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Levels of Plasma Glucose and Lipid in Rats Fed Bread Supplemented with Natural Extracts (천연추출물이 첨가된 식빵을 섭취한 흰쥐의 혈당 및 지질수준에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Se-Wook;Han, Ah-Ram;Chun, Su-Hyun;Nam, Mi-Hyun;Hong, Chung-Oui;Kim, Bok Hee;Kim, Tae Cheol;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 2016
  • In this study, 4-week-old rats were fed bread supplemented with Terminalia chebula (TC), Plantago asiatica (PA), Linder obtusiloba (LO), and Capsosiphon fulvescens (CF) ethanol extracts, to determine the decrease in blood glucose levels, as well as the anti-inflammatory and lipid-enhancing effects. Previous studies have demonstrated the antioxidative effects of these ethanol extracts. After sacrifice, the liver tissue, whole blood, and serum samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The results showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, HbA1c level, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p<0.05) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level in rats fed bread supplemented with LO and CF ethanol extracts (p<0.05). Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate that bread supplemented with LO and CF ethanol extracts can potentially affect the blood glucose level and lead to lipid enhancement.

Effect of Diet Containing Whole Wheat Bread with Capsosiphon fulvescens and Lindera obtusiloba Ethanol Extracts on Plasma Glucose and Lipid Levels in Rats (매생이와 생강나무잎 에탄올 추출물이 첨가된 통밀빵을 섭취한 랫트의 혈당과 지질수준에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Ah-Ram;Kim, Se-Wook;Chun, Su-Hyun;Nam, Mi-Hyun;Hong, Chung-Oui;Kim, Bok Hee;Kim, Tae Cheol;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.178-186
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    • 2016
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of whole wheat bread with added Lindera obtusiloba (LO) and Capsosiphon fulvescens (CF) ethanol extracts on serum glucose and lipid levels in Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were divided into five groups depending on the diet administered: normal bread (NC), whole wheat bread (W), whole wheat bread with LO leaves extract (WL), whole wheat bread with CF extract (WC), and whole wheat bread with freeze-drying CF (WDC). After 4 weeks of consuming the experimental diet, the blood glucose level and hemoglobin A1c contents were found to be significantly lower in the W, WL, WC, and WDC groups than in the NC group. The high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels increased in the WL group when compared to those in the NC group and triglycerides levels decreased in all wheat groups compared to those in the NC group. These results suggest that wheat breads containing LO and CF extracts are effective for preventing hypercholesterolemia and obesity.

Effects of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. on Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidative Activities in Rats Fed a High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet (갯기름나물이 고지방-고콜레스테롤 식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 지질대사 및 항산화 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Hee-Kyoung;Kang, Su-Tae;Lee, Jae-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.641-649
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. (PJT) powder on lipid metabolism and antioxidative activity in rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: normal diet group (N), high-fat/high-cholesterol group (HFC), high-fat/highcholesterol with 5% PJT powder (HFC-PBL), and high-fat/high-cholesterol with 10% PJT powder (HFC-PBH). Body weight gain and food efficiency ratio (FER) increased in the HFC group, whereas they gradually decreased in the PJT powder-fed groups. Food intake was not significantly different between the experimental groups. Liver and adipose tissue weights of the HFC group were heavier than that of the N group, whereas the groups fed PJT powder showed gradual reduction of tissue weights. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity significantly decreased after PJT powder administration. Serum triglyceride level significantly decreased in groups fed PJT powder compared to the HFC group. The serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) level of the HFC group increased by 73.70% than that of the N group, whereas serum high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) tended to decrease in groups fed PJT powder compared to the HFC group. Levels of triglycerides in epididymal and mesenteric adipose tissues, as well as cholesterol levels in liver and adipose tissues were lower in the groups fed 10% PJT powder compared to the HFC group. The liver glutathione (GSH) level increased in the groups fed PJT powder compare to the HFC group. The liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content significantly decreased in the groups fed PJT powder compared to the HFC group. These results suggest that PJT powder may improve lipid metabolism in the serum, liver, and adipose tissue and prevent oxidative stress by stimulating antioxidative systems in rats fed a high fat-high cholesterol diet.

