• Title, Summary, Keyword: ATP

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Two-dimensional Zinc Coordination Polymer Based Paddle-Wheel Type Secondary Building Units of $Zn_2(CO_2R)_4$: [Zn(ATP)(DMF)] $(ATP=2-aminoterephthalate,\;H_2N-C_6H_3-1,4-(COO)_2;\;DMF\;=\;N,\;N-dimethylformamide)$ (Paddle-wheel유형의 2차 쌓음 단위 $Zn_2(CO_2R)_4$에 기초한 2차원 아연 배위 고분자: [Zn(ATP)(DMF)] $(ATP=2-aminoterephthalate,\;H_2N-C_6H_3-1,4-(COO)_2;\;DMF\;=\;N,\;N-dimethylformamide)$)

  • Min Dongwon;Lee Hee K.;Lee Soon W.
    • Korean Journal of Crystallography
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.78-82
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    • 2004
  • The solvothermal reaction of zinc(H) nitrate $(Zn(NO_3)_2\;{\cdot}\;6H_2O)$ with $ATP(2-aminoterephthalate,\;H_2N-C_6H_3-1,4-(COO)_2)$ in a mixture of solvents of DMF and ethanol, in the presence of benzene, gave a 2 dimensional zinc polymer [Zn(ATP) (DMF)] (1). X-ray structure determination revealed that two zinc metals and four ATP ligands form the paddle-wheel SBUs, which are linked by the ATP ligands to give a 2-D square-grid network. Each square grid has approximate dimensions of $11.1\times11.1\;{\AA}$ based on Zn metals. Benzene was required to produce high-quality crystals of polymer 1.

Protein Kinase C Activates ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels in Rabbit Ventricular Myocytes

  • Kim, Na-Ri;Youm, Jae-Boum;Joo, Hyun;Kim, Hyung-Kyu;Kim, Eui-Yong;Han, Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.187-193
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    • 2005
  • Several signal transduction pathways have been implicated in ischemic preconditioning induced by the activation of ATP-sensitive $K^+$ $(K_{ATP})$ channels. We examined whether protein kinase C (PKC) modulated the activity of $K_{ATP}$ channels by recording $K_{ATP}$ channel currents in rabbit ventricular myocytes using patch-clamp technique and found that phorbol 12,13-didecanoate (PDD) enhanced pinacidil-induced $K_{ATP}$ channel activity in the cell-attached configuration; and this effect was prevented by bisindolylmaleimide (BIM). $K_{ATP}$ channel activity was not increased by $4{\alpha}-PDD$. In excised insideout patches, PKC stimulated $K_{ATP}$ channels in the presence of 1 mM ATP, and this effect was abolished in the presence of BIM. Heat-inactivated PKC had no effect on channel activity. PKC-induced activation of $K_{ATP}$ channels was reversed by PP2A, and this effect was not detected in the presence of okadaic acid. These results suggest that PKC activates $K_{ATP}$ channels in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

BMS-191095, a Cardioselective Mitochondrial $K_{ATP}$ Opener, Inhibits Human Platelet Aggregation by Opening Mitochondrial $K_{ATP}$ Channels

  • Cho Mi-Ra;Park Jung-Wook;Jung In-Sang;Yi Kyu-Yang;Yoo Sung-Eun;Chung Hun-Jong;Yun Yeo-Pyo;Kwon Suk-Hyung;Shin Hwa-Sup
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2005
  • We evaluated the antiplatelet effects of two classes of ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers $(K_{ATP}\;openers)$ on washed human platelets, and the study's emphasis was on the role of mitochondrial $K_{ATP}$ in platelet aggregation. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by lemakalim and SKP-450, which are potent cardio-nonselective $K_{ATP}$ openers, and also by cardioselective BMS-180448 and BMS-191095 $(IC_{50}\;:\;1,130,\;>\;1,500,\;305.3\;and\;63.9\;{\mu}M,\;respectively)$, but a significantly greater potency was noted for the cardioselective $K_{ATP}$ openers. The latter two $K_{ATP}$ openers also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, another important blood-borne platelet activator, with similar rank order of potency $(IC_{50}\;:\;498.0\;and\;104.8{\mu}M\; for\;BMS-180448\;and\;BMS-191095,\;respectively)$. The inhibitory effects of BMS-191095 on collagen-induced platelet aggregation were significantly blocked by a 30-min pretreatment of platelets with glyburide $(1{\mu}M)$ or sodium 5-hydroxyde­canoate$(5-HD,\;100{\mu}M)$, a nonselective and selective mitochondrial $K_{ATP}$ antagonist, respectively, at similar magnitudes; this indicates the role of mitochondrial $K_{ATP}$ in the antiplatelet activity of BMS-191095. However, glyburide and 5-HD had no effect when they were added to the platelet cuvette immediately prior to the addition of BMS-191095. These findings indicate that cardioselective mitochondrial $K_{ATP}$ openers like BMS-191095 are able to exert cardioprotective effects in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury via dual mechanisms directed at the inhibition of platelet aggregation and the protection of cardiomyocytes, and both these mechanisms are mediated by mitochondrial$K_{ATP}$.

