• Title, Summary, Keyword: Absorbance

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Temperature Compensation of Nondispersive Infrared Gas Senor: Infrared Light Absorbance (비분산 적외선 가스 센서 온도 보상법: 적외선 흡수도)

  • Yi, SeungHwan
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.36-41
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    • 2021
  • The motivation of this paper is to easily analyze the properties of nondispersive infrared gas sensor that has more than two different optical path length and to suggest the criterion and definition of infrared light absorbance in order to minimize the measurement errors. With the output voltage ratios and the normalized derivatives of infrared ray (IR) absorbance, when the normalized derivatives of IR absorbance decreases from 0.28 to 0.10, the lower and higher limits of errors were decreased from -5.62% and 2.39% to -4.27% and 2.78%. When the normalized derivatives of IR absorbance were 0.10, the output voltage could be partitioned into two regions with one exponential equation and the temperature compensation error was less than 5%.

No Relationship Between Spectrophotometric Absorbance and Ultrastructure in Mitochondrial Swelling and Contraction (미토콘드리아의 팽윤과 수축에 따른 분광흡광도와 미세구조간의 비연관성)

  • Boo, Moon-Jong;Lee, Kang-Oh;Kim, Jae-Jin;Choe, Rim-Soon
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 1990
  • Ultrastructural and spectrophotometric studies on mitochondrial swelling and contraction were carried out. All mitochondria just after isolated from rat liver showed condensed conformation. When mitochondria were incubated in 0.25 M sucrose only, they were moderately swollen and the absorbance at 520 nm was slightly decreased. Adding ATP to sucrose caused the absorbance to increase and the mitochondria to contract partially. KCl solution of 0.3 M induced marked decrease of absorbance and swelling of mitochondria. When ATP was added to KCl, increase of the absorbance and no contraction of the mitochondria excluding increased electron density of mitochondrial intermembranes were observed. Markedly decreased absorbance and somewhat largely swelled mitochondria in sodium arsenite solution of 0.4 or 1.0 mM were observed. When ATP was added to sodium arsenite, the absorbance increased slightly but mitochondria were more contracted than those in KCl-treated group. Above results indicate that the absorbance may not be correlated to morphological observations in the mitochondrial swelling and contraction.

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Predicting the Soluble Solids of Apples by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (I) - Multiple Linear Regression Models - (근적외선을 이용한 사과의 당도예측 (I) - 다중회귀모델 -)

  • ;W. R. Hruschka;J. A. Abbott;;B. S. Park
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.561-570
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    • 1998
  • The MLR(Multiple Linear Regression) models to estimate soluble solids content non-destructively were presented to make a selection of optimal photosensor utilized to measure the soluble solids content of apples. Visible and NIR absorbance in the 400 to 2498 nanometer(nm) wavelength region, soluble solids content(sugar content), hardness, and weight were measured for 400 apples(gala). Spectrophotometer with fiber optic probe was utilized for spectrum measurement and digital refractometer was used for soluble solids content. Correlation between absorbance spectrum and soluble solids content was analyzed to pick out the optimal wavelengths and to develop corresponding prediction model by means of MLR. For the coefficient of determination($R^2$) to be over 0.92, the MLR models out of the original absorbance were built based on 7 wavelengths of 992, 904, 1096, 1032, 880, 824, 1048nm, and the ones of the second derivative absorbance based on 5 wavelengths of 784, 1056, 992, 808, 872nm. The best model of the second derivative absorbance spectrum had $R^2$=0.91, bias= -0.02bx, SEP=0.28bx for unknown samples.