Protective effects of Gastrodia rhizoma and steamed & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma with anti-oxidant efficacy and suppression of NFκB signaling pathway on LPS-induced liver injury (LPS로 유발한 간손상 마우스에서 항산화 및 항염증 효능을 통한 천마와 증숙 발효 천마의 간보호 효과)

  • Kim, Hyoung-Jin;Kwon, O Jun;Lee, Ah Reum;Roh, Seong-Soo;Seo, Young-Bae
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2016
  • This study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Gastrodiae rhizoma and steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury in the mice model. Sample was selected to GR0F0 (not processed gastrodia rhizome) and GR6F4 (fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae before steamed and dried 6 times) based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and High-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups - Normal group, vehicle group (LPS treated), GR0F0 group (fed GR0F0 before LPS treated) and GR6F4 group (fed GR6F4 before LPS treated) with 6 mice in each group. GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group were fed each extract 200 mg/kg/day during 8 days. LPS 20 mg/kg injected to the experimental groups as abdominal injection. We measured aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amino-transferase in serum. GR0F0 and GR6F4 showed a significant decrease compared to the vehicle group. As a result of measuring the ROS, GR6F4 group showed a significant reduction in both the serum and liver tissues compared to the vehicle group. GR0F0 group showed a significant reduction only in the liver tissues. Activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and Inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly decreased GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group. But tumor necrosis factor alpha only showed a significant reduction in GR6F4 group. GR0F0 and GR6F4 groups against liver damage in mice with LPS. That showed significant effects on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory action. The effects of GR6F4 group showed superior results compared to GR0F0 group. Therefore, Steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodia rhizoma was might have a protective effect on liver injury.

Effect of Fermented Water Extracts from Ligularia fischeri on Hepatotoxicity Induced by D-Galactosamine in Rats (D-Galactosamine 투여 랫트에서 곰취 열수 추출 발효물이 간 독성 저하에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, Keun-Hyung;Lee, Sun-Yeop;Yang, Hyun-Mo;Ham, Young-Ahn;Lee, Soo-Ung;Chae, Seoung-Wan;Lee, Yong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1422-1430
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of fermented water extracts from Ligularia fischeri (LAF) on reduction of hepatotoxicity induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN) in rats. In this experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used as experimental animals, which were divided into eight groups: normal group, D-GalN-treated group (control), D-GalN and non-fermented water extracts from Ligularia fischeri (LA)-treated groups [100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW (body weight)], and D-GalN and LAF-treated groups (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg BW). ${\gamma}$-Glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities in serum of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups decreased significantly compared to those of the control group (P<0.05). The high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups increased significantly compared to those of the control group (P<0.05). The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride levels of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups decreased significantly compared to those of the control group (P<0.05). The atherogenic index values of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups decreased significantly compared to those of the control group (P<0.05), and their high density lipoprotein cholesterol by total cholesterol ratio increased significantly in these groups (P<0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity of liver tissues were enhanced significantly (P<0.05) in the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups compared to that of the control group (P<0.05), whereas their malondialdehyde content decreased significantly in these groups (P<0.05). The histopathological observations revealed apoptotic cells and mild portal inflammation in liver tissues of the D-GalN and LAF-treated groups. Taken together, these results demonstrate that LAF may improve plasma lipid profile and alleviate hepatic damage.

Effects of Ojeoksangamibang on the Lipid Metabolism, Anti-oxidation and Concentration of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Rat Fed High Fat Diet (오적산가미방(五積散加味方)이 고지방식이 유도 비만쥐의 지질대사, 항산화계 및 전염증성 cytokine 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, In-Pyo;Park, Won-Hyung;Cha, Yun-Yeop
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.23-40
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study was designed to examine the effects of extracts of Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) on the lipid lowering, anti-oxidation and concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and was investigated on hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Male rats weighing $182.39{\pm}4.71g$ were fed high fat diet for 8 weeks and 36 rats(above 400 g) were divided into 4 groups. Each of 9 rats was divided a control group and experimental groups. We fed a control group of rats a basal diet and administered normal saline(100 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. And we fed each experimental group of rats basal diet and administered an extract of Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) extracts(100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 1 time/1 day) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to determine their chemical composition. We measured lipid of plasma and liver, concentration of proinflmmatory cytokines, anti-oxidative activity and $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B, Apo-E and leptin gene expression. Results: 1. Concentration of plasma free fatty(FFA) showed no significant difference in all the treatment groups. Concentration of plasma triglyceride(TG) showed a significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. 2. Concentration of plasma total cholesterol showed a significant decrement in the 200 and 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. Concentration of plasma low density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol showed a Significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. Concentration of plasma high density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol showed a significant increment in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group. 3. Concentration of liver total cholesterol showed a tendence to decrease in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups. Concentration of liver TG showed a significant decrement in all Ojeoksangamibang groups than that of control group. 4. Concentration of plasma and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBARS) showed a tendence to decrease in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups. 5. The values of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) activity showed a significant increment in all Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups than that of control group. 6. The values of plasma aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) activity showed no significant different in all treatment group. 7. Concentration of plasma $interleukin(IL)-1{beta}$ showed no significant difference in all the treatment groups. Concentration of plasma IL-6 showed a significant decrement in the 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group than that of control group. Concentration of plasma tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}(TNF-{\alpha})$ a siginifant decrement in the 200 and 300 mg/kg in Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) group than that of control group. However the concentration of plasma IL-10 in the 300 mg/kg Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a significant increment than that of control group. 9. In the analysis of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), gene expression of $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B and Apo-E in the Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a lower expression than that of control group. However the gene expression of leptin showed no difference in the treatment groups. 10. The ratio of $TNF-{\alpha}$, Apo-B, and Apo-E per ${\beta}-actin$ expression in the Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) groups showed a significant decrement than that of control group. However The ratio of leptin expression per ${\beta}-actin$ expression showed no significant difference among all the treatment groups. Conclusions: According to above results, in lowering lipid effect, anti-oxidation and control of pro-inflammatory cytokines production, Ojeoksangamibang($W{\check{u}}j\bar{i}s\check{a}nji\bar{a}w\grave{e}if\bar{a}ng$) gives effect.

