• Title, Summary, Keyword: ALT

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A replication study of genome-wide CNV association for hepatic biomarkers identifies nine genes associated with liver function

  • Kim, Hyo-Young;Byun, Mi-Jeong;Kim, Hee-Bal
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.9
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    • pp.578-583
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    • 2011
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are biochemical markers used to test for liver diseases. Copy number variation (CNV) plays an important role in determining complex traits and is an emerging area in the study various diseases. We performed a genome-wide association study with liver function biomarkers AST and ALT in 407 unrelated Koreans. We assayed the genome-wide variations on an Affymetrix Genome-Wide 6.0 array, and CNVs were analyzed using HelixTree. Using single linear regression, 32 and 42 CNVs showed significance for AST and ALT, respectively (P value < 0.05). We compared CNV-based genes between the current study (KARE2; AST-140, ALT-172) and KARE1 (AST-1885, ALT-773) using NetBox. Results showed 9 genes (CIDEB, DFFA, PSMA3, PSMC5, PSMC6, PSMD12, PSMF1, SDC4, and SIAH1) were overlapped for AST, but no overlapped genes were found for ALT. Functional gene annotation analysis shown the proteasome pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, programmed cell death, and protein binding.

AltMV TGB1 Nucleolar Localization Requires Homologous Interaction and Correlates with Cell Wall Localization Associated with Cell-to-Cell Movement

  • Nam, Jiryun;Nam, Moon;Bae, Hanhong;Lee, Cheolho;Lee, Bong-Chun;Hammond, John;Lim, Hyoun-Sub
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.454-459
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    • 2013
  • The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to form homologous interactions. The helicase domains of AltMV TGB1 were separately mutated to identify which regions are involved in homologous TGB1 interactions. The yeast two hybrid system and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) in planta were utilized to examine homologous interactions of the mutants. Helicase motif I of AltMV TGB1 was found to be critical to maintain homologous interactions. Mutations in the remaining helicase motifs did not inhibit TGB1 homologous interactions. In the absence of homologous interaction of TGB1, subcellular localization of helicase domain I mutants showed distinctively different patterns from that of WT TGB1. These results provide important information to study viral movement and replication of AltMV.

Effect of Drinking and Smoking on AST and ALT Activities (음주(飮酒) 및 흡연(吸煙)이 Aminotransferase 활성치(活性値)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Doo-Hie;Seo, Seol
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.329-339
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    • 1988
  • The study is carried out to investigate the effect of drinking and smoking for the activities of aspartate aminotransferase(AST, or GOT) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT or GPT), from December 25, 1986 to April 30, 1987. The male physical examinees for employment, 900 who had visited to the Taegu Medical Center were subjected. And the positive cases of HBs-Ag, Anti-HBs and skin test for Clonorchis sinensis were excluded. The general characters of drinking and smoking pattern were introduced by interview with questionnaire provided for. In drinking cases, the longer duration was significantly effected the higher rate of abnormality in AST and ALT level. But the amount and the frequency were not. It was not appeared effects by mackgulri which is a Korean traditional wine and small amount of beers. In smoking cases, also same pattern. The age was related in all cases. By the way, when the effect is related the positive results with other factors: HBs-Ag, Anti-HBs, skin test for Clonorchiasis and harmful occupational history, it is higher abnormal rate of AST and ALT in the duplicated cases with two factors or more. Particularly in HBs-Ag positive cases, those who had smoking was the highest in rate of abnormality, and drinking was the follows. In correlation matrix among seven factors; HBs-Ag, age, drinking amount, drinking period, drinking frequency, smoking amount and smoking period, correlation coefficient was significant between the abnormal rate and to with age, drinking period, smoking period, and smoking amount.

