate type of leadership behavior to strengthen the franchisees commitment because the results demonstrated that supportive and participative leadership styles by the franchisors have a positive influence on the franchisee's level of commitment. Second, it is desirable for franchisor to validate the franchisee's efforts, since the franchisee's characteristics such as self-efficacy had a substantial, positive effect on the franchisee's commitment as well as being a meaningful moderator between leadership and commitment. Third, the results as a whole imply that the government should provide institutional support, namely to put the franchisor in a position to clearly identify the characteristics of their franchisees and provide reasonable means to administer the franchisees to achieve the company's goal.

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A Study on Gradual Attitudes Change College of Nursing Students (간호대학생의 학년별 태도 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 한정석
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.121-132
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    • 1973
  • Introduction : Nursing as a profession is gelling wide acceptance today, especially among independent -minded women with necessary physical, mental and academic qualifications. This is particularly true of "comprehensive nursing", which requires to total dedication on the part if the nurse herself-physical, mental and sociocultural. Such comprehensive approach is like-wise called for in the institutional training of professional nurses. Undergraduate nursing courses nowadays place an increasing emphasis on the microscopic approach of training a nurse as an intelligent and well-balanced human being with an optimum degree of cultural sophistication. Greater attention then ever before is now paid to close observation of the individual traits and aptitude of nursing students, so as to permit full development of individual capabilities, interests and propensities within the concept of "comprehensive human education. " Purpose of study 1. To determine the degree of understanding of the part of nursing students of the various aspects of the subject taught in undergraduate nursing course. 2. To determine the motivation of nursing students in choosing the profession and possible subsequent change or attitude and outlook in the course of under graduated studies, as a means of presenting a new practical approach in nursing training based on the concept of "comprehensive human education. " Problems of study 1. The environments of nursing training will impinge on individual nursing students with different psychological impacts from lower to upper classes of under graduated studies. 2. Educational environments will have varying psychological impacts on students: a. Difference in religious faith among students. b. Difference in campus environments. c. Difference in domestic (family) circumstances. d. Difference in innate capabilities of students, 3. The understanding and attitude of individual nursing students towards the science of nursing will Have a close correlation with their respective motivations in choosing-nursing as a profession, and will also be closely influenced by the peculiarities of the subject taught, tile campus environments, etc, Delimitations of the study 1. Two universities offering 4-year nursing courses were selected. Due to the limited number of potential subjects, the optimum conditions of sample collection could not be fulfilled. 2. Subjects were confined to two classes in each university (sophomores and seniors) but without regard to the ages or scholastic achievements of individual students. 3. The conclusions derived from this study should be limited in application to the subject groups covered by the present study: they should not in any event be extended or applied to other groups. Procedures 1. Subjects: 40 nursing students each from the sophomore and senior classes of the "Y" and "K" universities situated in Seoul, aggregating 160 students altogether. 2. Instruments: Use has been made of questionnaires on (1) family backgrounds and (2) general information concerning. 3. Statistical Method: The findings of the present survey have been subjected to critical analysis as to the means, percentages, Cgi squares (X), standard deviations and the significance of the difference in means. Findings 1. Nursing students have chosen their subject of study with a confident outlook towards their future in society. 2. Horsing students have the necessary abilities to complete the prescribed courses of study. 3. The campus life of nursing students has been judged as very constructive, not with-standing certain in adequacies in the available educational facilities and the shortages of teaching staff. 4. The achievement levels of nursing trainees varied greatly according to their respective educational environments as well as their school years. 5. Clear and definite distinctions were discernible between the two universities as regards certain aspects of this survey, while no signifiant difference was observed in other: a. Sophomores and seniors in both universities gave nearly identical answers to questions concerning (1) motivation in choosing nursing as a profession, and (2) the way of spending leisure hours. b. Both universities revealed similar respective differences between sophomores and seniors as regards the abilities of fulfilling academic requirements ill the basic subjects. c. Educational environments have been found to be somewhat superior in the "Y"university to those of the "K" university, particularly as regard general campus and dormitory conditions. d. The high degree of dissatisfaction with the faculty, found in both universities, was considered to be a consequence of the universal phenomenon of "brain drain" and the relative neglect of the "comprehensive approach"in education.

