• Title, Summary, Keyword: ATRA

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Catalase Induced by All-Trans Retinoic Acid Is Involved in Antiproliferation of 36B10 Cells (레티노인산에 의한 카타라제의 유도가 36B10세포의 증식억제에 미치는 효과)

  • Park, Woo-Yoon;Yu, Jae-Ran
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.211-218
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has anti proliferative effects against brain tumor cells. Recently, ATRA has been reported to induce catalase. We investigated whether catalase induction by ATRA is associated with its anti proliferative effects. Materials and Methods: 36B10 cells were exposed to 0~50${\mu}M$ ATRA for 24 or 48 hours and mRNA, protein, and activity of catalase were measured. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. A clonogenic assay was used to confirm the cytotoxic effect. Results: The mRNA, protein, and activity of catalase were found to increase in a concentration- and incubationtime-dependent manner. The increase in catalase activity induced by ATRA was decreased by the addition of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (ATZ). ROS was also increased with ATRA and decreased by the addition of ATZ. The decrease in cell survival induced by ATRA was partly rescued by ATZ. Conclusion: Catalase induction by ATRA is involved in ROS overproduction and thus inhibits the proliferation of 36B10 cells.

Increased Catalase Activity by All-trans Retinoic Acid and Its Effect on Radiosensitivity in Rat Glioma Cells (백서 교종 세포에서 레티노인산에 의한 카탈라제의 활성 증가가 방사선감수성에 미치는 효과)

  • Jin, Hua;Jeon, Ha-Yeun;Kim, Won-Dong;Ahn, Hee-Yul;Yu, Jae-Ran;Park, Woo-Yoon
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.211-216
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: It has been reported that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can inhibit glioma growing in vitro. However, clinical trials with ATRA alone in gliomas revealed modest results. ATRA has been shown to increase radiosensitivity in other tumor types, so combining radiation and ATRA would be one of alternatives to increase therapeutic efficacy in malignant gliomas. Thus, we intended to know the role of catalase, which is induced by ATRA, for radiosensitivity if radiation-reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is removed by catalase, the effect of radiation will be reduced. Materials and Methods: A rat glioma cell line (36B10) was used for this study. The change of catalase activity and radiosensitivity by ATRA, with or without 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ), a chemical inhibitor of catalase were measured. Catalase activity was measured by the decomposition of $H_2O_2$ spectrophotometrically Radiosensitivity was measured with clonogenic assay. Also ROS was measured using a 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate spectrophotometrically. Results: When 36B10 cells were exposed to 10, 25 and $50{\mu}M$ of ATRA for 48 h, the expression of catalase activity were increased with increasing concentration and incubation time of ATRA. Catalase activity was decreased with increasing the concentration of AT (1, $10{\mu}M$) dose-dependently. ROS was increased with ATRA and it was augmented with the combination of ATRA and radiation. ATZ decreased ROS production and increased cell survival in combination of ATRA and radiation despite the reduction of catalase. Conclusion: The increase of ROS is one of the reasons for the increased radiosensitivity in combination with ATRA. The catalase that is induced by ATRA doesn't decrease ROS production and radiosensitivity.

Transglutaminase-2 Is Involved in All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Invasion and Matrix Metalloproteinases Expression of SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells via NF-κB Pathway

  • Lee, Hye-Ja;Park, Mi-Kyung;Bae, Hyun-Cheol;Yoon, Hee-Jung;Kim, Soo-Youl;Lee, Chang-Hoon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.286-292
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    • 2012
  • All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is currently used in adjuvant differentiation-based treatment of residual or relapsed neuroblastoma (NB). It has been reported that short-term ATRA treatment induces migration and invasion of SH-SY5Y via transglutaminase-2 (Tgase-2). However, the detailed mechanism of Tgase-2's involvement in NB cell invasion remains unclear. Therefore we investigated the role of Tgase-2 in invasion of NB cells using SH-SY5Y cells. ATRA dose-dependently induced the invasion of SH-SY5Y cells. Cystamine (CTM), a well known tgase inhibitor suppressed the ATRA-induced invasion of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Matrix metalloproteinase -9 (MMP-9) and MMP-2, well known genes involved in invasion of cancer cells were induced in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SH5Y cells. Treatment of CTM suppressed the MMP-9 and MMP-2 enzyme activities in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SY5Y cells. To confirm the involvement of Tgase-2, gene silencing of Tgase-2 was performed in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SH5Y cells. The siRNA of Tgase-2 suppressed the MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity of the SH-SY5Y cells. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are well known target genes of NF-${\kappa}B$. Therefore the relationship of Tgase-2 and NF-${\kappa}B$ in the ATRA-induced invasion of the SH-SY5Y cells was examined using siRNA and CTM. ATRA induced the activation of NF-${\kappa}B$ in the SH-SY5Y cells and CTM suppressed the activation of NF-${\kappa}B$. Gene silencing of Tgase-2 suppressed the MMP expression by ATRA. These results suggested that Tgase-2 might be a new target for controlling the ATRA-induced invasion of NBs.

