• Title, Summary, Keyword: ASC-US

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Colposcopy Requirement of Papanicolaou Smear after Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC-US) by Follow-up Protocol in an Urban Gynaecology Clinic, a Retrospective Study in Thailand

  • Perksanusak, Thitichaya;Sananpanichkul, Panya;Chirdchim, Watcharin;Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn;Suwannarurk, Komsun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.12
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    • pp.4977-4980
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    • 2015
  • Background: ASC-US cases are managed according to the current American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) guideline in which a human papillomavirus (HPV) test and repeat Pap smear are performed in the next 1 year. Colposcopy in cases of positive high risk HPV and persistent ASC-US or more in subsequent Pap smear is recommended. The HPV test is more expensive and still not currently a routine practice in Thailand. Objective: To identify the risk factors of persisted abnormal Pap smear and the colposcopic requirement rate in women with ASC-US. Materials and Methods: During 2008-2013, this study was conducted in Prapokklao Hospital, Chanthaburi, Thailand. Participants were women who attended gynaecology clinic for cervical cancer screening. Women who had cytological reports with ASC-US were recruited. During the study period, 503 cases were enrolled. Colposcopic requirement was defined as those who were detected with an ASC-US or more in subsequent Pap smears up to 1 year follow-up. Results: The colposcopic referral rate was 23.2 (85/365) percent at 12 months. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 was 3.3 (12/365) percent. Loss follow-up rate of subsequent Pap smear and colposcopic appointment were 27.4 (138/503) and 48.2 (41/85) percent, respectively. There was no invasive cancer. High risk factors for persisted abnormal Pap smears in subsequent test were premenopausal status, HIV infected patients and non-oral contraceptive pills (COC) users. Conclusions: Referral rate for colposcopy in women with ASC-US reports was rather high. Loss to follow-up rate was the major limitation. Immediate colposcopy should be offered for women who had high risk for silent CIN.

Detection of Human Papillomavirus among Women with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Referred to Colposcopy: Implications for Clinical Management in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

  • de Abreu, Andre LP;Gimenes, Fabricia;Malaguti, Natalia;Pereira, Monalisa W;Uchimura, Nelson S;Consolaro, Marcia EL
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.7
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    • pp.3637-3641
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    • 2016
  • To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) referred to colposcopy and the implications for clinical management in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the present study was conducted. We included 200 women living in $Maring{\acute{a}}$/Brazil referred to colposcopy service between August 2012 and March 2013 due to an abnormal cytology from ASC-US until high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). HPV was detected and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mean age was $36.8{\pm}10.5$ years, and women with and without ASC-US had similar mean ages ($37.4{\pm}11.5$ and $36.4{\pm}9.96$ years, respectively). The highest prevalence of ASC-US occurred at 20-24 years (40%). HPV-DNA was positive in 164 (82.0%) women.Of the 57 women with ASC-US, 30 (52.6%) were HPV-DNA-positive and 21 (70%) were high-risk HPV-positive (HR-HPV); the latter was similar to women without ASC-US (76.9%) but with other abnormal cytological findings present. Our data demonstrated that performing tests for HR-HPV can be used for management of women with ASC-US to support the decision of which women should be referred for an immediate or later colposcopy. The same conclusions can be applied to other LMICs for which HPV testing for primary screening has not been adopted.

Silent High Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Atypical Smears from Liquid Based Cervical Cytology - Three Years Experience in Thammasat University Hospital

