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Enhanced Certificate with User's Privacy Protection Methods (프라이버시 보호 기능이 추가된 인증서 프로화일에 관한 연구)

  • Yang Hyung kyu
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4C
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    • pp.290-295
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    • 2005
  • When a Certification Authority (CA) issues X.509 public-key certificate to bind a public key to a user, the user is specified through one or more subject name in the 'subject' field and the 'subjectAltName' extension field of a certificate. The 'subject' field or the 'subjectAltName' extension field may contain a hierarchically structured distinguished name, an electronic mail address, If address, or other name forms that correspond to the subject. In this paper, we present the requirements for certificate holder's privacy protection and propose the methods to protect the user's privacy information contained in the 'subject' field or the 'subjectAltName' extension field of a public-key certificat

Lower Extremity Reconstruction Using Vastus Lateralis Myocutaneous Flap versus Anterolateral Thigh Fasciocutaneous Flap

  • Lee, Min Jae;Yun, In Sik;Rah, Dong Kyun;Lee, Won Jai
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 2012
  • Background The anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap has become a popular option for treating soft tissue defects of lower extremity reconstruction and can be combined with a segment of the vastus lateralis muscle. We present a comparison of the use of the ALT fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC) and myocutaneous flaps. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients in whom free-tissue transfer was performed between 2005 and 2011 for the reconstruction of lower extremity soft-tissue defects. Twenty-four patients were divided into two groups: reconstruction using an ALT-FC flap (12 cases) and reconstruction using a vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC) flap (12 cases). Postoperative complications, functional results, cosmetic results, and donor-site morbidities were studied. Results Complete flap survival was 100% in both groups. A flap complication was noted in one case (marginal dehiscence) of the ALT-FC group, and no complications were noted in the VL-MC group. In both groups, one case of partial skin graft loss occurred at the donor site, and debulking surgeries were needed for two cases. There were no significant differences in the mean scores for either functional or cosmetic outcomes in either group. Conclusions The VL-MC flap is able to fill occasional dead space and has comparable survival rates to ALT-FC with minimal donor-site morbidity. Additionally, the VL-MC flap is easily elevated without myocutaneous perforator injury.

A Temporary Increase of Liver Function Indicators, AST, ALT (일시적으로 증가하는 간기능지표에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Sook Za;Jeon, Young Mi;Song, Woong Ju
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Inherited Metabolic disease
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.43-47
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    • 2013
  • Introduction: ALT/AST enzymes are present inside the cells. AST is found in cardiac and skeletal muscle and red blood cells but the ALT is checked mainly in the liver. In general, the rise of these two indicators shows liver damage. The usual measurements of these enzymes are used in liver function tests, but the levels of AST and ALT do not always reflect liver function. Method and Cases: 17 cases of liver dysfunction transiently were evaluated clinically, biochemically, and imaging study of sonogram in pediatric in-patients for 3 years. Result: Most common causes of transient liver dysfunction were infection, especially viral gastroenteritis, and bacterial infection interfering oral food intake. More often occurred in the children who have infant hyperbilirubinemia, positive history of mitochondrial dysfunction or hypoglycemia. Fasting study in one case of hypoglycemia patient showed reversible liver dysfunction during fasting over 20 hours fasting. Discussion: A significant increase in AST and ALT with normal bilirubin can be observed in clinically healthy people during blunt trauma, viral infection, severe pain, metabolic syndrome, fasting or accidental health screening.

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Effect of ${\alpha}$-Interferon Treatment on Serum ALT Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C (만성 C형 간염에 대한 ${\alpha}$-interferon 치료 후 ALT치의 변화)

  • Lee, Heon-Ju
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.190-196
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    • 1993
  • The prognosis of chronic hepatitis C is very variable. In some, the disease is progressive and cirrhosis can develop from chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C virus(HCV) may act as a trigger towards hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. Interferon has been used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in abroad, 16 patients with chronic C liver disease were treated with ${\alpha}$-interferon (alfa-2b; "Intron A" Schering Corp. Kenilworth. NJ). All patients were given ${\alpha}$-interferon in subcutaneous doses of 3 million units three times weekly for 1 to 9 months. During therapy, CBC and ALT levels were checked weakly to monthly. After therapy, patients were followed for 1 to 8 months. Among 16 patients treated with ${\alpha}$-interferon, progressive decrease of ALT levels was observed in 14(87.5%). In 11 patients(68.8%), ALT levels fell into the normal range during therapy, and in 9 of 11, within one month after therapy, 6 months after the completion of therapy in 4 of 9 patients(44.4%) whose ALT levels were in the normal range, ${\alpha}$-interferon seems to have effect in controlling disease activity in patients with chronic hepatitis C. But the changes in the usage of ${\alpha}$-interferon, dose and duration, long term follow up and more convenient and simple tests for HCV detection are recommended for the better effect and the exact evaluation on the effect of ${\alpha}$-interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