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IR Absorption Property in Nano-thick Ir-inserted Nickel Silicides (이리듐이 첨가된 니켈실리사이드의 적외선 흡수 특성)

  • Yoon, Kijeong;Song, Ohsung;Han, Jeungjo
    • Korean Journal of Metals and Materials
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    • v.46 no.11
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    • pp.755-761
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    • 2008
  • We fabricated thermally evaporated 10 nm-Ni/1 nm-Ir/(poly)Si films to investigate the energy saving property of silicides formed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at the temperature range of $300{\sim}1200^{\circ}C$ for 40 seconds. Moreover, we fabricated 100 nm-thick ITO/(poly)Si films with an rf-sputter as references. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an X-ray diffractometer were used to determine cross-sectional microstructure and phase changes. A UV-VIS-NIR and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) were employed for near-IR and middle-IR absorbance. Through TEM analysis, we confirmed 20~65 nm-thick silicide layers formed on the single and polycrystalline silicon substrates. Ir-inserted nickel silicide on single crystalline substrate showed almost the same absorbance in near IR region as well as ITO, but Ir-inserted nickel silicide on polycrystalline substrate, which had the uniform absorbance in specific region, showed better absorbance in near IR region than ITO. The Ir-inserted nickel silicide on polycrystalline substrate particularly showed better absorbance in middle IR region than ITO. The results imply that nano-thick Ir-inserted nickel silicides may have excellent absorbing capacity in near-IR and middle-IR region.

Analysis of Absorbance for Tinted Dye Absorbed into Tinted Lenses by Spectrophotometric Method (분광광도법에 의한 칼라 렌즈 내 염색제에 대한 흡광도 분석)

  • Choi, Eun-Jung;Jung, Ju-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.53 no.6
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    • pp.704-708
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    • 2009
  • We studied absorbance of tinted dye absorbed into tinted lenses by Spectrophotometric method. Used lenses and tinted dye were CR-39 plastic optical lenses and Ons & $Lavas^{(R)}$ Blue, respectively. Absorbance values of tinted dye absorbed into tinted lenses were obtained from the differences of absorbance values between tinted lenses and CR-30 lenses. Average concentrations of tinted dye absorbed into tinted lenses were obtained from the mass differences between tinted lenses and CR-30 lenses. The relationship between absorbance and average concentration for tinted dye absorbed into tinted lenses was also confirmed to follow Beer’s law. The absorption coefficient calculated from the tangent of the calibration curve was determined to be a=0.983 $Lg^{-1}cm^{-1}$.

Preparation of Rayon Filament based Woven Fabric and PCM Treatment for Developing Cool Touch Summer Clothing Material (여름철 냉감성 의류소재 개발을 위한 비스코스 레이온 중심의 직물 제조 및 PCM 가공)

  • Hong, Kyung Hwa
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.326-332
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    • 2014
  • To develop cool touch feeling fabrics for summer clothing material, it was manufactured several compositions of woven fabrics, having rayon multi-filament yarn (non-twisted) as warp and various kinds of yarn, such as viscose rayon multi-filament yarn (twisted), tencel$^{(R)}$ spun yarn, PET high absorbance quick dry filament yarn, and PET based rayon-like yarn, as weft. After preparing the fabrics, basic properties of the fabrics were investigated, such as air-permeability, tensile strength, absorption rate, drying rate, etc. Also, surface warm / cool sensations of the woven fabrics were assessed by Qmax Warm / Cool Touch Tester. It was observed that the fabrics composed of viscose rayon multi-filament yarn (warp) and PET high absorbance quick dry filament yarn (weft) showed excellent surface cool touch sensation-the highest Qmax value. This is because the fabric having flat shaped PET high absorbance quick dry filament shows the largest contact area with Qmax measuring plate. And, the fabric also showed superior high absorbance and quick dry property as expected. In addition, we treated phase change material (PCM) on the surface of the fabric composed of viscose rayon multi-filament yarn (warp) and PET high absorbance quick dry filament yarn(weft) to improve the cool touch feeling. However, the surface cool touch feeling was impaired by resin treated with PCM during the finishing process.

A Comparative Analysis of Whole Blood Cadmium by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry with a Graphite Furnace (흑연로 원자흡수분광법에 의한 혈액중 카드뮴 정량분석)

  • Park, Jong An;Oh, Hye Jeong;Lee, Jong Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.301-312
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    • 1996
  • This study was performed to search a optimal analyzing method of cadmium in whole-blood. Cadmium was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry(GFAAS). We investigated the effect of ashing temperature on the absorbance of cadmium in a simple dilution(ten-fold) method with triton X-100 and matrix modifier methods treated with $NH_4H_2PO_4$(1 and 3%) and $Pd(NO_3)_2$(0.00l and 0.005%) as matrix modifier. We also compared the reported reference values of standard blood with values resulted from optimal analyzing conditions of this study. In case of a simple dilution method, when ashing temperature was set at $450^{\circ}C$, the absorbance of sample and background were $0.334{\pm}0.012$ and $1.382{\pm}0.245$, respectively. Background level was higher than the value(0.8) that can be corrected by $D_2$ background correction method. As ashing temperature was rised to $500^{\circ}C$, the absorbance of sample and background were $0.178{\pm}0.008$ and $0.711{\pm}0.223$ respectively. The higher ashing temperature($450^{\circ}C-650^{\circ}C$) was, the lower the absorbance of sample was. In case of a matrix modifier method with $NH_4H_2PO_4$(1 and 3%), when ashing temperature was rised from $500^{\circ}C$ to $650^{\circ}C$, the absorbance of sample slightly changed. The absorbances of sample at $600^{\circ}C$ were $0.230{\pm}0.017$ and $0.137{\pm}0.012$, respectively. These values were larger than that of simple dilution method. But the absorbance of background was higher than the level that can be corrected by $D_2$ method. In case of a matrix modifier method with $Pd(NO_3)_2$(0.001 and 0.005%), the absorbance of sample and background were higher than those of other methods and were stable and reproducible. When ashing temperature was over $550^{\circ}C$, the absorbance of sample was significantly decreased. In case of 0.005% $Pd(NO_3)_2$ carbon residue remained in graphite tube affected the absorbance of sample and background. From these results, We propose that in case of a simple dilution(ten-fold) method with triton X-100 ashing temperature must be maintained below $400^{\circ}C$. In order to diminish the absorbance of background, the alternative method is attenuation of injection volume or multiplication of dilution ratio. We recommend $Pd(NO_3)_2$ than $NH_4H_2PO_4$ as a matrix modifier. In case of a matrix modifier method with $Pd(NO_3)_2$ ashing temperature might be maintained below $550^{\circ}C$.

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Absorbance Elevation of Orimax Blue 2N, Orimax Green 151, Quinizarin, Topasol (P-250) and Lubricant (P-8) on the Spectrophotometric Analysis of Unimark 1494 DB (식별제(Unimark 1494DB) 정량시험에서 파란색 색소(Orimax Blue 2N, Orimax Green 151), Quinizarin, 토파졸(P-250) 및 윤활유 원료(P-8)의 흡광도상승 효과)

  • Lee, Ji-Yun;Kim, Chang-Jong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.313-321
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    • 2006
  • There are three kinds of liquid petroleum marker which is extracted by the basic or acidic, and both developer. Korean marker, Unimark 1494 DB (marker) have been spectrophotometrically analysed by the determination of absorbance at 582 nm after base extraction by Unimark 1494 DB Developer C-5 (developer). Some blue dyes which have same reactive radical of marker and can be changed deep blue color in base developer extraction (BDE), may be increased absorbance at 582 nm, but dyes or markers which can be increased the absorbance, were not unclear. In this experiment, effects of three dyes or marker such as Orimax Green 151 (the mixture of CI Solvent Yellow 16 and CI Solvent Blue 70), quinizarin and Orimax Blue 2N (CI Solvent Blue 35), and two solvent such as topasol (P-250) and lubricant (P-8) on the absorbance were studied by HITACHI Recording Spectrophotometer U-3300. It shows that all of them increased absorbance at 582 nm after BDE. Absorbance at 582 nm can be showed 0.0544 by Orimax Green 151 at the concentration of 3.96 mg/l, quinizarin at the concentration of 1.38 mg/l, and Orimax Blue 2N at the concentration of 2.73 mg/l in the artificial petroleum (normal diesel oil: topasol: lubricant=2 : 4: 4), respectively. Absorbance, 0.0544 indicates that concentration of marker is 1.64 mg/l in the reference curves, respectively. And also these results can be showed that the artificial petroleum have about 10% cheep fuel such as kerosene which have marker (16.0 mg/l). Absorbance of P-250 was 0.01361-0.22842 depending upon the purchasing date, and that of P-8 was 0.05644. pH of developer was 14.83, and so this result indicates that Unimark 1494 DB is a base extractable petroleum marker, phenylazophenol (US Patent No. 5,252,106). In the BDE, the slight color of Orimax Blue 2N, Orimax Green 151 and quinizarin in artificial petroleum changed to deep bright blue color, respectively. These result indicate that the absorbance at 582 nm by BDE may be increased not only by azo, diazo, amine and ketone (anthraquinone, coumarin) dyes or markers, but also the contaminants of P-250 and P-8 which have same as reactive radical of dyes or markers.

