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ARP spoofing attack and its countermeasures (도메인 네임 스푸핑 공격과 그 대응책)

  • Hong, Sunghyuck
    • Journal of Convergence Society for SMB
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2014
  • DNS spoofing, the DNS server with the address of a specific web server intercepts them in the process of translating the attacker wants to forge a Web server that is a way to access. ARP spoofing ARP request and response messages for the protocol without authentication vorticity incorrect information as to the ARP Cache Table to store the MAC addresses of their vulnerability using the MAC address of the other computer as if it were a lie technique. These DNS / ARP spoofing attacks in detail to find out about how it looks at ways to prevent. Think about the future research directions.

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Network Hacking and Implementation Techniques using Faked ARP Reply Unicast Spoofing according to various Server Types (위조 ARP 응답 유니캐스트 스푸핑을 이용한 서버 유형별 네트워크 해킹 및 구현기술 연구)

  • Choi, Jae-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.61-71
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    • 2017
  • ARP Spoofing is a basic and core hacking technology for almost all sniffing. It makes change the flow of packets by faking the 2nd layer MAC address. In this paper we suggested an efficient hacking technology for sniffing remote servers in the switched network environment. The suggested 'Faked ARP Reply Unicast Spoofing' makes the bidirectional packets sniffing possible between the client and server, and it makes simplify the procedures for ARP sniffing and hacking program. In this paper we researched the network hacking and implementation technologies based on the suggested ARP spoofing. And we researched various types of servers hacking such as Root ID and PW of Telnet/FTP server, Root ID and PW of MySQL DB server, ID and PW of Web Portal Server, and account information and transaction history of Web Banking Server. And also we researched the implementation techniques of core hacking programs for the ARP Spoofing.

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of a protease-related protein in Chang-liver cells

  • Wang, Congrui;Zhang, Huiyong;Feng, Huigen;Yang, Baosheng;Pramanik, Jogenananda;Guo, Zhikun;Lin, Juntang
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.375-381
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the cDNA library of Chang-liver cells was immunoscreened using common ADAMs antibody to obtain ADAM related genes. We found one positive clone that was confirmed as a new gene by Blast, which is an uncharacterized helical and coil protein and processes protease activity, and named protease-related protein 1 (ARP1). The submitted GenBank accession number is AY078070. Molecular characterizations of ARP1 were analyzed with appropriate bioinformatics software. To analyse its expression and function, ARP1 was subcloned into glutathione S-transferase fusion plasmid pGEX-2T and expressed by E. coli system. The in vitro expression product of ARP1 was recognized by common ADAMs antibody with western blot. Interestingly, ARP1 cleaves gelatine at pH9.5, which suggests it is an alkaline protease. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR result indicates that ARP1 mRNA is strongly transcribed in the liver and the treated Chang-liver cells.

Effects of Atractylodis Rhizoma Pharmacopuncture on an Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesion Induced by Compound 48/80 in Rats

  • Lee, Yun-Kyu;Kim, Jae-Soo;Lim, Seong-Chul
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.12-17
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Atractylodis Rhizoma pharmacopuncture (ARP) against acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 in rats. Methods: The ARP was injected in Joksamni (ST36) and Jungwan (CV12) 1 hr before treatment with compound 48/80. The animals were sacrificed under anesthesia 3 hrs after treatment with compound 48/80. The stomachs were removed, and the amounts of gastric adherent mucus, gastric mucosal hexosamine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), xanthine oxidase (XO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. Also, histological examination were performed. Results: Gastric adherent mucus, gastric mucosal hexosamine and histological defects of gastric mucosa declined significantly after ARP treatment. Changes in gastric mucosal TBARS were also reduced by ARP treatment, but this result was not statistically significant. ARP treatment did not change the XO and the SOD activities. Conclusions: ARP showed protective effects for acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 in rats. These results suggest that ARP may have protective effects for gastritis.