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Reliability Design of the Hinge Kit System in Common Refrigerator Under Repetitive Load (상용 냉장고에서 반복 하중을 받는 힌지 키트 시스템(HKS)의 신뢰성 설계 연구)

  • Woo, Seong-woo;Lee, Jongkil
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.312-324
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    • 2008
  • To improve the newly designed HKS(hinge kit system) in common refrigerators, it was investigated the new robust methodologies. There were the study of failure modes, mechanisms in the marketplace, and the design parameters of HKS with various improvements using accelerated life testing. Based on the claimed marketplace product returns and 1st ALT reproduction, the fracturing and cracking occur in the housing of the HKS. The missing design parameters of the failed HKS in the design phase of the refrigerator was the housing hinge kit structure. The corrective action plans are the modifications of the housing hinge kit structure from the open supporting to all supporting structure. Based on 2nd ALTs, the fracturing and cracking occur in the torsion shaft. The missing design parameter was the roundness of torsion shaft. After a sequence of ALT testing, the levels of the missing design parameters were setup. The yearly failure rate and B1 life of the redesigned HKS, based on the results of ALT, were over 0.01 percent and 10 years, respectively. The parameter design through the inspection of the failed product, load analysis, and three rounds of ALT, was very effective in the new robust design methodologies of the mechanical system and this method can be applied to other design system.

Miscibility and Properties of Ethyl-Branched Polyethylene/Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Blends( I ) (에틸 가지화된 폴리에틸렌과 에틸렌-프로필렌 고무 블렌드의 혼화성와 물성( I ))

  • Cho, Ur-Ryong
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.169-176
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    • 2001
  • Ethyl-branched polyethylene[PE(2)] containing 2mole% ethyl branch and three ethylene-propylene rubbers(EPR's) haying the same ethylene(E)-propylene(P) molar ratio(E/P=50/50) with different stereoregularity, that is, random EPR(r-EPR), alternating-EPR(alt-FPR) and isotactic-alternating-EPR(iso-alt-EPR) were mixed for the investigation of their properties depending on the stereoregurarity. The three blends were immiscible at room temperature, and showed the simple additivity effect in density behavior. The melting point depression with blend composition increased in order of PE(2)/r-EPR>PE(2)/alt-EPR>PE(2)/iso-alt-EPR. In the tensile test, this blend systems have the lowest value or the breaking strength at FE(2) fraction of 0.5. This phenomenon results from the greastest separated phase morphology at this blend composition.

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Association between Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Urosepsis in Children with Acute Pyelonephritis

  • Kim, Dongwan;Lee, Sung Hyun;Tchah, Hann;Ryoo, Eell;Cho, Hye Kyung;Kim, Yun Mi
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urosepsis in children with acute pyelonephritis (APN). Methods: We retrospectively identified all children who were managed in our hospital with APN during a decade period. In our study a diagnosis of APN was defined as having a positive urine culture and a positive (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. We compared those with elevated ALT and those with normal ALT according to the following variables: age, gender, duration of fever prior to admission, presence of hypotension, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, presence of anemia, white blood cells count, platelet count, blood culture result, and grades of vesicoureteral reflux. In addition, the correlation between elevated ALT and positive blood culture was analyzed in detail. Results: A total of 996 children were diagnosed with APN, of which 883 were included in the study. ALT was elevated in 81 children (9.2%). In the analysis of demographic characteristics, the number of children with elevated ALT was higher in children between 0 to 3 months, boys, and in those with positive blood culture (p=0.002, 0.036, and 0.010, respectively). In multivariate analysis of variables associated with positive blood culture, age younger than 3 months, elevated ALT, elevated CRP, and elevated creatinine showed statistical significance (p=0.004, 0.030, 0.043, and 0.044, respectively). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the association between elevated ALT and increased prevalence of urosepsis in addition to elevated CRP, elevated creatinine, and age younger than 3 months in children with APN.

The Clinical Usefulness of Serum Aminotransferase Activities for Predicting Fatty Liver in Obese Children (비만아에서 지방간의 예측 인자로서 혈청 Aminotransferase의 임상적 유용성)

