This study investigated the effects of middle school youth's abuse experiences on the ego-resilience and the moderating effects of social support. For this purpose, the survey and analysis were carried out targeted on 568 students in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade of middle schools in Busan. First, it was indicated that abuse experiences of youth affect on ego- resilience. In detail, the lower the grade and the less the abuse experiences, the ego-resilience gets increased. Second, in view of impacts of youth's abuse experiences on resilience, the social support has a moderating effect. Based on the results above, this study suggests the social support measures to be taken by home, school, community and country in order to improve the resilience which could be a self-power to overcome his or her own circumstances and situations despite the negative experiences of abuse experienced youth.
The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of family social capital and community social capital on how successfully children adapt to school. Utilizing the second year data from the 1st year of middle school panel found in the 2010 Korea Children and Youth Panel Survey, descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical linear model analysis were conducted successively on 2,056 second-year middle school students living in 93 communities. The data produced was used to determine what degree of influence family social capital and community social capital exert on the ability of children to successfully adapt to school. First, 6.1% of the variables relating to school adaptation were explained by differences among communities, and the remaining 93.3% were explained by differences among individuals. Second, the examination of the effects of family social capital showed that students who experienced lower rates of neglect also experienced less abuse, had parents who were more interested in and better informed about their lives, and better adapted to school. Third, the examination of the effects of community social capital showed that the higher the community spirit the communities had, the better the young students in the communities adapted to school. Fourth, when the effects of family social capital and community social capital were examined in conjunction with each other, it was found that the less neglect the students experienced, the less abuse the students experienced, the greater the interest their parents had in their close friends, the better they themselves adapted to school. In relation to community social capital, the level of community spirit was still found to exert positive effects on the ability of young students to successfully adapt to school.
Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
The purposes of this study were to suggest the need for drug prevention program in primary school and to provide basic data for preventing the youth from their drug abuse. A total of 680 students of primary school in Pusan were selected to answer this questionnair. The data was collected from July 1 to July 15, 1994. The major findings of this study were as follows : 1) The attitude about drugs of primary school students was desirable. By groups, girl students showed more desirable attitude than boy students. 2) 5.9% of subjects had smoking experience, and for the motives of smoking 77.5% of them, the largest numbers, was with curiosity. 3) 39.8% of subjects had experienced alcohol use, and for the motives alcohol use 50.5% of them, the largest numbers, was with curiosity. 4) 1.8% of subjects had experienced inhalants (gas, butane gas), and for the motives of inhalants use 58.4% of them, the largest numbers, was also with curiosity. 5) The rates of smoking, alcohol use and inhalants use were higher in boy students than girl students. 6) The attitude points about drugs in case of smoking, alcohol use and inhalants use were lower than the points in case of not using them. 7) Knowledge level about .drugs of subjects was appeared poor. 8) For the need of drug education 65.9% of subjects responded 'necessary', and they responded most suitable educator as school nurse. 9) The students had received drug education from school in 38.2%, from their parents in 8% and from mass media in 63.5%.
Objectives : The study was designed to test if alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescent females are related to their parents' level of alcohol problems. Methods : In 2001, a stratified sample of 2077 adolescent females, grades 10-11, from twelve female-only high schools located in a large metropolitan city in the Republic of Korea completed a questionnaire about alcohol use, parental attention, and parental alcohol consumption, and other risk and protective factors. Data were analyzed with chi-square and regression analyses. Results : Nearly 63% of the student drinkers had experienced at least one to two alcohol-related problems in their lives. Two-thirds of all 2077 students indicated that at least one of their parents had an alcohol-related problem and that approximately 29% had experienced several problems. Results of random effects ordinal logistic regression analyses suggest a dose-response relationship between parental and youth alcohol-related problems. Youth who report having parents with some and many alcohol problems were 30% (Odds Ratios [OR] = 1.30; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.10 - 1.53) and 55% (OR = 1.55; 95%CI = 1.23 - 1.95) more likely to experience alcohol-related problems than youth whose parents do not have alcohol problems, respectively, after statistically adjusting for important covariates. Conclusions : This study presents evidence that alcohol-related problems among adolescent female students is highly prevalent. Also, the study findings reveal a high percentage of parents with alcohol problems, as reported by students. This study presents evidence of what might be a hidden problem among adults and youths in the Republic of Korea that merits serious attention.
Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of family resilience in the relationship of abuse experience, self-esteem, family resilience, and suicide, and make suggestion for policies to improve family resilience to prevent suicide of the youth with abuse experience. For this, a survey was conducted with 600 people at middle and high schools in three districts in Jeollanamdo, and, except 53 copies, total 547 copies used. The scales used child abuse of Murray A. Straus (1979), suicide of Beck, Kovacs & Weissmen(1979), self-esteem of Coopersmith(1967), and family resilience of Boehm (2007). The results: First, 54.2% of experienced abuse, and, as for the suicide frequency based on abuse types, physical abuse scored high. Second, the regression analysis showed that abuse experience has a direct positive effect on suicide, and higher abuse experience led to more suicide. Also, abuse experience turned out to have indirect effect on suicide through self-esteem, which proves the mediated effect of self-esteem. Third, family resilience was proven to have mediated effect as abuse experience has a negative effect on suicide, and high self-esteem has a negative effect on suicide.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence ego-resilience among adolescents who have experienced abuse by parents in South Korea. Methods: This correlational study used the 4th year cross-sectional data of the seventh-grade middle school students who participated in the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) in fourth grade. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS/WIN 23.0 program, which included descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations coefficient, and hierarchical regression. Results: The results of the hierarchical regression of model 5 revealed that the quality of peer relations played the most significant role in predicting ego-resilience of abused adolescents, followed by self-identity. Also, self-esteem, the quality of teacher-student relationships, excessive expectations from parents, and community awareness had a significant impact on the variance of self-resilience in abused adolescents. This regression model explained 42% of the variance. Conclusion: This study showed that ego-resilience, an asset and resource to help adolescents overcome adverse effects of abuse, was influenced by social environment as well as individual factors. In addition, social support from peers and teachers had greater influence on ego-resilience than support from family members. Thus, the factors identified in this study need to be considered in programs designed to improve ego-resilience as well as in policies for abused adolescents.
Purpose: This study was to identify the factors that influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents in Korea. Methods: The data from the 10~12th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014~2016) were used to assess the effects of individual, family, and school-related factors on sexually transmitted infections. The participants of this study were 9,760 adolescents who had experienced sexual intercourse. The participants consisted of 6,905 boys and 2,855 girls. Results: Out of 9,760 adolescents with sexual intercourse experience, 9.7% (908) had STIs. Grade, substance abuse, age at first sexual intercourse, having sexual intercourse after drinking alcohol, the type of sex partner and family structure were significantly related STIs in both boys and girls. Using condoms was related to STIs only in boys. Drinking alcohol and smoking were related to STIs only in girls. However, sex education at school was not related to STIs in both boys and girls. Conclusion: In this study, Individual and family factors were associated with STIs in male and female adolescents. The results of this study suggest the need for systematic research on the factors influencing STIs and health eduation for STI prevention.