The core information protection mechanism in the BcN(Broadband Convergence Network) (BcN(Broadband Convergence Network) 환경에서의 중요정보에 대한 도청방지 메카니즘)

  • Oh, Sek-Hoan;Lee, Jae-Yong;Kim, Byung-Chul
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.14-26
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    • 2008
  • IP over Ethernet technology widely used as Internet access uses the ARP(Address Resolution Protocol) that translates an ip address to the corresponding MAC address. recently, there are ARP security attacks that intentionally modify the IP address and its corresponding MAC address, utilizing various tools like "snoopspy". Since ARP attacks can redirect packets to different MAC address other than destination, attackers can eavesdrop packets, change their contents, or hijack the connection. Because the ARP attack is performed at data link layer, it can not be protected by security mechanisms such as Secure Shell(SSH) or Secure Sockets Layer(SSL). Thus, in this paper, we classify the ARP attack into downstream ARP spoofing attack and upstream ARP redirection attack, and propose a new security mechanism using DHCP information for acquisition of IP address. We propose a "DHCP snoop mechanism" or "DHCP sniffing/inspection mechanism" for ARP spoofing attack, and a "static binding mechanism" for ARP redirection attack. The proposed security mechanisms for ARP attacks can be widely used to reinforce the security of the next generation internet access networks including BcN.

Effect of Astragali Radix Pharmacocupuncture for Wound Healing of Full-Thickness Skin Wound in Mouse (황기약침이 전층피부손상 마우스의 치유에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Chang-Ho;Kang, Kyung-Hwa;Yoon, Hwa-Jung;Yoon, Hyoun-Min;Song, Choon-Ho;Kim, Cheol-Hong
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.22-31
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : In this study, we investigated whether Astragali Radix Pharmacocupuncture (ARP) has an effective on the full thickness defect wound healing process of mouse. Methods : A total of 50 mice (ICR mouse, 7 week-old male) were divided into control group and ARP group. A single full thickness skin defect was made on the dorsal side of the each mouse using an 8mm diameter biopsy punch. Control group were treated with 0.2㎖ saline and ARP group were treat with 0.2ml ARP at 8 points around the wound every three days total 4 times during the experimental period. The change in wound size, contraction rate, healing rate, and epithelization rate was measured by digital images taken on days 3, 6, 9, and 13, and evaluated using a digital image analysis program. Tissues were collected for histological analysis, RT-PCR, and Western blot on days 3, 6, 9, and 15. Results : The results are as follows. ARP group accelerated the rate of wound contraction, wound healing and epithelization compared to the control group. ARP group showed the decrease of inflammatory cells in early inflammatory phase compared to the control group. ARP group upregulated PECAM-1 mRNA and protein expression compared to the control group. ARP group inhibited the scar width and area compared to the control group. Conclusions: ARP showed positive effects on wound healing through the inhibition of inflammatory reaction and increase of PECAM-1 expression related to the wound healing process.

Effect of Arp2/3 Complex on Sperm Motility and Membrane Structure in Bovine

  • Lee, June-Sub;Park, Yoo-Jin;Kim, Jin;Rahman, Md. Saidur;Kwon, Woo-Sung;Yoon, Sung-Jae;You, Young-Ah;Pang, Myung-Geol
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 2013
  • Sperm capacitation refers to polymerization of filamentous (F)-actin from globular (G)-actin. While the role of actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex in actin polymerization is well appreciated, the underlying mechanism(s) and its relationship with capacitation are poorly understood. Therefore, to evaluate the potential role of Arp2/3 complex on capacitation, bovine spermatozoa were incubated with multiple doses (1, 10 and $100{\mu}M$) of CK-636, an inhibitor of Arp2/3 complex with heparin. The cellular localization of the Arp2/3 complex in spermatozoa was identified by immunohistochemistry, whereas western blot was also applied to detect the protein tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins. Additionally, sperm motility and kinematic parameters were evaluated using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. CK-636 resulted in significant changes in the ratio of Arp2/3 complex localization between acrosome and equatorial region of the spermatozoa. Short-term exposure of spermatozoa to $100{\mu}M$ of CK-636 significantly decreased sperm motility, however a non-detectable effect on protein tyrosine phosphorylation was observed during capacitation. On the basis of these results, we propose that Arp2/3 complex is associated with morphological changes during capacitation and compromised sperm motility.