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A Study on Performance and Achievement of Village Health Workers in Rural Primary Health Care Program (농촌 일차 보건사업에 있어서 마을건강원 업무량 및 업적에 관한 연구)

  • Hur, Dal-Young;Lee, Myoung-Sook;Yum, Yong-Tae;Kim, Soon-Duck
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.36-53
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    • 1987
  • It is utmostly important to establish the efficient fitable way of peoples' active participation in primary health care especially in the areas where the public or governmental service input for the basic health care is insufficient like as in rural areas of Korea. In light of above reason, this study focused mainly on the evaluation of roles and activities of village health workers (VHWs) who were selected from grass- root level of village people in order to derive further motivation for active participation. This is believed to be a sort of feedback mechanisms. Actually, the authors collected the activity reports of VHWs who had been devoting themselves in the primary health care services of Jeomdong Area, of Yeoju Gun one of Korea University Community Health Action Programmes and survey record on the VHWs activity from correspondent people. 1 hose data were analyzed through computer programmed package. The activities performed by VHWs were limited to the performance in 1985 for conveniance. The summarized results were as follows; 1) General characteristics of VHWs. Among a total of 28 VHWs in the area, about 39.3g of them have been replaced up to the date since the implementation in 1983, because of moving out, occupational employment and of others. The age of majority (75.0%) lied between the range of 30-50, and educational background of 67.9% belonged to category of primary school graduation, about 50% of them experienced to be or were also entiled "chief of women club" of corresponding villages. 2) Work-load of VHWs. Each VHW was assigned for tasks of health care for average 55 households of 248 persons. They shared approximately 6 days a month for the activity in average and it covered 17 cases of basic health care in a month. A half of the VHWs performed home visits irregularly without solidified schedule. 3) Work performance analysis. Informations collected through VHWs were compared with data from official vital registration at local administration center "Myon Office" in 1985. VHWs collected 100.8 of new born, 116.2 of death, 58.3 of move in and 74.8 of move out in comparison with 100.0 of official registration each. Pregnant women of 79.8% of mothers among the total pregnancy of 94 which were confirmed as normally delivered or aborted cases by all means afterwards had been detected by VHWs as being pregnant and all of them received some of antenatal cares by VHWs. All(100%) of delivered women were detected by VHWs through home visits and they were cared postnatally. Whereas, according to the records of birth registration, the places of delivery were clinic in 33.7%, and mother's home in 66.3%, VHWs reported them to be clinic in 48.9%, midwifery in 20.2%. It was cleared that most of misinformation was caused by uncautious filling of birth registration at notification. Among the total of 717 eligible women under age 44 years, family planning status of 92.6% was reported by VHWs confirming practice of control to be 70.8% of reported fertile women. 4) Attitude of VHW on the roles and functions. Although 92.0% of VHWs expressed VHWs to be worthwhile, only 52.0% of them had dignity and satisfaction in their activity and 44.0% of them had passive attitude of working saying they followed direction regardlessly. Concerning difficulties in performance as a VHW, 60.7% of them pointed out lacking of medical and health related knowledge by themselves. Still, 64.0% of them thought visiting unfamilier house to be awful and 40.0% complained forms of activity to be difficult and hard. It was also revealed that 56.6% confessed lack of interest on community health service itself. Most of VHWs needed more educational training especially on clinical fields such as cares of gynecological diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic diseaes of the aged. Regular on-the-job basic trainings were said to be needed twice a year.

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Educational Needs Analysis on NCS-based Intellectual Property Education (국가직무능력표준(NCS) 기반 지식재산교육을 위한 교육요구 분석)

  • Park, Ki-Moon
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.134-157
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    • 2018
  • This study surveyed and analyzed satisfaction and issues about an intellectual property education system, and educational needs for intellectual property NCS (intellectual property management, intellectual property information survey analysis, intellectual property assessment trade), in order to introduce and operate NCS-based education system that trains practical manpower in the field. The results of this study are as follows. First, satisfaction for intellectual property education system showed education contents (M=3.86), followed by lecture (M=3.79), teaching method and environment (M=3.66) and education assessment (M=3.50). The issues to be improved are low application in the current occupation due to no reflection of demands of industrial fields, as well as insufficient education contents system, lectures who fall short of education capability and interactions with students tend to stress theoretical knowledge more than practical ability, teaching method lacks application of educational medium, insufficient interest and motivation, assessment methods that fall short of theoretical knowledge and practical ability achievement, and that is theory-centered. Second, educational needs for intellectual property NCS showed intellectual property assessment trade (4.33), followed by intellectual property management (3.68), and intellectual property information survey analysis (2.99), which should be reviewed to reform or newly develop NCS-based education course. Conclusively, intellectual property education showed satisfaction above the average, but a job-centered education is demanded to elevate application in the industrial field, which puts emphasis more on practical ability than theory. For this, it is necessary to introduce intellectual property NCS reflecting demands of industrial field, and to reform or newly develop into NCS-based education course. In addition, intellectual property education needs to be operated by changed education paradigm, such as user-centered teaching method, not provided-centered, and performance and course-centered assessment method, not theoretical knowledge-centered.