Enzymatic Method .for Measuring ATP Related Compounds in Jeotkals (효소법에 의한 젓갈 중의 ATP 관련물질 측정)

  • CHO Young Je;IM Yeong Sun;SEO Duck Hoon;KIM Tae Jin;MIN Jin Gi;CHOI Young Joon
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.16-19
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    • 2000
  • The ATP related compounds play an important role in a taste of traditional salt-fermented seafoods (Jeotkals). The ATP related compounds were analyzed in the traditional anchovy Jeotkal during fermentation and 11 kinds of commercial Jeotkals by enzymatic method compared with existing HPLC method, In the traditional anchovy Jeotkal, the contents of $ATP{\~}IMP$ decreased during fermentation, while the contents of Hx reached maximum value at 60 days fermentation and thereafter decreased gradually. Uric acid was detected at 30 days fermentation and showed the gentle increment after that. In the commercial Jeotkals, uric acid was detected $14.6{\~}28.4{\%}$ of total ATP related compounds content by enzymatic method, while it was not detected by HPLC method. From these results, enzymatic method is more accurate than HPLC method for analysis of the ATP related compounds in Jeokals.

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A Design of ATP Model Related eCRM (eCRM을 연계한 ATP 모델 구현에 관한 연구)

  • Yang Kwang-Mo;Park Jae-Hyun;Kang Kyong-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Society of Korea Industrial and System Engineering Conference
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    • pp.485-490
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    • 2002
  • Demands of customers are being changed and varied. And in this circumstance, it become a main issue of management that the company should produce and sell products according to the customer demands. With these trends, each company has been concentrating effects on generalization of product development technique and distinction of service for customer. To fulfill these demands of customer, they need a concept of eCRM(Web based Customer Relationship Management), and go from soiling products and services, or gathering customer requests, up to the phase of solving customer's problem by real time or previous action. With the help of internet, the frequency and speed of the problem solving has improved greatly. In the Supply chain, The ATP(Available to Promise) function doesn't only give customers to conformation of delivery. It can be used by the core function with ATP rule that can reconcile supplies and demands on the supply chain. Therefore We can be acquire the conformation about on the due date of supplier by using the ATP function of management about real and concurrent access on the supply chain, also decide the affect about product availability due to forecasting or customer's orders through the ATP. In this paper, It consolidates the necessity on a ATP and analyzes data which is concerned of ATP. Under the these environments, defines the ATP rule that can improve the customer value and data flow related the eCRM and builds on a algorithm.

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Properties of ATPase Activity of ATP-dependent Clp Protease in Escherichia coli (Escherichia coli내의 ATP-dependent Clp효소의 ATPase 활성 연구)

  • ;Michael R. Maurizi
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.30-35
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    • 1993
  • Clp is a relatively abundant ATP-dependent protease found in E. coli. Its specific activity was proportional to the concentration of the limiting amount of Clp A and an excess amount of Clp P, and vice versa. Clp A has an intrinsic ATPase activity that is stimulated by casein, and contains a second site for binding A TP, in addition to the ATPase site. The modification of sulfhydryl groups in Clp A with reagents which have bulky groups such as N-phenylmaleimide led to nullifying both ATPase and protease activity. The same sites were modified by sulfhydryl reagents. It seems that the sulfhydryl groups of Clp A are not directly involved in catalysis. Since non-hydrolyzable analogs of ATP do not activate Clp, ATP hydrolysis may be essential for the proteolytic activity of Clp protease. Clp A and Clp P did not associate in the absence of nucleotide. The results suggest that the activity of the proteolytic component, Clp P, is regulated by the A TP-dependent cycling of Clp A between the activator form and the non-activator form.

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Effects of cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxin B1 on rabbit platelet aggregation and ATP release (Cyclopiazonic acid 및 aflatoxin B1이 토끼의 혈소판 응집 및 ATP 방출에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Choong-man;Cho, Myung-haing
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.887-894
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    • 1996
  • Cyclopiazonic acid(CPA) known as stimulating the release of intracellular calcium, aflatoxin $B_1(AFB_1)$ causing gastrointestinal hemorrhage frequently were used as model toxic mycotoxins in these studies. First of all, the effects of various mycotoxins on the platelet aggregation response were determined. The effects of mycotoxins on the ATP release from platelet by aggregating factors were investigated. The results and conclusions obtained from these studies are : 1) CPA promoted ADP, collagen, thrombin, A.A. and PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation. $AFB_1$ inhibited collagen, A.A. and PAF-induced rabbit platelet aggregation only. 2) CPA increased both aggregation and disaggregation time, whereas $AFB_1$ decreased in a dose dependent manner. 3) CPA increased ADP, thrombin, A.A. and PAF-induced ATP release. $AFB_1$ increased A.A.-induced ATP release and decreased PAF-induced release in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion, CPA promoted platelet aggregation by the increase of ATP. Antiaggregating effects of AFB1 may be due to decreases of ATP. These data provide the basis for the future study of roles of ATP release in platelet aggregation.