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Relationships with Alanine Aminotransferase Activity, and Anthropometric and Biochemical Measures in Obese Children (단순 비만아에서 간효소치와 신체 계측 및 생화학 측정치와의 관련성)

  • Yun, Gyoung-Bin;Kim, Jae-Young
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.30-38
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To investigate the physical and biochemical parameters related with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in obese children. Methods: One hundred forty-two obese or overweight children who visited the out-patient clinics of Chungnam National University Hospital between January 2006 and August 2008 were enrolled. Physical measures and biochemical tests were performed in all patients. Liver sonography was performed in 43 patients. They were divided into the following 2 groups based on ALT levels: group I, normal ALT levels (n=65); and group II, elevated ALT levels (n=77). We compared the physical measures, biochemical results, and ultrasonographic findings of the livers in both groups. Other causes of elevated serum ALT levels were ruled out. Results: The male-to-female ratios were 1.6:1 in group I and 7.6:1 in group II. Among physical parameters, the waist circumference-to-height ratio and hip circumference-to-height ratio were significantly higher in group II (p=0.001 and 0.046, respectively). Among biochemical parameters, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ${\gamma}$-glutamyltransferase (${\gamma}$-GT), and total cholesterol levels were significantly higher in group II (p<0.001, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). The AST/ALT ratio was <1 (mean, 0.55) and statistically lower in group II. There was a positive correlation between the serum ALT level and ${\gamma}$-GT (p<0.001, r=0.750), and a positive correlation between the serum ALT level and the waist circumference-to-height ratio in group II (p<0.001, r=0.401). Conclusion: The results suggest that the waist circumference-to-height ratio and ${\gamma}$-GT may be associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase activity in obese children.

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Risk factors for delayed healing at the free anterolateral thigh flap donor site

  • Abe, Yoshiro;Kashiwagi, Keisuke;Ishida, Soushi;Mineda, Kazuhide;Yamashita, Yutaro;Hashimoto, Ichiro
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 2018
  • Background The free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has been widely used for various kinds of reconstructions. However, delayed healing at the donor site occasionally occurs due to wound dehiscence or the partial loss of grafted skin at the donor site. The aim of the present study was to identify reliable predictive factors for delayed healing at the donor site after the harvest of a free ALT flap. Methods This study included 52 patients who underwent reconstructive procedures using free ALT flaps. The delayed healing group included patients with wounds at the donor site that had not healed over 3 weeks after surgery, and the normal healing group included patients who showed wound healing within 3 weeks after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression models were created to identify the risk factors for delayed healing at the ALT flap donor site. Results Among the 52 patients, 24 (46.2%) showed delayed healing at the donor site, and 6 patients required additional operative treatment. A high preoperative body mass index (BMI), smoking, and skin grafting were found to be significantly associated with delayed healing at the ALT donor site. Of the 37 patients who underwent skin grafting, 23 (62%) experienced delayed healing at the donor site. Conclusions A high preoperative BMI, smoking, and skin grafting were risk factors for delayed healing at the free ALT donor site. Skin grafting at the ALT donor site should be avoided in patients with a high BMI or a habit of smoking.

Validation of Serum Aminotransferases Levels to Define Severe Dengue Fever in Children

  • Srivastava, Geetika;Chhavi, Nanda;Goel, Amit
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.289-296
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We aimed to study the pattern of liver-injury in children with dengue fever (DF) and validate serum aminotransferase ${\geq}1,000IU/L$ as a marker of severe DF. Methods: Children admitted with DF were included. DF was defined by presence of clinical criteria and positive serological or antigen tests in absence of other etiology. DF severity was graded as dengue without or with warning signs and severe dengue. Liver-injury was defined as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) more than twice the upper limit of normal (boys, 30 IU/L; girls, 21 IU/L). Results: Of 372 children with DF, 144 (38.7%) had liver-injury. Risk of liver-injury and aminotransferase levels increased with DF severity (p<0.001). Recommended ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) cut-off at ${\geq}1,000IU/L$ had sensitivity 4.8% (5/105), specificity 99.3% (265/267) for detection of severe DF. In children with ALT and AST <1,000 IU/L (n=365), the area under receiver operating curves for prediction for severe DF, were 0.651 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.588-0.714; p<0.001) for ALT and 0.647 (95% CI, 0.582-0.712; p<0.001) for AST. Serum ALT at 376 IU/L and AST at 635 IU/L had sensitivity and specificity comparable to ${\geq}1,000IU/L$ for defining severe DF. Conclusion: Liver-injury is common in DF. The ALT and AST levels increase with DF severity. ALT and AST levels of ${\geq}1,000IU/L$ could be lowered to 376 IU/L and 635 IU/L respectively for defining severe DF.