  • Lertvutivivat, Supapen;Chanthasenanont, Athita;Muangto, Teerapat;Nanthakomon, Tongta;Pongrojpaw, Densak;Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn;Suwannarurk, Komsun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4353-4356
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To study the prevalence of CIN2+ diagnosis in women with atypical Papaniculoau (Pap) smears to suggest appropriate management option for Thai health care. Materials and Methods: Data from all patients with liquid based cytology with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing between May 2013 - May 2016 were collected from medical records. Women with atypical cervical Pap smears were recruited. Results for age, HPV testing, HPV 16, 18, 45 and other genotypes tested, colposcopic examination and histopathological assessment were all collected. Atypical smears were defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and atypical squamous cells cannot be exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H). Results: A total of 2,144 cases were recruited. Twenty six women with ASC-US on cytology had high risk (HR) HPV detection while eight cases with ASC-H had HR-HPV (40.0% VS 72.7%, p=0.005). Among the 26 women with ASC-US cytology and positive HR-HPV, HPV type 16 (n=8, 30.8%), type 18 (n=1, 3.8%), type 45 (n=1, 3.8%) and other HPV types (n=17, 65.4%) were found. Eight women with ASC-H and positive HR-HPV demonstrated type 16 (n=6, 75%) and other HPV types (n=2, 25%). Fifty seven women with ASC-US had normal colposcopy, CIN1 and CIN2+ at percentages of 80.7 (46/57), 14.0 (8/57) and 5.3 (3/57), respectively. In the ASC-H group, 7 out of 10 women had normal colposcopy and three (30%) had CIN2+ results. Conclusions: In women with ASC-US cytology, immediate colposcopy is highly recommended. HPV testing can be performed if colposcopy is not an available option because there was high prevalence (5.3%) of CIN2+ in our findings. ASCCP recommendations for ASC-H that colposcopy should be performed on all ASC-H cases regardless of HPV result are thereby supported by the findings of this investigation.

Performance of HPV DNA Testing with Hybrid Capture 2 in Triaging Women with Minor Cervical Cytologic Abnormalities (ASC-US/LSIL) in Northern Thailand

  • Khunamornpong, Surapan;Settakorn, Jongkolnee;Sukpan, Kornkanok;Srisomboon, Jatupol;Suprasert, Prapaporn;Siriaunkgul, Sumalee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10961-10966
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    • 2015
  • Background: Minor cervical cytologic abnormalities include atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Approximately 10-20% of women with minor cytologic abnormalities have histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial or worse lesions (HSIL+). In Thailand, women with minor cytologic abnormalities have a relatively high risk of cervical cancer, and referral for colposcopy has been suggested. A triage test is useful in the selection of women at risk for histologic HSIL+ to reduce the colposcopy burden. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of high-risk HPV DNA test in triage of women with minor cytologic abnormalities in northern Thailand. Materials and Methods: All women with ASC-US/LSIL cytology who were referred to our colposcopy clinic from October 2010 to February 2014 were included. HPV DNA testing was performed using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). All patients received colposcopic examination. Accuracy values of HC2 in predicting the presence of histologic HSIL+ were calculated. Results: There were 238 women in this study (121 ASC-US and 117 LSIL). The HC2 positivity rate was significantly higher in the LSIL group than in ASC-US group (74.8% versus 41.0%, p<0.001). Histologic HSIL+ was detected in 9 women (7.4%) in the ASC-US group and 16 women (13.7%) in the LSIL group (p=0.141). There was no histologic HSIL+ detected among HC2-negative cases (sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%). The performance of HC2 triage was highest among women aged >50 years with ASC-US cytology. An increase in the cut-off threshold for positive HC2 resulted in a substantial decrease of sensitivity and negative predictive value. Conclusions: HPV DNA testing with HC2 shows very high sensitivity and negative predictive value in triage of women with minor cervical cytologic abnormalities in northern Thailand. An increase of the cut-off threshold for HC2 triage is not recommended in this region.

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Management Strategies for Detection CIN2+ of Women with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC-US) Pap Smear in Thailand