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Control of Parturition Time on Pig;IV. Effect of ATP on Uterine Smooth Muscle Motility (돼지 분만 시기의 조절에 관하여;IV. 자궁 평활근의 운동성에 대한 APT의 영향)

  • 박상은;황보원;변유성;조광제
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.154-162
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    • 1996
  • The effcets of adenosine 5'-triphosphate(ATP) were investigated on the uterine smooth muscle motility in the pig. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The effects of the porcine uterine smooth muscle and the contractile responses increased between the concentration of ATP $10^{-5}$ and $10^{-3}$ M with a dose-dependent manner. 2. The contractile response induced by ATP($10^{-4}$ M) was not blocked by pretreatment with cholinergic receptor blocker, atropine ($10^{-6}$ M) 3. The contractile response induced by ATP ($10^{-4}$ M) was not blocked by pretreatment with $\alpha$ -adrenergic receptor blocker, phentolamine(10$^{-6}$ M) and ${\beta}$-adrenergic blocker, propranolol ($10^{-6}$ M). 4. The contractile response induced by ATP($10^{-4}$ M) was not appeared in 4Ca^{++}$ -free medium. As the concentration of $Ca^{++}$ in $Ca^{++}$ -free medium was increased, the contractile response induced by ATP ($10^{-4}$ M) was enhenced but was completely inhibited by pretreatment with $Ca^{++}$ -channel blocker, papaverine($10^{-6}$ M) or verapamil($10^{-6}$ M). From these results, it was conclued that the effects of ATP were the contraction mediated by purinergic receptor in uterine smooth muscle of pig.

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Characterization of Mixed Apple and Carrot Retentates Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Lee, Jun-Ho
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.155-159
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    • 2006
  • Models capable of predicting the product quality of mixed apple and carrot retentates (MACR) have been developed using response surface methodology and used to characterize the effects of processing conditions including average transmembrane pressure (ATP), temperature, and blend ratio. Color, soluble solids, total sugar, vitamin C, acidity, turbidity, and viscosity were used to assess the product quality following the ultrafiltration (UF) process. $L^*-value$ decreased with increased ATP, but the value was not affected by changes in temperature. Blend ratio also greatly influenced the $L^*-value$. Redness ($a^*-value$), on the other hand, was less affected by temperature and ATP. As the ATP and temperature increased, yellowness increased gradually. Soluble solids contents appeared to decrease gradually as the ATP increased for all blend samples, but the effect of temperature seemed to be less. Total sugar content was more affected by temperature than ATP. In general, samples containing 75% carrot had higher amounts of vitamin C regardless of processing conditions. Changes in acidity were also complex and appeared to respond to interactions among ATP, temperature, and blend ratio. Turbidity increased for all samples as both ATP and temperature increased. The higher the amount of carrot in the blend samples, the higher values for turbidity. Although the changes were small, viscosity appeared to increase as the ATP and temperature increased during UF.

Effect of pH on the ATP-sensitive $K^+$ Channel in Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells from Rats

  • Kim, Se-Hoon;Kim, Il-Su;Kim, Hoe-Suk;Jeon, Byeong-Hwa;Chang, Seok-Jong
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.1 no.5
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    • pp.555-563
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    • 1997
  • The effects of pH on $K^+$ currents were investigated in single smooth muscle cells isolated from the thoracic aorta of Wistar-Kyoto rats. Whole-cell $K^+$ currents were recorded in the conventional configuration of the voltage-clamp technique. Pinacidil (10uM) activated the whole-cell current and the pinacidil-activated current was completely inhibited by glibenclamide (10uM) , an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive $K^+$ channel ($K_{ATP}$ channel). Pinacidil-activated current was reversed at near the $K^+$ equilibrium potential. This current was time- and voltage-independent and reduced by elevating intracellular ATP. Pinacidil-activated current was reduced by lowering the external pH. However, alteration of internal pH has controversial effects on pinacidil-activated current. When the single cell was dialyzed with 0.1 mM ATP, alteration of internal pH had no effect on pinacidil-activated $K^+$ current. In the contrast, when the single cell was dialyzed with 3 mM ATP, pinacidil-activated current was increased by lowering internal pH. Our results suggest that $K^+$ channel activated by pinacidil may be $K_{ATP}$ channel and internal $H^+$ may reduce the inhibitory effect of ATP on $K_{ATP}$ channel.

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