Temperature-Induced Release of All-trans-Retinoic Acid Loaded in Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Topical Delivery

  • Lee, Chang-Moon;Jeong, Hwan-Jeong;Park, Ji-Won;Kim, Jin;Lee, Ki-Young
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.682-685
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) for topical delivery. SLN composed of coconut oil and curdlan improved the suspension instability of ATRA in aqueous solution. The photodegradation of ATRA by light was reduced by incorporation in SLN. The loading efficiency of ATRA in SLN was higher than 95% (w/w). The amounts of ATRA released from SLN at $4^{\circ}C$ and at $37^{\circ}C$ were less than 15% and more than 60% (w/w) for 96 h, respectively. The ATRA-loaded SLN can be used as a potential carrier for topical delivery.

Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Formulation of All Trans Retinoic Acid

  • Lim, Soo-Jeong;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Chong-Kook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.167-172
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    • 2001
  • All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), vitamin A acid, has been shown to exert anticancer activity in a number of types of cancers, particularly in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). Due to its highly variable bioavailability and induction of its own metabolism after oral treatment, development of parenteral dosage forms are required. However, its poor aqueous solubility and chemical unstability give major drawbacks in parenteral administration. This study was undertaken to investigate a possibility to develop a parenteral formulation of ATRA by employing solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) as a carrier. By optimizing the production parameters and the composition of SLNs, SLNs with desired mean particle size (<100 nm) as a parenteral dosage form could be produced from trimyristin (as solid lipid), Egg phosphatidylcholine and Tween 80 (as SLN stabilizer). The mean particle size of SLN formulation of ATRA was not changed during storage, suggesting its physical stability. Thermal analysis confirmed that the inner lipid core of SLNs exist at solid state. The mean particle size of ATRA-loaded SLNs was not significantly changed by the lyophilization process. ATRA could be efficiently loaded in SLNs, while maintaining its anticancer activity against HL-60, a well-known APL cell line. Furthermore, by lyophilization, ATRA loaded in SLN could be retained chemically stable during storage. Taken together, our present study demonstrates that physically and chemically stable ATRA formulation adequate for parenteral administration could be obtained by employing SLN technology.

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Effect of retinoic acid on the radiosensitivity of normal human oral keratinocyte (Retinoic acid가 사람 정상 구강각화세포의 방사선감수성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Jean;Heo Min-Suk;Lee Sam-Sun;Oh Sung-Ook;Lee Sul-Mi;Choi Hang-Moon;Choi Soon-Chul;Park Tae-Won
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : To evaluate the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on the radiosensitivity of normal human oral keratinocyte (NHOK). Materials and methods: Relative cell survival fraction including SF2 (survival fraction at 2 Gy) was calculated on the basis of colony formation assay. Data were fitted to the linear-quadratic model to establish the survival curve and calculate α and β values. Using flow cytometry at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after exposure to 2 and 10 Gy irradiation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were analysed. To understand the molecular mechanism of the radiosensitization of ATRA on NHOK, proteins related with apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were investigated by Western blot analysis. Results: Treatment with ATRA resulted in a significant decrease of SF2 value for NHOK from 0.63 to 0.27, and increased α and β value, indicating that ATRA increased radiosensitivity of NHOK. ATRA increased LDH significantly, but increasing irradiation dose decreased LDH, suggesting that the radiosensitizing effect of ATRA is not directly related with increasing cell necrosis by ATRA. ATRA did not induce appotosis but increased G2 arrest after 10 Gy irradiation, implying that the increased radiosensitivity of NHOK may be due to a decrease in mitosis casued by increasing G2 arrest. ATRA inhibited the reduction of p53 at 3 days after l0Gy irradiation and increased p21 at 1 day after 10 Gy irradiation. Further study is required to determine the precise relationship between this effect and the radiosensitizing effect of A TRA. Conclusion: These results suggested that ATRA increase radiosensitivity by inhibiting mitosis caused by increasing G2 arrest.

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A Novel All-trans Retinoid Acid Derivative Induces Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

  • Wang, Bei;Yan, Yun-Wen;Zhou, Qing;Gui, Shu-Yu;Chen, Fei-Hu;Wang, Yuan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10819-10824
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    • 2015
  • Aims: To explore the effect and probable mechanism of a synthetic retinoid 4-amino-2-tri-fluoromethylphenyl ester (ATPR) on apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods: MTT assays were performed to measure the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with different concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and ATPR. Morphologic changes were observed by microscopy. The apoptosis rates and cell cycling of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with ATRA or ATPR were assessed using flow cytometry analysis. Expression of retinoic acid receptor and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p38 proteins were detected by Western blotting. Results: Treatment of the cells with the addition of $15{\mu}mol/L$ ATPR for 48 h clearly demonstrated reduced cell numbers and deformed cells, whereas no changes in the number and morphology were observed after treatment with ATRA. The apoptosis rate was 33.2% after breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were treated by ATPR ($15{\mu}mol/L$) whereas ATRA ($15{\mu}mol/L$) had no apoptotic effect. ATPR inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 while ATRA had no significant effect. ATPR inhibited the expression of BiP and increased the expression of Chop at the protein level compared with control groups, ATRA and ATPR both decreased the protein expression of $RXR{\alpha}$, ATPR reduced the protein expression of $RAR{\beta}$ and $RXR{\beta}$ while ATRA did not decrease $RAR{\beta}$ or $RXR{\beta}$. Conclusions: ATPR could induce apoptosis of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, possible mechanisms being binding to $RAR{\beta}/RXR{\beta}$ heterodimers, then activation of ER stress involving the MAPK pathway.

