• Title, Summary, Keyword: AIDS

Search Result 2,593, Processing Time 0.059 seconds

An Intervention Study on Integration of Family Planning and Maternal/Infant Care Services in Rural Korea (가족계획과 모자보건 통합을 위한 조산원의 투입효과 분석 -서산지역의 개입연구 평가보고-)

  • Bang, Sook;Han, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Chung-Ja;Ahn, Moon-Young;Lee, In-Sook;Kim, Eun-Shil;Kim, Chong-Ho
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.165-203
    • /
    • 1987
  • This project was a service-cum-research effort with a quasi-experimental study design to examine the health benefits of an integrated Family Planning (FP)/Maternal & Child health (MCH) Service approach that provides crucial factors missing in the present on-going programs. The specific objectives were: 1) To test the effectiveness of trained nurse/midwives (MW) assigned as change agents in the Health Sub-Center (HSC) to bring about the changes in the eight FP/MCH indicators, namely; (i)FP/MCH contacts between field workers and their clients (ii) the use of effective FP methods, (iii) the inter-birth interval and/or open interval, (iv) prenatal care by medically qualified personnel, (v) medically supervised deliveries, (vi) the rate of induced abortion, (vii) maternal and infant morbidity, and (viii) preinatal & infant mortality. 2) To measure the integrative linkage (contacts) between MW & HSC workers and between HSC and clients. 3) To examine the organizational or administrative factors influencing integrative linkage between health workers. Study design; The above objectives called for quasi-experimental design setting up a study and control area with and without a midwife. An active intervention program (FP/MCH minimum 'package' program) was conducted for a 2 year period from June 1982-July 1984 in Seosan County and 'before and after' surveys were conducted to measure the change. