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A Failure-Censored Accelerated Life Test Sampling Plan with Both Life Specification Limits (수명의 양쪽규격을 고려한 정수중단 ALT 샘플링검사 계획)

  • 류근중;강창욱
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.21 no.45
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    • pp.319-328
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    • 1998
  • In this paper, the design of ALT(Accelerated Life Test) requires a sampling plan based on failure-censored(Type II censored) ALT with lognormal life distribution. Specially the environmental effect of products has been emphasized, so we considered the upper life limit as well as lower life limit in the ALT sampling plan. The optimal plan with a high stress and a low stress is used as test plan, and the total sample size for test and lot acceptability constant which minimize an asymptotic variance of maximum likelihood estimator of assumed model parameters and satisfy the given producer's risk and customer's risk are drawn out. These values can be acquired by means of the computer program that we coded for resolving the difficulty and complexity of calculation.

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Synthesis and Properties of Conjugated Polycarbosilanes with 1,4-Bis(thiophene or phenylene)-buta-1,3-diyne

  • 서일권;박영태;김용록
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.677-682
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    • 1999
  • Conjugated polycarbosilanes with diacetylene and aromatic groups of thiophene or phenylene simultaneously present in the polymer backbone such as poly[[1,4-bis(thiophenyl)buta-1,3-diyne]-alt-(dimethylsilane)], poly[[1,4-bis(thiophenyl)buta-1,3-diyne]-alt-(diphenylsilane)], poly[[1,4-bis(phenyl)buta-1,3-diyne]-alt-(dimethylsilane)],and poly[[1,4-bis(phenyl)buta-1,3-diyne]-alt-(diphenylsilane)] have been prepared. The characteristic C=C stretching frequencies appear at 2177-2179㎝-1 in the IR spectra of the polymers. The molecular weights of these polymers were detemined by GPC. All of these materials are soluble in organic solvents such as THF and chloroform, and thermally stable up to 200℃ in general without any weight loss under nitrogen. The prepared materials in THF solvent show a maximum absorption peak in the range of 334-356 nm with a molar absorptivity of 10³∼10ⁿ(n=5)L/(cm·mol) in the UV-visible absorption spectra. A maximum emission peak in the range of 403-550 nm is also observed in the fluorescence emission spectra. Both absorption and emission spectra strongly indicate that the obtained polycarbosilanes contain the new conjugated systems along the polymer main chain.

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Comparison of the effects of rapid maxillary expansion and alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction protocols followed by facemask therapy

  • Ozbilen, Elvan Onem;Yilmaz, Hanife Nuray;Kucukkeles, Nazan
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate and compare the changes in the pharyngeal airway (PA), maxillary sinus volume, and skeletal parameters after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) followed by facemask (FM) therapy. Methods: The records of 40 patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary retrognathism were collected, and the patients were assigned into two groups. The first group comprised 8 male and 12 female patients (mean age, $10.0{\pm}1.1years$) treated using RME/FM for an average of 10 months. The second group comprised 10 male and 10 female patients (mean age, $9.64{\pm}1.3years$) treated using Alt-RAMEC/FM for an average of 12 months. Cone-beam computed tomography images acquired before (T0) and after treatment (T1) were evaluated. Results: Regarding the skeletal effects, significant differences between the groups were the increase in ANS-HRP (perpendicular distance of ANS to the horizontal reference plane, 0.99 mm, p <0.05) in the Alt-RAMEC/FM group and the decrease in PP-SN (palatal plane to Sella-Nasion plane, $0.93^{\circ}$, p < 0.05) in the RME/FM group. Maxillary sinus volumes increased significantly in both the groups, and the increase was statistically significantly higher in the Alt-RAMEC/FM group. Although no significant intergroup differences were observed in PA volumes, both lower ($1,011.19mm^3$) and total ($1,601.21mm^3$), PA volume increased significantly in the Alt-RAMEC/FM group. Conclusions: The different expansion devices and protocols used with FM therapy do not seem to affect the forward movement of the maxilla and PA volumes. In contrast, the increase in maxillary sinus volume was greater in the Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol.