Clinical Analysis of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections by Influenza Virus in Children (인플루엔자 바이러스에 의한 소아 급성 호흡기 감염증의 유행 및 임상 양상)

  • Kwon, Min Kyoung;Kim, Mi Ran;Park, Eun Young;Lee, Kon Hee;Yoon, Hae Sun;Kim, Kwang Nam;Lee, Kyu Man
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.1519-1527
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Although influenza virus is one of the most important causes of acute respiratory tract infections(ARTIs) in children, virus isolation is not popular and there are only a few clinical studies on influenza in Korea. We evaluated the epidemiologic and clinical features of ARTIs by influenza virus in children. Methods : From February 1995 to August 2001, nasopharyngeal aspirations were obtained and cultured for the isolation of influenza virus in children admitted with ARTIs. The medical records of patients with influenza virus infection were reviewed retrospectively. Results : Respiratory viruses were isolated in 997(22.0%) out of 4,533 patients examined, and influenza virus was isolated in 164 cases(3.6%). Influenza virus was isolated year after year mainly from December to April of next year. The ratio of male and female was 1.9 : 1 with a median age of 15 months. The most common clinical diagnosis of influenza virus infection was pneumonia, and fever and cough developed in most patients. There was no difference between influenza A and B infection in clinical diagnoses and symptoms. All patients recovered without receiving antiviral treatment except for one patient diagnosed with pneumonia who had underlying disease of Down syndrome with ventricular septal defect. Conclusion : ARTIs caused by influenza virus developed every winter and spring during the period of study. Because fatal complication can develop in the high risk group, prevention, early diagnosis and proper management of influenza should be emphasized.

Effect of Mulberry Leaf Extract Supplement on Blood Glucose, Glycated Hemoglobin and Serum Lipids in Type II Diabetic Patients (상엽추출물이 제2형 당뇨병 환자의 혈당, 당화혈색소 및 혈청지질에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Jung-Hwa;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.549-556
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of mulberry leaf extract supplement on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin ($HbA_{1C}$) and serum lipids in type II diabetic patients, and also to assess safety in liver function after mulberry leaf extract supplement. The study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial and total 23 type II diabetic patients were divided into a MLE group taking 1,000 mg mulberry leaf extract supplement per day as experimental group and a placebo group taking 1,000 mg cellulose Powder supplement per day for 12 weeks. After 2 weeks of wash-out period, fasting blood glucose, $HbA_{1C}$, serum lipid levels and liver function test were analyzed before and after treatment of 12 weeks. The general baseline characteristics, nutrient intake and life style factors of study subjects were similar between two groups during intervention. The concentrations of fasting blood glucose and $HbA_{1C}$ (p<0.05) decreased significantly after mulberry leaf extract supplement in MLE group, while there were no changes found in placebo group. We also found it showed that mulberry leaf extract supplement for 12 weeks decreased significantly (p<0.05) the fasting blood glucose in poor fasting blood glucose group and $HbA_{1C}$ concentration in poor $HbA_{1C}$ group. The concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05) and triglyceride (p<0.01) decreased significantly in MLE group after 12 weeks of taking the supplement, while there were no changes found in placebo group. The mulberry leaf extract supplement for 12 weeks didn't show hepatotoxicity. These results suggested that mulberry leaf extract supplement could be effective in improving fasting blood glucose and $HbA_{1C}$ levels in the diabetic patients, specially having high concentrations of fasting blood glucose and $HbA_{1C}$ among type II diabetic patients.