I. Introduction Since the 1970's drug abuse among young people has increasingly become a social problem in Korea. In the 1980's, drug abuse, especially glue sniffing, has become the cause of many unfortunated incidents resulting in harm to others as well as the abusers themselves. Taking into consideration of the seriousness of this problem, the Republic of Korea National Red Cross initiated a nation-wide research programme, to understand the present situation and to raise the level of public awareness. The goal of this research was to begin a nation - wide campaign against drug abuse. The research team was composed of the Advisary Committee members and the staff of the Youth Department of the Republic of Korea National Red Cross. The data were collected in February 1988 with the collaboration of the staff and volunteers in the local Chapters. The respondents were allocated nation-wide by the quota sampling method. The questionnaires were distributed to the respondents in three groups :2, 700 to junior and senior high school students, 605 to working youths, and 916 to delinquent youths. A total of 4, 221 questionnaires were collected. II. Characteristics of the Respondents The respondents in each group were selected evenly from rural and urban areas. The general characteristics of the respondents can be described as follow: in case of students, the proportions between male and female respondents, and between senior high school and junior high school students were almost evenly distributed. In case of working youths, the proportion of females (80.5%) was higher than those of the students and the delinquents groups. Delinquent youths were defined as those currently being under custody of the centers for juvenile delinquents. Of this number, 38.8% and 68.2% were junior and senior high school drop-outs respectively. The majority of them (92.6%) were male. As for the family background of the respondents, the proportion of those residing in poverty - stricken areas, and the proportion of those from broken families were higher in case of working youths and delinquent youths than those in case of students. III. Present Patterns of Drug Abuse The following summarizes the presents of drug abuse, as tabulated from the results of the survey. 1. Smoking The percentage of youths who smoke was 36% in the student group, 32% m the working youths group, and 94.4% in the delinquent youths group. 2. Alcohol 50.3% of students, 71.6% of working youths, and 93.3% of delinquent youths has experienced drinking alcohol beverages. 3. Tonic: non - alcoholic, caffeinated beverages popular in Korea and Japan The percentage of those who have used tonic at least once was over 90% in all of the three groups. 4. Sedative About 70% of each group has used sedative with the proportion of working youths use higher than those in other groups. 5. Stimulants Those who have used stimulants comprised around 15% in each group. 6. Tranquilizers Somewhat less than 5% of students and working youths, and 28% of delinquent youths, have used tranquilizers. 7. Hypnotics The users of hypnotics amounted to 0.4% of students, 2.6% of working youths and 7.1% of delinquent youths. 8. Marihuana Those who have used marihuana indicated 0.7% of students, 0.8% of working youths, and 13% of delinquent youths. 9. Glue-sniffing The percentage of glue-sniffing was 3.7%, 5% in the students group and in the youths group respectively, but the proportion was unusually high, at 40.7% in the delinquent youths group. From the results of the survey the present situation of drug abuse in Korea can be summarized as follows: 1. A high percentage of Korean youths have experienced smoking cigarettes and drinking alcoholic beverages. 2. Tonics (non - alcoholic, caffeinated beverages), antipyretic analgesics and stimulants quite regularly used. 3. Tranquilizers, hypnotics, marihuana and glue-sniffing are more widely used among delinquent youths than the other youths. From this fact, there exists a correlation between drug abuse and juvenile delinquency. IV. Time-series Analysis of the First Experience of Drug Abuse and Deviant Behaviour The respoundents were asked when they were first exposed to drugs and when they committed deviant acts. By calculating the average age of each experience, the following pattern was found (See Figure 1). Youths are first exposed to drugs by abuse of tonic(non - alcoholic, caffeinated beverages). At the age of 13, they amoke cigarettes, the use of antipyretic analgesics begins at 14 year old, while at the age of 15, they use tranquilizers, and at 16 hynotics. The period of drug abuse which starts from drinking caffeinated beverages and smoking cigarettes and ends in the use of hypnotics takes about three years. During this period, other delinquent behaviours begin to surface, that is, at the age of 13 when smoking cigarettes begins, the delinquent behaviour pattern starts with truancy. Next, they start taking money from others by using physical force. Prior to the age of 15, they are suspended from school, become hostile to adults, begin running away from home, and start using stimulants and alcohol. Soon they become involved even in glue-sniffing and in the use of marihuana. At the age of 15, they begin to see adult videos and carry weapons. Sexual promiscuity and usage of tranquilizers follows the viewing of adult videos. Consequently, by the time they reach the age of 16, they visit drinking establishments, and are picked up by police for committing delinquent acts. And finally, they come to use hypnotic - type drugs. From the above descriptions, drug abuse can be assumed to have a close correlation with delinquent behaviour. V. Social Factors Related to Drug Abuse As for the Korean youths, glue-sniffing is found to he related to aggressive delinquency, in such cases as run - aways, being picked up by the police, and taking money by force. Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol is found to be related to seeing adult videos and visiting drinking establishments. Hypnotics and marihuana were found to be representive of drugs which are related to degenerational delinquency, irrespective of social delinquency. The social factors connected with these drug abuse are as follows: 1. Individual factors Male students were more heavily involved in the usage of drug than females. Youths who do not attend church were more likely to be involved in drugs than those who attend. 2. Family factors The youths who were displeased with their mothers smoking and those who thought their parents did not love each other, or those whose parents had used drugs without prescription, were more likely to he drug users. 3. School factors Those youths who found school life boring, were unsuccessful in their studies, spend most of their time with friends, feel their teachers smoke too much, those who had a positive perception of their teachers smoking were likely to he drug users. To sum up, drug abusers depend on the influence of their parents, teachers and peers. IV. Reasons for Drug Abuse Korean students have mainly used drugs to release stress (42.8%), to stay awake (19.7%), and because of the easy accessibility of drugs( 16.6%). Other reasons are due to their ignorance of the side effects of the drugs (3.6%), natural curiosity (4.2%), and to increase strength(3.O%). From the above facts, the major reasons for drug abuse among Korean youths are to release stress and to stay awake in order to prepare exams. Furthermore, since drugs are readily available, we can conclude that drug abuse is caused by the school system(such as entrance exams) in Korea. VII. Conclusion Drug usage among Korean youths are relatively less common than those of western youths. In some cases, such as, glue-sniffing and use of stimulants, the pattern of drug abuse is found. Moreover, early drug abuse is evident, and it has a close connection with deviant behaviour, resulting in juvenile delinquency. Drug abuse cannot be attributed to any one social factor. Specifically, drug abuse depends on parents, peers, teachers and other members of the community, and also is influenced by social institutions such as the entrance exam system. Every person and organization concerned with youth must participate collectively in restraining drug abuse. Finally, it is suggested that social agencial working for youth welfare should make every effort to tackle this serious problem confronted by the Korean youths today.
The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between family of origin and youth transitioning from out-of-home care. Data were collected from six youths transitioning from out-of-home care and were analyzed using the phenomenological approach. The results of this study were as follows. Four categories and twelve subcategories were drawn from the meaning units. The four categories were 'chaos in separation', 're-established relations but with distance', 'completely ended relationships with the family of origin', and 'redrawing family boundaries'. First, the participants who were separated from their parents due to poverty or divorce reunited with their parents, and they appeared to continue their relationships with the family of origin after transitioning from out-of-home care. The youth were receiving various forms of support from their parents in order to be independent, and they were experiencing stable independence through this support. Second, the participants who were separated from their parents due to serious child abuse or parental death had broken relationships with their parents. The youth were independent and relied on new alternative relationships that were not with the family of origin, but they experienced somewhat unstable self-reliance. In short, participants' relationships with families of origin in this study can be defined as a tight rope between love and hate. Based on these results, child welfare practice and policy implications were discussed to help out-of-home care youth's relationship with their family of origin.
A study on what kind of problems young consumers experience in buying and using mobile phone services with a comprehensive and consumers oriented perspective is needed. Through this acknowledgement, we investigated (i) the degree of consumer problems that young consumers experience in purchasing and using mobile phone services, and (ii) the related variables that affect experiences of this consumer problem. The parents of the teenagers were also included in the survey because they experience the same problems young consumers' experience in buying and using mobile phone services. Data were gathered through an internet survey (www.embrain.com) and a total of 699 samples from 350 parents and 349 youths using mobile phone services were analysed. The results are as follows. First, the teenagers and parents' experience level of young consumers' problems were generally high experiencing similar kinds of problems. Second, parents experienced more young consumers' problems than the teenagers in buying and using mobile phone services, especially in misuse and abuse of the phones. Third, among the teenagers, the monthly usage fee music or game usage, the number of changes in mobile phone service operators, the number of replacement mobile phones and the gender had a significant effect on consumers' problems of mobile phone services. Among the parents, the monthly usage fee, music or game usage, confirmation of the bill, and the gender of their child were significant consumer problems. Based on results of our survey the direction of consumer policy and education was suggested for teenagers and their parents.
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