• Title, Summary, Keyword: ALT

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Clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase and lifestyle intervention in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

  • Kwon, Kyoung Ah;Chun, Peter;Park, Jae Hong
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.9
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    • pp.362-367
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the effect of lifestyle intervention on NAFLD. Methods: The clinical data of 86 children diagnosed with NAFLD were reviewed retrospectively. Forty-six patients belonged to the elevated ALT group and 40 to the normal ALT group. The clinical parameters of patients with NAFLD were also compared based on the status of ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Results: Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) scores than those with normal ALT (P<0.05). Of all the patients with elevated ALT, 89% exhibited moderate or severe degree of fatty change in the liver on ultrasonographic examination, whereas most patients with normal ALT exhibited mild or moderate degree changes. Liver biopsy was performed in 15 children with elevated ALT and all showed mild histological changes. Of all patients with elevated ALT, 49% achieved normal ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Those with more severe histological changes tended to have continuously increasing ALT levels. There was no correlation between the normalization of posttreatment ALT level and BMI, as well as ultrasonographic findings at diagnosis. Conclusion: ALT elevation in NAFLD is highly associated with higher BMI scores and more severe degree of fatty changes on ultrasonographic examination. Lifestyle intervention can significantly improve ALT in children with NAFLD. The degree of histologic changes appears to be a predictor of the treatment response to NAFLD.

Cancellation of AltBOC Correlation Side-Peaks for Frequency Sharing in Satellite Communication Spectrum (위성통신대역 주파수 공유를 위한 AltBOC 상관 내 주변 첨두 제거 기법)

  • Chae, Keunhong;Yoon, Seokho
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.39B no.11
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    • pp.810-816
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    • 2014
  • The alternative binary offset carrier (AltBOC) signal shares frequency spectrum with the phase shift keying (PSK) signal, enabling us to manage the satellite communication spectrum more efficiently. However, the side-peaks in the AltBOC autocorrelation pose an ambiguity in the AltBOC signal tracking, and consequently, makes the frequency sharing via the AltBOC difficult. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a cancellation scheme of the AltBOC correlation side-peaks. From the numerical results, it is confirmed that the proposed scheme removes the ambiguity in signal tracking caused by the side-peaks completely, and thus, has a much lower tracking error standard deviation (TESD) (i.e., a much better tracking performance) than the conventional scheme.

Comparison Study of Air-conditioning Systems using LCC Analysis (LCC를 이용한 공조 방식별 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Joung-Kuk;Chung, Kwang-Seop;Kim, Young-Il
    • Transactions of the Korea Society of Geothermal Energy Engineers
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.12-18
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to make an economic analysis(Life cycle cost) of selecting optimal air conditioning system for a research building which is 8 stories with a total floor area of $32,010m^2$. Energy consumptions of three proposed air-conditioning systems(Alt-1,2,3) that reflect the government green-growth policy are calculated and compared. The results show that life cycle cost of Alt-3(Ventilation DX AHU+EHP) is less than Alt-1(EHP+ventilation DX AHU) by 5.1%, and Alt-2(Absorption chiller/heater+EHP) by 34.3%. Annual energy consumption of Alt-3 is less than Alt-1 by 9.9%, and Alt-2 by 37.4%. Annual $CO_2$ emission of Alt-3 is less than Alt-1 by 9.9%, and Alt-2 by 0.2%.

Implementation and Application of Integrated Model for ALT(Accelerated Life Test) (ALT 통합모형의 적용 및 응용)

  • Choi, Sung-Woon
    • Proceedings of the Safety Management and Science Conference
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2008
  • This paper presents the log likelihood function for integrated models for ALT such as exponential-general Eyring, Weibull-temperature and specific heat, lognormal-temperature and specific heat. Additionally this paper estimates the system reliability and mean time to failure(MTTF) for series, parallel, k of n, and standby system using ALT linkage parameter. Lastly this study designs three variable reliability acceptance sampling(RAS) plans such as type I, II censored test, sequential test by the use of integrated models for ALT.

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Design of ALT Control Chart for Small Process Variation (미세변동공정관리를 위한 가속수명시험관리도 설계)

  • Kim, Jong-Gurl;Um, Sang-Joon
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management and Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.167-174
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    • 2012
  • In the manufacturing process the most widely used $\bar{X}$ chart has been applied to control the process mean. Also, Accelerated Life Test(ALT) is commonly used for efficient assurance of product life in development phases, which can be applied in production reliability acceptance test. When life data has lognormal distribution, through censored ALT design so that censored ALT data has asymptotic normal distribution, $ALT\bar{X}$ control chart integrating $\bar{X}$ chart and ALT procedure could be applied to control the mean of process in the manufacturing process. In the situation that process variation is controlled, $Z_p$ control chart is an effective method for the very small fraction nonconforming of quality characteristic. A simultaneous control scheme with $ALT\bar{X}$ control chart and $Z_p$ control chart is designed for the very small fraction nonconforming of product lifetime.