  • Tantitamit, Tanitra;Termrungruanglert, Wichai;Oranratanaphan, Shina;Niruthisard, Somchai;Tanbirojn, Patuou;Havanond, Piyalamporn
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.6857-6862
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    • 2015
  • Background: To identify the optimal cost effective strategy for the management of women having ASC-US who attended at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KMCH). Design: An Economical Analysis based on a retrospective study. Subject: The women who were referred to the gynecological department due to screening result of ASC-US at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, a general and tertiary referral center in Bangkok Thailand, from Jan 2008 - Dec 2012. Materials and Methods: A decision tree-based was constructed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of three follow up strategies in the management of ASC-US results: repeat cytology, triage with HPV testing and immediate colposcopy. Each ASC-US woman made the decision of each strategy after receiving all details about this algorithm, advantages and disadvantages of each strategy from a doctor. The model compared the incremental costs per case of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) detected as measured by incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results: From the provider's perspective, immediate colposcopy is the least costly strategy and also the most effective option among the three follow up strategies. Compared with HPV triage, repeat cytology triage is less costly than HPV triage, whereas the latter provides a more effective option at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 56,048 Baht per additional case of CIN 2+ detected. From the patient's perspective, the least costly and least effective is repeat cytology triage. Repeat colposcopy has an incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) of 2,500 Baht per additional case of CIN2+ detected when compared to colposcopy. From the sensitivity analysis, immediate colposcopy triage is no longer cost effective when the cost exceeds 2,250 Baht or the cost of cytology is less than 50 Baht (1USD = 31.58 THB). Conclusions: In women with ASC-US cytology, colposcopy is more cost-effective than repeat cytology or triage with HPV testing for both provider and patient perspectives.

Incidence of High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in Patients with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Papanicolaou Smears at Naresuan University Hospital

  • Heng, Suttichai;Sirichaisutdhikorn, Daranee
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.2411-2414
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To determine the incidence of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2-3) among patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and eighty-seven patients with ASC-US Pap smears who underwent colposcopy with histological study were enrolled between September 2007 and August 2015. Patient factors (including age, parity, current pills used, HIV status, age at first sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners) were obtained. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate clinical factors associated with CIN2-3. Results: CIN was diagnosed in 92 of 187 women (49.2%). Sixty-one of these (32.6%) had CIN1 and 31 (16.6%) had CIN2-3. There was no woman who had invasive cancer. There was no correlation of high-grade CIN with factors in this study including age, parity, current pills used, HIV status, age at first sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners. Conclusions: Data from this study showed no invasive cervical cancer was found in patients with ASC-US. There was no patient factor associated with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia in patients with ASC-US Pap smears.

Diagnostic Value of Endocervical Curettage for Detecting Dysplastic Lesions in Women with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance (ASC-US) and Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) Papanicolaou Smears

  • Poomtavorn, Yenrudee;Suwannarurk, Komsun;Thaweekul, Yuthadej;Maireang, Karicha
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3461-3464
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    • 2014
  • Background: To determine the frequency of dysplastic lesions in the endocervical curettage (ECC) specimens of women with ASC-US and LSIL Pap and to evaluate the possible factors associated with high grade dysplasia in those ECC specimens. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty patients with ASC-US and LSIL cytologic smears who underwent an ECC at the time of colposcopic examination during January 2010 and December 2012 were reviewed. Demographic and clinicopathologic data were collected. Multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression was used to identify factors that might be associated with high grade endocervical dysplasia. Results: The frequency of endocervical dysplasia was 7.7% (20 out of 260 patients). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 and CIN 2-3 lesions in the endocervical canal were observed in 12 and 8 patients, respectively. No microinvasive or invasive cervical cancers were identified. There was no difference in the frequency of high grade endocervical dysplasia between the patients with satisfactory and unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations (1.4% vs 5.1%, respectively, p=0.087). A multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between high grade CIN on ectocervical biopsy as well as LSIL cytologic smears and high grade dysplasia in endocervical canal (OR=0.046, 95%CI=0.007-0.288; p=0.001 and OR=0.154, 95%CI=0.025-0.942; p=0.043, respectively). Conclusions: The frequency of high grade endocervical dysplasia in women with ASC-US and LSIL cytologic smears was low. Therefore, routine performance of ECC in those women is debatable. High grade ectocervical dysplasia and LSIL cytologic smears may be used as predictors for high grade dysplasia in endocervical canal and ECC in these patients is reasonable.

Is the Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure Necessary for Minor Cervical Cytological Abnormalities?