A Study on a Korean-Translated Version of the Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ) (Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire의 국내적용을 위한 번역연구)

  • Ra, Dae-Yeop;Chang, Ki-Yeon;Kong, Myung-Ja;Lee, Sun-Wook
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.34-49
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    • 2018
  • Objective : This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of Korean version of Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ-K) using classical test theory. Methods : For the translation of Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ), as recommended in the literature, four-stage translation method was used. For the psychometric properties of Korean version of the Pediatric Volitional Questionnaire (PVQ-K), internal consistency reliability, content validity, and construct validity of the test using the known groups method and convergent and divergent methods were examined. For the recruitment of participants, a convenience sampling method is used. Participants of this study were 10 children with neuro-developmental disabilities hospitalized two different rehabilitations center and 10 children with typical development living in Daejeon, South Korea. All 20 participants were in aged from two to five years. Results : In terms of the content validity index, it was over 0.78, confirmed by nine experts of children development. PVQ-K successfully discriminated the scores of children with typical development from those with neurodevelopmental disabilities (p < .05). It is found that there is significant correlations between achievement stage of PVQ-K and the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants & Children (K-DTS)(.652 ~ .799 for subcategory, .706 for total scale). The internal consistency was .944 (Cronbach's ${\alpha}$). In qualitative content analysis, it was examined that how Korean children behave and respond in the environment, and how children's volition was strengthened or weakened by the environment. Conclusion : The results propose that PVQ-K can be a useful occupation-focused measure. This study recommend further study on PVQ-K with larger samples combined with the item-response theory approach.

Main Causes of Delayed Marriage among Korean Men and Women; Contingent Joints of Status Homogamy, Gender Role Divisions, and Economic Restructuring (남녀 결혼시기 연장의 주요 원인: 계층혼, 성역할분리규범, 경제조정의 우발적 결합)

  • Park, Keong-Suk;Kim, Young-Hye;Kim, Hyun-Suk
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.33-62
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    • 2005
  • This study aims to explain the current upheaval in marriage that many young Korean men and women postpone or deny their marriage. In order to explain the delayed marriage, we need to understand the taste by which men and women choose their partners, the opportunity by which they find their ideational half in reality, and the context in which these values and opportunities of marriages intersect. This study examines the way in which the value and opportunities of marriage among Korean men and women have intersected differently in the changing economic conditions. Using KLIPS(Korea Labor Income Panel Survey, 1998-2002), differential effects of education and occupational status on marital time according to marriage cohort and gender are analyzed. Results find that the opportunity of marriage among men turns out to have been stratified significantly according to their educational achievement and labor status since the 1990s. For women, education and economic activities are likely to influence marriage decision in a discordant way; during the period of 1990-997, highly educated women are more likely than their counterparts to be married earlier while there is no significant difference according to economic activities. This implies that status homogamy has been intensified since the 1990s and many women with high motivation for social status are able to achieve a vicarious social status through marriage in a prosperous economy. For women married after 1998, however, the educational effect is insignificant but economic activity contributes to delaying marriage. This suggests that under the economic restructuring since the late 1990s, the constraint of opportunities finding decent jobs particularly for men results in the contingent change in women's perception about family roles and economic activities by reducing their expectation to achieve a vicarious status through marriage, but increasing their motive for their own economic activities.

A Study on the Botanical Garden Visitors' Eco-consciousness and Motivation (식물원 이용객의 생태의식과 이용동기에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Jae-Man
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.235-246
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between botanical garden visitors' ecological consciousness and their needs, in order to provide some effective measures to manage them. For this purpose, 3 study points were set up: "botanical garden visitors' ecological consciousness and their needs", "differences of such consciousness depending on their demographic variables" and the "relationship between such consciousness and their needs". To this end, Botanical garden visitors were surveyed for an empirical analysis. The visitors' awareness about ecology was measured with Dunlap's 15-item NEP Inventory, while their needs were analyzed in reference to Maslow's 7-Step Human Desire Ladder. The survey was conducted at Botanical garden for 3 days. As a result, a total of 360 questionnaires were returned. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; First, the visitors' ecological consciousness and their needs were higher than normal level. In terms of their consciousness of ecology, their awareness of the ecological crisis potential and anti-humanism were the highest. In terms of their needs, the aesthetic need was the highest, followed by the cognitive need. On the other hand, the needs for self-achievement and self-esteem were the lowest; except them, the higher the needs were positioned at Maslow's ladder of desire, the more responsive the subjects became. As a result of analyzing the correlation between the subjects' consciousness of ecology and their needs, it was found that the correlation was negative in some sub-areas, while being positive in other sub-areas. After all, the ratio of the sub-areas having a positive correlation was 3 times higher than that of the sub-areas having a negative correlation. Even as for the correlation coefficient values, they were higher in the positive sub-areas, which suggests that the correlation between wetland visitors' ecological consciousness and their needs was positive, although at a lower level, in overall terms. As a result of comparatively analyzing visitors' needs by dividing them into 3 sub-groups depending on the levels of their ecological consciousness, it was found that the higher their consciousness of ecology was, the higher their needs were. Overall, botanical garden visitors' ecological awareness was higher than the normal level, and it was estimated that such awareness would continue to increase. Hence, it could be inferred that their needs, particularly their aesthetic and cognitive ones, would also continue to increase. Accordingly, it is important to manage the wetland landscape making use of its visual resources, while keep providing the visitors with the contents fulfilling their need for knowledge.