Lamivudine Therapy Exacerbates Bilirubinemia in Patients Underlying Severely Advanced Hepatitis

  • Choi, Young Hee;Lee, Chang Ho;Ko, Myong Suk;Han, Hyun Joo;Kim, Sang Geon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2017
  • Lamivudine belongs to the set of antiviral agents effective against hepatitis B virus infection. Given case reports on liver injuries after certain antiviral agent treatments, this study examined the effects of lamivudine on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (TB) using a medical system database. A total of 1,321 patients taking lamivudine alone or with others were evaluated using laboratory hits in an electronic medical system at Seoul National University Hospital from 2005 through 2011. The patients were grouped according to prior ALT results: G#1, ALT < 40 IU/L; G#2, 40 IU/L ${\leq}$ ALT < 120 IU/L; G#3, 120 IU/L ${\leq}$ ALT < 240 IU/L; and G#4, ALT ${\geq}$ 240 IU/L. In G#1 and G#2 patients, lamivudine or adefovir treatment decreased ALT and TB compared to prior values. In G#3 and G#4 patients with three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) ${\leq}$ ALT < 15 times the ULN, both ALT and TB were decreased after treatment with lamivudine alone, or adefovir following lamivudine therapy, indicating that lamivudine therapy ameliorated liver functions. However, in G#4 patients who experienced severely advanced hepatitis (ALT ${\geq}$ 15 times the ULN, or ${\geq}$ 600 IU/L), lamivudine augmented TBmax ($6.3{\rightarrow}13.3mg/dL$) despite a slight improvement in ALT ($839{\rightarrow}783IU/L$), indicative of exacerbation of bilirubinemia. Patients who used adefovir after lamivudine also showed a high incidence of hyperbilirubinemia when they experienced severely advanced hepatitis. Treatment with adefovir alone did not show the effect. In conclusion, lamivudine may increase the risk of hyperbilirubinemia in patients with severely advanced hepatitis, implying that caution should be exercised when using lamivudine therapy in certain patient populations.

Relationship between the Lipid Accumulation Product Index and Alanine Aminotransferase in Korean Adult Men (한국 성인남성에서 Lipid Accumulation Product 지수와 Alanine Aminotransferase와의 관련성)

  • Shin, Kyung-A
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.374-381
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    • 2017
  • The LAP (lipid accumulation product) index is an indicator of excessive fat accumulation in combination with the fasting triglyceride concentration and waist circumference. This study examined the relationship between the LAP index and ALT (alanine aminotransferase) level and the effect of the LAP index on the ALT level. Cross-sectional studies were conducted on healthy adult males without a history of liver disease. From January 2015 to June 2017, 13,854 adults between 20 and 70 years of age, who underwent health screening at a general hospital in Gyeonggi-do, were enrolled in this study. The LAP index was calculated as [waist circumference (cm)-65]${\times}$[triglyceride (mmol/L)] for males. Serum ALT abnormalities were set at 40 IU/L or more in males. All subjects underwent measurements of the anthropometric indicators and physiological examinations. A significant increase in ALT with increasing LAP quintiles was observed (p<0.001). The LAP index correlated with ALT (r=0.238, p<0.001). Insulin (r=0.449, p<0.001) and HDL-cholesterol (r=-0.369, p<0.001) were strongly correlated with LAP. In addition, the LAP index is a factor affecting the ALT level (p<0.001). As the LAP index increased, the risk of an elevated ALT was higher (p<0.001). In conclusion, the LAP index was a predictor of an ALT elevation in Korean men.