The Hepatoprotective Effect of Active Compounds of Kochiae fructus on D-Galactosamine-Intoxicated Rats (지부자 활성성분이 D-Galactosamine 투여에 의한 흰쥐의 간손상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Na-Young;Lee, Jeong-Sook;Park, Myoung-Ju;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Seok-Hwan;Choi, Jong-Won;Park, Hee-Juhn
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.8
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    • pp.1286-1293
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the biological activity and hepatoprotective effect of various fractions and isolated compounds from Kochiae fructus (KF) extract on D-galactosamine (GaIN)-intoxicated rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, GaIN treated group (GaIN), GaIN plus KF methanol extract treated group (KFM 200-GaIN), GaIN plus KF butanol extract treated group (KFB 200-GaIN), GaIN plus momordin Ic treated group (Momordin Ic 30-GaIN) and GaIN plus oleanolic acid treated group (Oleanolic acid 30-GaIN). KFM (200 mg/kg BW), KFB (200 mg/kg BW), momordin Ic (30 mg/kg BW) and oleanolic acid (30 mg/kg BW) were orally administered once a day for 14 days. GaIN (400 mg/kg BW) was injected at 30 minutes after the final administration of the compounds. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were increased in the GaIN group compared to the control group and significantly lower in the KFB 200-GaIN, momordin Ic 30-GaIN and oleanolic acid 30-GaIN group than in the GaIN group. Hepatic lipid peroxide level was increased in the GaIN group compared to the control group and was lower in the KFM 200-GaIN, KFB 200-GaIN, momordin Ic 30-GaIN and oleanolic acid 30-GaIN group than in the GaIN group. Activities of xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase in liver were higher in the GaIN group than in the control group and were significantly decreased in the KFB 200-GaIN, momordin Ic 30-GaIN and oleanolic acid 30-GaIN group compared to the GaIN group. Hepatic glutathione, ${\gamma}$-glutamylcysteine synthetase and catalase activities were decreased in the GaIN group compared to the control group and were higher in the KFB 200-GaIN, momordin Ic 30-GaIN and oleanolic acid 30-GaIN group than in the GaIN group. Activities of hepatic glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in the GaIN group than in the control group and were improved in the KFM 200-GaIN, KFB 200-GaIN, momordin Ic 30-GaIN and oleanolic acid 30-GaIN group compared to the GaIN group. Therefore, the current results indicate that momordin Ic administration alleviated the GaIN-induced adverse effect through enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities.

Immunostimulntory Effects of Immu-Forte at 3 Months Post-Treatment in Mice (면역기능증강성 동암 바이오스 신물질에 대한 3개월간의 마우스 투여후의 면역학적 및 혈액학적 변화)

  • Jung Ji-Youn;Ahn Nam-Shik;Park Joon-Suk;Jo Eun-Hye;Hwang Jae-Woong;Lee Seoung-Hun;Park Jung-Ran;Kim Sun-Jung;Lee Yong-Geon;Jeong Yun-Hyeok;Chung Ji-Hye;Lee Soo-Jin;Lee Sang-Bum
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.118-122
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    • 2005
  • Immu-Forte (Dong-Ahm Bio's. Corp., Korea) was evaluated fir its effectiveness as a nonspecific immunostimulator in mice. The effects of Immu-Forte were determined by analysis of cytokines using ELISh and phenotype of leukocyte subpopulations using monoclonal antibodies specific to mouse leukocyte differentiation antigens and flow cytometry. CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, macrophages, IL-12 and IFN-r in Immu-Forte EX-treated middle dose group increased in 3 months posttreatment and were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of control at 3 months posttreatment. All T cells, all B cells, macrophages, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 in Immu-Forte EX-treated low dose uoup increased in 3 months posttreatment and were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of control at 3 months posttreatment. In the Immu-Forte soy-treated group, CD4 T cells, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 were significantly higher in high dose-treated group, and CD 4 T cell, macrophages, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 were significantly higher in middle dose-treated group, and all T cell, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 were significantly higher in low dose-treated group. In the Itnmu-Forte A-treated group, macrophages, m cells and IL-12 in high dose-treated group and all T cells, macrophages, NK cells, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12 in middle dose-treated group and NK cells in low dose-treated group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of control at 3 months posttreatment. In the Immu-Forte F-treated Group, all B cells, IL-4 and IL-12 in high dose-treated group and all T cells, aBl B cells, CD 4 T cells, CD8 T cells, macrophage, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-r in middle dose-treated group and NK cells and IL-12 in low dose-treated group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of control at 3 months posttreatment. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated that Immu-Forte had an immunostimulatory effect on mice through proliferation and activation of mouse immune cells.