Alternanthera mosaic virus - an alternative 'model' potexvirus of broad relevance

  • Hammond, John;Kim, Ik-Hyun;Lim, Hyoun-Sub
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.145-180
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    • 2017
  • Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) is a member of the genus Potexvirus which has been known for less than twenty years, and has been detected in Australasia, Europe, North and South America, and Asia. The natural host range to date includes species in at least twenty-four taxonomically diverse plant families, with species in at least four other families known to be infected experimentally. AltMV has been shown to differ from Potato virus X (PVX), the type member of the genus Potexvirus, in a number of ways, including the subcellular localization of the Triple Gene Block 3 (TGB3) protein and apparent absence of interactions between TGB3 and TGB2. Differences between AltMV variants have allowed identification of viral determinants of pathogenicity, and identification of residues involved in interactions with host proteins. Infectious clones of AltMV differing significantly in symptom severity and efficiency of RNA silencing suppression have been produced, suitable either for high level protein expression (with efficient RNA silencing suppression) or for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS; with weaker RNA silencing suppression), demonstrating a range of utility not available with most other plant viral vectors. The difference in silencing suppression efficiency was shown to be due to a single amino acid residue substitution in TGB1, and to differences in subcellular localization of TGB1 to the nucleus and nucleolus. The current state of knowledge of AltMV biology, including host range, strain differentiation, host interactions, and utility as a plant viral vector for both protein expression and VIGS are summarized.

A Data Centric Storage based on Adaptive Local Trajectory for Sensor Networks (센서네트워크를 위한 적응적 지역 트라젝토리 기반의 데이터 저장소 기법)

  • Lim, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Joa-Hyoung;Yang, Dong-Il;Tscha, Yeong-Hwan;Lee, Heon-Guil
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartC
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    • v.15C no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2008
  • Sensor nodes are used as a storage space in the data centric storage method for sensor networks. Sensor nodes save the data to the node which is computed by hash table and users also access to the node to get the data by using hash table. One of the problems which the data centric storage method has is that queries from many users who are interested in the popular data could be concentrated to one node. In this case, responses for queries could be delayed and the energy of heavy loaded node could be dissipated fast. This would lead to reduction of network life time. In this paper, ALT, Data Centric Storage based on Adaptive Local Trajectory, is proposed as scalable data centric storage method for sensor network. ALT constructs trajectory around the storage node. The scope of trajectory is increased or decreased based on the query frequency. ALT distributes the query processing loads to several nodes so that delay of response is reduced and energy dissipation is also distributed.

Comparison of Protein Electrophoresis Fractions in the Leptospirosis Patient Serum

  • Kim Chong Ho;Park Seung-Taeck;Oh Geum-Ga
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.253-257
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    • 2004
  • The mechanisms by which leptospires caused disease are not well understood. A number of putative virulence factors have been suggested, but with few exceptions their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. In these days, many cases of leptospirosis are diagnosed by serological immunoassay. Leptospirosis is characterized by the histopathology of liver, kidney, heart, and lung, but the electrophoresis fractions of serum protein are not compared. We analyzed total protein, albumin, aspartic aminotranferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and urea nitrogen (UN) in sera of patients diagnosed leptospirosis. Total protein and albumin were decreased in 18.5% and 31.2% of patients, respectively. AST, ALT, ALP, UN and creatinine were increased in 90.4%, 66.9%, 28.0%, 15.9% and 10.8% of patients, respectively. We performed cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (EP) on sera of patients increased both of AST and ALT, and of patients increased both of creatinine and UN. In patients increased both of AST and ALT, and in patients increased both of AST and ALT, the relative percentage of albumin to total protein in patient serum was dcreased in 89.1 % of patients. α₁-globulin, α₂-globulin, β-globulin and γ-globulin were increased in 85.1 %, 75.2%, 33.6% and 98.0% of patients, respectively. In patients increased both of creatinine and UN, the relative percentage of albumin to total protein in patient serum was dcreased in 93.8% of patients. α₁-globulin, α₂-globulin, β-globulin and γ-globulin were increased in 87.5%, 100%, 31.2% and 93.8% of patients, respectively. These data indicate that infection of Leptospira causes severe liver damage to most of leptospirosis patients, but doesn't cause renal damage to most of them. The relative rate of serum protein electrophoresis fractions to total protein are not identical with them of typical hepatitis patient.

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The Comparison between Anterolateral Thigh Free Flap and Radial Forearm Free Flap in Partial Glossectomy Defect - An Evaluation of Donor Site Morbidity and Functional Outcome (유리 전외측 대퇴부 피판과 유리 요측 전박피판을 이용한 설재건 시공여부 및 기능적 결과 비교)

  • Cho, Sang Hyun;Lee, Won Jai;Lew, Dae Hyun;Tark, Kwan Chul
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.330-335
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional outcome and donor site morbidity of anterolateral thigh free flap(ALT) compared to Radial forearm free flap(RFFF) for the reconstruction of partial glossectomy defect. Methods: 5 ALT free flap (group I) were attempted for partial glossectomy patients. We compared patients undergone ALT flap with those(n=11) of similar size defect reconstructed with RFFF (Group II). Rating scales for articulation and swallowing function were applied and donor site morbidity have been evaluated. Results: The scales for speech function showed no difference between the two groups (average score; group I - 6.4, group II - 6.45). Swallowing function also showed no difference between the two groups(average score; Group I - 6.6, Group II - 6.27). ALT group had one patient with donor site morbidity(numbness). All of the RFFF patients(11/11) complained and suffered from hypertrophic scar, retraction, numbness or hyperpigmentation on forearm donor site. Based on our study, ALT free flap is comparable to that of RFFF in terms of functional assessment in tongue reconstruction. Conclusion: Considering the donor site morbidity, ALT flap is to be valuable to reconstruct partial glossectomy defect.