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Bovine CYP26A1 Promoter (소 CYP26A1 유전자 프로모터의 molecular cloning 및 특성)

  • Kwak, Inseok
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2016
  • The retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in the growth and development of many cells, and bioactive RA concentration is regulated by several enzymes, including CYP26A1. The expression of the CYP26A1 gene is regulated by RA, and the CYP26A1 gene is one of the candidates for RA-responsive genes. Although CYP26A1 genes are cloned from several animals, cloning of the CYP26A1 gene from cows has not been reported yet. The promoter region of CYP26A1 from cows was cloned by PCR and analyzed by sequence alignment with human and mouse CYP26A1. The RA-responsive element (RARE), DR-5 (ttggg), was located in this region and was perfectly conserved. The promoter region of bovine CYP26A1, which contains DR-5, was ligated to the luciferase reporter gene on transient transfection assays. The expression of CYP26A1-Luc promoter was activated by ATRA treatment in lung-derived mtCC cells. Co-transfection with RAR-α or -β with ATRA significantly activates the expression of CYP26A1-Luc promoter; however, it was less effective with either RAR-γ or RXR-γ. In addition, the endogenous gene expressions measured by Q-RT-PCR in mtCC cells were not significantly affected by ATRA treatment for 2 days; however, the expression of the endogenous CYP26A1 gene was diminished sharply at day 3 with ATRA treatment. In conclusion, the promoter region of bovine CYP26A1 contains conserved DR-5 RARE, which functions as a binding site for RAR-α or -β, and it is involved in the regulation of CYP26A1 gene expression and the control of RA signaling in mtCC cells.

All-trans-retinoic Acid Promotes Iodine Uptake Via Up-regulating the Sodium Iodide Symporter in Medullary Thyroid Cancer Stem Cells

  • Tang, Min;Hou, Yan-Li;Kang, Qiang-Qiang;Chen, Xing-Yue;Duan, Li-Qun;Shu, Jin;Li, Shao-Lin;Hu, Xiao-Li;Peng, Zhi-Ping
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1859-1862
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    • 2014
  • Recently, the main therapy of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is surgical, but by which way there is a poor prognosis with a mean survival of only 5 years. In some cases, some researchers found that it is the medullary thyroid cancer stem cells (MTCSCs) that cause metastasis and recurrence. This study aimed to eradicate MTCSCs through administration of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Here we demonstrate that MTCSCs possess stemlike properties in serum-free medium. The ABCG2, OCT4 and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) were changed by ATRA. Additionally, we found that ATRA can increase the expression of NIS in vivo. All the data suggested that ATRA could increase the iodine uptake of MTCSCs through NIS.

All-trans Retinoic Acid Induced Differentiation of Rat Mammary Epithelial Cells Cultured in Serum-free Medium

  • Ki, Min-Hyo;Paik, Kee-Joo;Lee, Ji-Hyeon;Chung, Hae-Young;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Kyu-Won;Kim, Nam-Deuk
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.298-304
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    • 1998
  • Retinoids are applied to not only cancer prevention but also cancer chemotherapy by stimulating differentiation of cells. We studied differentiation inducing effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) by studying proportion of high dense fractions of stem-like cells and the size of S phase fraction in cell cycle. From mammary organoids obtained from 7- to 8-week old F344 female rat mammary gland, we cultured rat mammary epithelial cells (RMEC) and treated physiological doses of $10^{-6}$, $10^{-7}$, and $10^{-8}$ M ATRA from the first day and then cultured for 4, 7, and 14 days. After that, immunostaining was performed using peanut agglutinin (PNA) and anti-Thy-1.1 monoclonal antibody (Thy-1.1) that can be used as markers of differentiation. We separated four different cell subpopulations by flow cytometry: cells negative to both reagents (B-), PNA-positive cells (PNA+), Thy-1.1-positive cells (Thy-1.1+), and cells positive to both reagents (B+). We observed continuous decreases of high dense fractions of stem-like cells (PNA+ subpopulations) for 14 days and as much decreases as high doses of ATRA, which were thought to be proportional to doses of ATRA. We labeled RMEC with bromodeoxyuridine and investigated cell cycle fractions that went through S phase. We observed a tendency of decrease of S phase fraction with time in culture, which, is thought to be related to continuous decreases of PNA+ subpopulations and inhibitory role of ATRA on cell cycle. These results suggest that physiological doses of ATRA could stimulate differentiation of RMEC and convert stem-like RMEC to differentiated cells in SFM for a relatively long period of 14 days.

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