Synthesis and Light-Emitting Properties of Phenyl-Thiophene-Based Alternating Copolymers Synthesized by Heck Coupling Reaction

  • Shim, Hong-Ku;Taek Ahn;Lee, Hye-Young;Lee, Jeong-Ik
    • Macromolecular research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.116-121
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    • 2001
  • A series of poly(1,4-phenylenevinylene-alt-3-alkyl-2,5-thienylenevinylene)s (alkyl = hexyl [PPV-alt-6-TV] and octyl (PPV-alt-8-TV] group) have been synthesized by the Heck coupling reaction. These polymers were characterized using $^1$H-NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TCA). They are solvent processible and have obviously copolymeric structure. The photophysical properties of the polymers were investigated using UV-visible and steady-state photoluminescence(PL) spectroscopy. We studied the change of light-emitting properties by incorporating the thiophene group into the PPV polymer backbone using alternating copolymer system. The properties of two synthesized polymers are very similar, but they exhibited apparent changes of light-emitting properties compared with other PPV backbone based polymers. The broad absorption bands from 350 to 570 nm are due to $\pi$-$\pi$* transitions of the polyconjugated systems. The absorption maxima of the two polymers were found at about 452 and 448 nm for PPV-alt-6-TV and PPV-alt-8-TV, respectively. The copolymers showed broad PL spectra between 550 and 700 nm without vibronic bands and PL emission maxima of PPV-alt-6-TV and PPV-alt-8-TV are about 620 and 605 nm, respectively. The copolymers exhibited the red emission (PPValt-6-TV), but more red shifted emissions are needed to obtain real red color.

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Development of Galileo E5 Signal Receiving Software for AltBoc Signal Modulation (AltBOC 변조 특성을 활용한 Galileo E5 신호 수신 소프트웨어 개발)

  • Jeon, Sang-Hoon;So, Hyoung-Min;Lee, Taik-Jin;Kim, Ghang-Ho;Jeon, Seung-Il;Kim, Chong-Won;Kee, Chang-Don;Lee, Sang-Uk;Kim, Jae-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.855-862
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    • 2009
  • This paper contains the signal receiving algorithm for Galileo E5 AltBOC signal and the development of Galileo E5 signal receiving software. The software runs the process from signal acquisition to extracting measurement data to get navigation solution. It uses logged IF data file as an input. In signal acquisition stage, 1ms and delayed 1ms data are used for reducing correlation ross from secondary code and navigation bit conversion. Signal tracking stage is made of two stages which are coarse tracking and fine tracking. It is for taking advantage of AltBOC characteristic and resolving ambiguity problem due to BOC modulation. The functions of software are verified by signal processing using logged IF data from commercial GNSS simulator.

Effect of ${\alpha}$-Interferon 2b on Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with High Serum ALT (급상승된 혈청 ALT치를 나타낸 만성 B형 간염 환자에 대한 ${\alpha}$-Interferon 2b의 치료 효과)

  • Lee, Heon-Ju;Song, Young-Doo
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 1998
  • 만성 B형 간염 환자에서 Interferon (IFN) 치료 후 혈청 HBeAg 소실 및 anti-HBe의 양전율을 높이고 효율적인 치료의 근거를 알기 위하여 치료 전 간기능검사상 갑자기 상승한 혈청 ALT치를 나타낸 환자군과 그렇지 않은 대조군을 대상으로 하여 IFN을 투여한 군과 IFN 치료없이 정상 HBeAg의 자연 소실을 보인 환자군을 임상적으로 장기간 관찰하고 조사하였다. ALT치가 정상 상한치의 4배 이상 높이 증가되어 3개월 이상 왕복을 보인 40명의 환자(A군)와 ALT치가 정상 상한치의 3배 이하로 증가된 10명(B군)에게 ${\alpha}$-IFN 2b를 매일 300만 단위 피하주사로 3~12개월 주사하였다. 대조군으로는 ALT치가 A군처럼 장승한 45명 (C군)이었으며, IFN 치료없이 평균 2.9년을 관찰하였다. HBeAg/anti-HBe 혈청 양전율은 A군 68%, B군 20%, C군 13%이었으며 IFN 치료 중단 후 1년까지의 HBeAg 재양성율은 A군에서 29%였고 HBeAg이 소실된 A와 B군의 38명중에서 6명에서 HBV DNA가 양성이었다. 6명중 4명은 HBeAg/anti-HBe 양전을 보였으나 HBV DNA 양성이었고 나머지 2명은 HBeAg, anti-HBe 및 HBV DNA (hybridization) 모두 음성이었으나 중합효소연쇄반응검사상 HBV DNA 양성이었다. 이상의 결과를 보면 비록 IFN 치료 후에 HBeAg이 소실되었다가 다시 양성화되더라도 IFN은 단기간내에 혈중 HBeAg이나 DNA가 자연적으로 감소가 될 환자나 그렇지 않은 환자에게도 HBV의 비증식화를 유발하여 도움이 될 것으로 사료된다. 그러나 IFN 투여 후에도 혈중 HBeAg과 DNA 소실에 전혀 도움이 되지 않을 환자 및 HBV 증식 억제효과가 기대되는 HBV 간질환 환자의 조건, IFN 투여량, 기간 등에 대한 계획적이고 체계적인 연구로 더 나은 치료효과를 기대할 수 있으리라 생각된다.

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