  • Aksan-Desteli, Guldeniz;Gursu, Turkan;Baykal, Cem Murat
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.305-308
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    • 2014
  • Background: To investigate the indications of loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) and its overtreatment rates for the see and treat and three step strategies in cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined cytology (ASC-US) and low grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGSIL) cytology. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed colposcopy directed biopsy (CDB) and LEEP results of 176 paients with ASC-US or LGSIL cytologies who underwent colposcopic examination. Results: Initial cytologies were ASCUS in 120 women and LGSIL in 56. According to the see and treat approach immediate LEEP was performed for38 women. Among the remaining 138 women, LEEP was performed for 32 whose CDB results revealed CIN2/3 lesions. In the see and treat group the recognition of CIN2/3 was found to be 39.4%. The overtreatment rate was 60% as compared to 25% in the three step group. In CDB group detection of CIN 2 or greater lesions increased with 3 or more biopsies. Conclusions: In patients with ASC-US/LGSIL cytologies CDB should be performed before LEEP to prevent overtreatment, with attention to all suspected areas and more than 2 biopsies taken.

Risk factors for cytological progression in HPV 16 infected women with ASC-US or LSIL: The Korean HPV cohort

  • So, Kyeong A;Kim, Seon Ah;Lee, Yoo Kyung;Lee, In Ho;Lee, Ki Heon;Rhee, Jee Eun;Kee, Mee Kyung;Cho, Chi Heum;Hong, Sung Ran;Hwang, Chang Sun;Jeong, Mi Seon;Kim, Ki Tae;Ki, Moran;Hur, Soo Young;Park, Jong Sup;Kim, Tae Jin
    • Obstetrics & gynecology science
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    • v.61 no.6
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    • pp.662-668
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    • 2018
  • Objective This study was to identify the risk factors for cytological progression in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). Methods We analyzed data from women infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV) who participated in the Korean HPV cohort study. The cohort recruited women aged 20-60 years with abnormal cervical cytology (ASC-US or LSIL) from April 2010. All women were followed-up at every 6-month intervals with cervical cytology and HPV DNA testing. Results Of the 1,158 women included, 654 (56.5%) and 504 (43.5%) women showed ASC-US and LSIL, respectively. At the time of enrollment, 143 women tested positive for HPV 16 (85 single and 58 multiple infections). Cervical cytology performed in the HPV 16-positive women showed progression in 27%, no change in 23%, and regression in 50% of the women at the six-month follow-up. The progression rate associated with HPV 16 infection was higher than that with infection caused by other HPV types (relative risk [RR], 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-2.84; P=0.028). The cytological progression rate in women with persistent HPV 16 infection was higher than that in women with incidental or cleared infections (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant relationship between cigarette smoking and cytological progression (RR, 4.15; 95% CI, 1.01-17.00). Conclusion The cytological progression rate in HPV 16-positive women with ASC-US or LSIL is higher than that in women infected with other HPV types. Additionally, cigarette smoking may play a role in cytological progression.

Clinical Prediction Based on HPV DNA Testing by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) in Combination with Liquid-based Cytology (LBC)

  • Junyangdikul, Pairoj;Tanchotsrinon, Watcharaporn;Chansaenroj, Jira;Nilyaimit, Pornjarim;Lursinsap, Chidchanok;Poovorawan, Yong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.903-907
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    • 2013
  • Primary screening by HPV DNA testing is an effective method for reducing cervical cancer and has proven more sensitive than cytology. To advance this approach, many molecular methods have been developed. Hybrid capture 2 provides semi-quantitative results in ratios of relative light units and positive cutoff values (RLU/PC). Twenty-five thousand and five patients were included in this study to analyze the correlation between the ratio of RLU/PC and stage of cervical dysplasia. The results show that the RLU/PC ratios ranged from 0-3500 while almost normal cases, ASC-US and ASC-H, had values below 200. Of those samples negative for cytology markers, 94.6% were normal and their RLU/PC ratios were less than 4. With an RLU/PC ratio greater than 4 and less than or equal to 300, the percentages in all age groups were normal 53.6%, LSIL 20.2%, ASC-US 17.2%, HSIL 6.13%, ASC-H 2.72%, and AGC 0.11%, respectively. In contrast, 64.0% of samples with a RLU/PC ratio greater than 300 and less than or equal to 3500 were LSIL. These results should contribute to cost effective cervical cancer management strategies. Further studies of associations with particular HPV genotypes would be useful to predict the risk of progression to cancer.