Extraction of Freeze Dried Young Antler Residue by Proteases and HCl (단백질 가수분해 효소 및 염산에 의한 녹용 각질의 추출)

  • 안용근
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.388-396
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    • 2003
  • The freeze dried young antler residue was extracted by proteases and hydrochloric acid(HCl). The young antler was extracted by water at 50$^{\circ}C$ and the residue was reacted by proteases for 5 hours at 50$^{\circ}C$. The extraction rate of its residue was 32.8%(absorbance 3.61 at 280nm) of bacteria protease, 23.8%(absorbance 0.69) of papain, and 31.2% (absorbance 2.96) of pepsin. The young antler was extracted by boiling water and the residue was reacted by proteases for 5 hours at 50$^{\circ}C$. The extraction rate of its residue was 45.0%(absorbance 3.61) of bacteria protease, 30.4%(absorbance 0.33) of papain, and 51.2% (absorbance 2.77) of pepsin. The result of HPLC analysis reveals that in 50$^{\circ}C$ water extract and boiling water extract, all high molecular peak was reduced under MW 1,000 by proteases. The result from the extract of young antler residue reacted by HCl for 5 hours at 50$^{\circ}C$ shows that its extraction rate was 45% (absorbance 0.78) in concentration of 0.1N HCl, 61% (absorbance 1.82) in 0.2N, 81% (absorbance 2.29) in 0.4N, and 82.0% (absorbance 3.28) in 2.0N. The result of HPLC analysis also reveals that in the extract by 0.8N HCl, the peak of about MW 70,000 accounted for 78% in total. Protein content of the extract by 0.8N HCl was 8.2%, and content of amino acid was 81.6%, ash was 1.3%, and mineral contents were 0.1 % of Ca, 2.3% of P, 0.8 % of Mg, 3.4% of Na, 0.002% of F by dry base.

Extraction of Young Antler and Antler by Water, Proteases and HCl (녹용 및 녹각의 단백질 가수분해 효소 및 염산에 의한 가용화)

  • 안용근
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.147-155
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    • 2004
  • Freeze dried antler, heat dried antler, antler were extracted through processing step by water, protease and hydrochloric acid(HCl). Extraction rate of freeze dried antler at 50$^{\circ}C$ by water was 9.01%(8.82, absorbance at 280 nm), that of heat dried antler was 9.01%(4.45, absorbance at 280 nm), and that of antler was 1.10%(0.31, absorbance at 280 nm), respectively. Extraction rate of freeze dried antler by bacterial protease was 16.89%(4.50, absorbance at 280 nm), and that of heat dried antler was 17.29%(5.62, absorbance at 280 nm), and that of antler was 18.22%(0.64, absorbance at 280 nm), respectively. Extraction rate of freeze dried antler by 0.8N HCl was 72.25%(4.60, absorbance at 280 nm), that of heat dried antler was 71.14%(4.70 absorbance at 280 nm), and that of antler was 79.82% (2.80, absorbance at 280 nm), respectively. Extraction rate of freeze dried antler through three processing steps was 98.15%, that of heat dried antler was 97.35%, that of antler was 99.14%, respectively. The result of analysis by HPLC shows that high molecular pe which appears in young antler and antler extraction was changed into a small molecular peak of about 1,000 by the reaction of protease, and protein of about MW 70,000 was extracted from their remaining residue by 0.8N HCl. The above result shows that water extraction and protease extraction in the freeze dried young antler, protease extraction and HCl extraction in dried young antler, and HCl extraction in antler are most effective.