Alveolar ridge preservation with a collagen material: a randomized controlled trial

  • Schnutenhaus, Sigmar;Doering, Isabel;Dreyhaupt, Jens;Rudolph, Heike;Luthardt, Ralph G.
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.236-250
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: Resorption of the alveolar bone is an unavoidable consequence of tooth extraction when appropriate alveolar ridge preservation (ARP) measures are not taken. The objective of this trial was to test the hypothesis that dimensional changes in the alveolar bone after tooth extraction would be reduced by inserting an equine collagen membrane and a collagen cone to fill and seal the alveolus (as ARP), in comparison to extraction with untreated alveoli. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 31 patients were directly treated with the collagen material after extraction of a tooth from the maxilla (the ARP group). Twenty-nine patients served as the control group. After extraction, no further treatment (i.e., no socket preservation measures) was performed in the control group. Changes in the alveolar process immediately after extraction and after an 8 (${\pm}1$)-week healing period were evaluated 3-dimensionally. Blinded analyses were performed after superimposing the data from the digitalized impressions and surfaces generated by cone-beam computed tomography. Results: Both the ARP and control groups showed a reduction of bone in the alveolar area after tooth extraction. However, significantly less bone resorption was detected in the clinically relevant buccal region in the ARP group. The median bone reduction was 1.18 mm in the ARP group and 5.06 mm in the control group (P=0.03). Conclusions: The proposed hypothesis that inserting a combination material comprising a collagen cone and membrane would lead to a difference in alveolar bone preservation can be accepted for the clinically relevant buccal distance. In this area, implantation of the collagen material led to significantly less alveolar bone resorption. German Clinical Trials Register at www.drks.de, DRKS00004769.

A Study on the Radiation Pattern Measurement Technique of Shipboard Antenna (함정 탑재 안테나의 복사패턴 측정기법 연구)

  • 정회인
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.177-187
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    • 2001
  • It is important to test and evaluate the variation degree of ship-mounted antenna radiated power with respect to all directions in order to use more effectively antennas that installed on naval ships. The naval ship has various sensors for navigation, communication and electronic warfare, etc. And the performance of these sensors extremely depends on the various characteristics of antenna system to transmit and receive electromagnetic wave. The radiated power pattern of the antenna differs from all aspect angles of the ship because of complex superstructures. It is important to know the weak point(direction) of antenna radiation for appropriate operation. Therefore, the ARP(Antenna Radiation Pattern) of shipboard antennas is measured for the all aspect angles. The results of ARP measurement are utilized as reference for antenna arrangement of newly-built same class warship. This study also describes the development results for the ARP measurement technique, software design and test procedures to measure the radiation pattern of communication equipment antennas using the fixed test site.

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Bioconversion Strategy in Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass upon Various Pretreatment Methods using Sulfuric Acid and Aqueous Ammonia (황산과 암모니아를 이용한 목질계 바이오매스의 전처리 공정에 따른 당화 및 발효공정 전략)

  • Cayetano, Roent Dune;Kim, Tae Hyun;Um, Byung-Hwan
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2014
  • This is to study the effects of various pretreatment methods of agricultural residue, corn stover, and to compare the feature and pros and cons of each method including dilute sulfuric acid (DSA), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and ammonia recycle percolation (ARP). In order to convert corn stover to ethanol, various pretreatments followed by simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) were tested and evaluated in terms of ethanol yield. With 3%, w/w of glucan loading using ARP-, DSA-, and SAA-treated solids, SSCFs using recombinant E. coli strain (ATCC$^{(R)}$ 55124) with commercial enzymes (15 FPU of Spezyme CP/g-glucan and 30 CBU/g-glucan enzyme loading) were tested. In the SSCF tests, 87, 90, and 78% of theoretical maximum ethanol yield were observed using ARP-, DSA-, and SAA-treated solids, respectively, which were 69, 58, and 74% on the basis of total carbohydrates (glucan + xylan) in the untreated corn stover. Ethanol yield of SAA-treated solid was higher than those of ARP- and DSA-treated solids. In addition, SSCF test using treated solids plus pretreated hydrolysate indicated that the DSA-treated hydrolysate showed the strongest inhibition effect on the KO11 strain, whereas the ARP-treated hydrolysate was found to have the second strongest inhibition effect. Bioconversion scheme using SAA pretreatment and SSCF can make the downstream process simple, which is suggested to produce ethanol economically because utilization of hemicellulose in the hydrolysate is not necessary.