Diagnosis of Fatty Liver Complicated by Simple Obesity in Children: Serum ALT and Its Correlation with Abdominal CT and Liver Biopsy (소아의 단순성 비만증에 의한 지방간의 진단: ALT치와 복부 전산화단층촬영 및 간생검 소견간의 상관관계)

  • Lee, Seong-Hee;Kim, Hwa-Jung;Oh, Jae-Cheol;Han, Hae-Jeong;Kim, Hee-Sup;Tchah, Hann;Park, Ho-Jin;Shin, Mi-Keong;Lee, Min-Jin;Lee, Sang-Chun
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.153-163
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: The purpose of our study is to provide useful information for diagnostic methods of fatty liver by childhood simple obesity and to provide correlation between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) for screening test and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) and liver biopsy for confirmative diagnostic methods of fatty liver. Methods: Among 78 obese childrens who visited our hospital, CT was carried out in 26 childrens. Of these, liver biopsy was carried out in 15 childrens who had high obesity index or severe elevated ALT. Based on the level of serum ALT, 26 cases were classified into 3 groups, and compared with physical measurements and degree of fatty infiltration on CT and liver biopsy. Results: 1) Correlation between ALT and physical measurements: Of 26 obese children, ALT was abnormally elevated (>30 IU/L) in 17 cases (67.4%) but there was no significant correlation between ALT and physical measurements (p>0.05). 2) Correlation between degree of fatty infiltration on CT and ALT: Of 26 cases, 13 cases (50%) revealed fatty liver on CT. The degree of fatty liver on CT had significant correlation with elevation of ALT (p<0.05). 3) Correlation between the degree of fatty infiltration on liver biopsy and ALT: Liver biopsy was performed in 15 cases of which 14 cases revealed fatty liver. But one case had normal hepatic histology with severe obesity and normal ALT. Fourteen fatty liver cases on liver biopsy were classified into 3 groups by the degree of fatty infiltration and analysed with obesity index and ALT. The histologic hepatic steatosis had no significant correlation with obesity index (p>0.05), but significant correlation with ALT (p<0.05). 4) Correlation between CT and liver biopsy finding: Both CT and liver biopsy were performed in 15 cases of which 6 cases revealed normal finding on CT and 9 cases manifested fatty liver. There was significant correlation between CT and liver biopsy findings (r=0.6094). Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that abdominal CT and liver biopsy are useful and accurate methods of estimating fatty liver in the childhood obesity. But biochemical abnormalities of routine liver function tests dot not correlate well with severity of the fatty liver and liver injury.

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The Correlation between ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Value and Prevalence of Anti-HEV (ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) 검사성적과 E형 간염항체 양성률간의 관련성)

  • 곽준석;옥치상
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.13 no.3_4
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 1998
  • In order to elucidate the prevalence of anti-HEV, anti-HCV and HBsAg in ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase)-elevated patient group and healthy person control group, we examined anti-HEV, anti-HCV and HBsAg in 92 persons, respectively. The prevalence of anti-HEV in ALT-elevated patient group (4.3%) was not significantly higher than that (2.2%) of healthy person control group(P>0.05). While in healthy person control group the prevalence of anti-HEV in female (2.4%) was higher than that (2.0%) in male, and in ALT-elevated group male (4.8%) was higher than female (3.3%), there were no significances. The positive rate of anti-HEV was not significantly increased with age between healthy person control and ALT-elevated patient group. The odds ratio's of HEV, HCV and HBV with ALT-elevated patient group were 2.05 (95% CI: 0.31-16.54), 8.67 (95% CI: 1.06-188.63) and 7.23 (95% CI: 2.47-22.71), respectively, but had no significance. It was turned out that HCV and HBV were significantly correlated with ALT-elevated patient group, but HEV had no significance with it in this paper.

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Vertical Distribution of Forest Types on the North - western Slope of Mt. Paektu (백두산 서북사면 삼람의 수직분포)

  • Chang, Nam-Kae;Sun-Kyung Lee;Hye-Ryun Kwon
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.435-448
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    • 1991
  • Mt. paektu(altitude 2,749.6m) is ecologically important because successional processes following volcanic eurption are quite clear. We investigated plant communities with altitude know vertical distribution of plant vegetation on the north-western slope of Mt. paektu was divided into five parts; the pine-hardwood forest zone(600∼1,000m alt.), the lower coniferous forest zone (1,000∼1,500 m alt.), the upper coniferous forest and birch forest zone(1,500∼2,000 m alt.), the alpine shrub zone(2,000∼2,500 m alt.) and the alpine meadow zone(2,500∼2,749 m alt.). In particular, the alpine zone was divided into alpine shrub and alpine meadow zones and distributed up to 2,500m alt. these results reflet the adaptations of these shrubs at this altitude. But these shrubby communities disappeared on the alpinemeadow zone. In the alpine meadow zone above than 2,500m alt., some meadows, papaver radicatum var pscudoradicatum. bistorta ochotensis, chrysathemum zawadskii var. latilobum etc., were occured.

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