Vascular Variations in the Anterolateral Thigh Flap (전외측 대퇴부 피판의 혈관 변이)

  • Hwang, So Min;Kim, Min Wook;Lim, Kwang Ryeol;Jung, Yong Hui;Kim, Hyung Do;Kim, Hong Il
    • Archives of Reconstructive Microsurgery
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Although a fasciocutaneous perforator artery as a vascular pedicle has previously been shown to be predominant in the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, recent studies have shown that a myocutaneous perforator artery is predominant. We have attempted to attain a clinical understanding of the vascular variations in the ALT flap. Materials and Methods: We confirmed the origin of a perforator artery in 11 cases of ALT flap. We then reviewed the variations of the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery, known as the major origin of the flap, and the overall variations associated with an ALT flap. Results: In a total of 11 cases, there were 18 perforator arteries of the ALT flaps. In addition, there were 9 fasciocutaneous perforator arteries and another 9 myocutaneous ones. However, depending on the origin, there was great variability in the perforator artery. That is, there were unique variants in the descending branches of the lateral femoral circumflex artery, the major origin of the perforator artery, in 3 of the total 11 cases. Conclusion: Our results showed that (1) a perforator artery accounts for the high proportion of fasciocutaneous ones, (2) a perforator artery might not originate from the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery and (3) there might be unique variants in the descending branch. If considering this, surgeons would successfully elevate an ALT flap.

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ALT Board and Software Module Design for Active Participatory Simulation Learning (능동적 참여 모의실험 학습용 ALT 보드 및 소프트웨어 모듈 설계)

  • So, Won-Ho
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.537-547
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, the ALT (ALTernative) board and a NetLogo extension module are developed for the active participatory simulation (APS) learning. Through the participatory simulation with HubNet each student can attend the experiment as one of clients. Only one HubNet server, however, is able to use an external device so that the bifocal modeling based learning with multiple users is impossible. In order to overcome the drawback, and enable clients participate into the experiment and collect the experimental data and the measured data, an ATmega 32 based board and its firmware are developed. In addition, Java extension module based on TCP/IP socket interfaces is developed to exchange the data with HubNet server. Finally, we show some NetLogo program examples to use the developed hardware and software for APS and seek the way to use them for science education.

Selective Interaction Between Chloroplast β-ATPase and TGB1L88 Retards Severe Symptoms Caused by Alternanthera mosaic virus Infection

  • Seo, Eun-Young;Nam, Jiryun;Kim, Hyun-Seung;Park, Young-Hwan;Hong, Seok Myeong;Lakshman, Dilip;Bae, Hanhong;Hammond, John;Lim, Hyoun-Sub
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.58-67
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    • 2014
  • The multifunctional triple gene block protein 1 (TGB1) of the Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) has been reported to have silencing suppressor, cell-to-cell movement, and helicase functions. Yeast two hybrid screening using an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library with TGB1 as bait, and co-purification with TGB1 inclusion bodies identified several host proteins which interact with AltMV TGB1. Host protein interactions with TGB1 were confirmed by biomolecular fluorescence complementation, which showed positive TGB1 interaction with mitochondrial ATP synthase delta' chain subunit (ATP synthase delta'), light harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex I subunit A4 (LHCA4), chlorophyll a/b binding protein 1 (LHB1B2), chloroplast-localized IscA-like protein (ATCPISCA), and chloroplast ${\beta}$-ATPase. However, chloroplast ${\beta}$-ATPase interacts only with $TGB1_{L88}$, and not with weak silencing suppressor $TGB1_{L88}$. This selective interaction indicates that chloroplast ${\beta}$-ATPase is not required for AltMV movement and replication; however, TRV silencing of chloroplast ${\beta}$-ATPase in Nicotiana benthamiana induced severe tissue necrosis when plants were infected by AltMV $TGB1_{L88}$ but not AltMV $TGB1_{L88}$, suggesting that ${\beta}$-ATPase selectively responded to $TGB1_{L88}$ to induce defense responses.