  • Lim, Seon-Woong;Jeon, Myeong-Won;Park, Sin-Ae;Choi, Kyeong-Dan
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.174-182
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as an important childhood liver disease, especially where the prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The purpose of this study is to clarify the usefulness of elevated serum aminotransferase activities and their ratio for predicting the presence of fatty liver and its severity in obese children. Methods: Forty-four children (M/F 29/15, age 4 to 16 years) with obesity (weight excess>20%) were analyzed retrospectively with medical records based on degree of obesity, bioelectrical impedence, serum aminotransferase activities, lipid profiles and ultrasonography. Results: 1) Ultrasonography was carried out in 34 cases. Elevated serum ALT was found in 89.7% (26/29) of the patients diagnosed as fatty liver by ultrasonography and decreased AST/ALT ratio (<1) was found in 96.6% (28/29). There was a strong correlation between elevated serum ALT (>45 IU/L) or decreased AST/ALT ratio (<1) and the fatty liver in obese children (p<0.05). 2) There was no significant correlation between the serum ALT or AST/ALT ratio and the degree of fatty liver (p>0.05). 3) There was a significant correlation between total cholesterol, triglyceride and fatty liver (p<0.05). Conclusion: Serum ALT activity and AST/ALT ratio were useful to predict the presence of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography in obese children, whereas they were not useful to predict the degree of fatty liver. Therefore, to prevent fatty liver progressing to advanced liver disease, it is necessary to manage and monitor the obese children continuously, especially those who have predicting factors of fatty liver.

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Design of Accelerated Life Tests and Small Sample Study under Continuous and Intermittent Inspections for Lognormal Failure Distribution (수명이 대수정규분포를 따를 때 연속 및 간헐적 검사하에서 가속수명시험의 설계와 소표본 연구)

  • Seo, Sun-Keun;Chung, Won-Kee
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.177-196
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, statistically optimal accelerated life test(ALT) plans considering statistical efficiency only and new compromise ALT plans to sacrifice some statistical efficiency in return for improved overall properties including estimobility probability and robustness for the model assumptions are developed under the assumptions of constant stress, intermittent inspection, Type I censoring and lognormal failure distribution which has been one of the popular choices of failure distributions in the extensive engineering applications of ALT. Computational experiments are conducted to compare with four ALT plans including two proposed ones under continuous and intermittent inspections over a range of parameter values in terms of asymptotic variance, sensitivities for guessed input values, and proportion of estimable samples, etc. The small and moderate sample properties for the proposed ALT plans designed under asymptotic criterion are also investigated by Monte Carlo simulation.

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Metabolic Syndrome Related with Serum Biochemical Factors Affecting Serum GGT at Transitional Ages in Gumi

  • Seok, Seong-Ja
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2010
  • This study has been done with 1,431 subjects who visited Health Promotion Centers of the hospitals in Gumi for National Health Screening Program for People at Transitional Ages from April to December 2007. Serum biochemical tests related with metabolic syndrome were performed. Among biochemical factors related with metabolic syndrome, the mean values of serum glucose, AST, ALT, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol except LDL cholesterol were significantly higher in males than in females, so a significant difference by sex was observed (P<0.001). AST, ALT, triglyceride and HDL were thought to be significantly affecting serum GGT for males. In contrast, ALT and HDL cholesterol were important factors for females (P<0.001). For both sexes, serum glucose and LDL cholesterol did not produce any meaningful effect on serum GGT. In males AST, ALT and HDL cholesterol were associated with high risk of abnormality of serum GGT and in females AST, ALT and LDL cholesterol were related with high risk of abnormality of serum GGT. Therefore, AST and ALT showed a significant effect on abnormality of serum GGT in both males and females. It was observed that males exhibited significantly high correlation between metabolic syndrome related biochemical factors and serum GGT than females, and their influence on abnormality of serum GGT was also higher in males than in females. Therefore, serum GGT tests performed for health screening are considered to be useful for managements of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome as well as liver function test.

Enhanced Certificate with User's Privacy Protection Methods (프라이버시 보호 기능이 추가된 인증서 프로화일에 관한 연구)

  • Yang Hyung kyu
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.30 no.4C
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    • pp.290-295
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    • 2005
  • When a Certification Authority (CA) issues X.509 public-key certificate to bind a public key to a user, the user is specified through one or more subject name in the 'subject' field and the 'subjectAltName' extension field of a certificate. The 'subject' field or the 'subjectAltName' extension field may contain a hierarchically structured distinguished name, an electronic mail address, If address, or other name forms that correspond to the subject. In this paper, we present the requirements for certificate holder's privacy protection and propose the methods to protect the user's privacy information contained in the 'subject' field or the 'subjectAltName' extension field of a public-key certificat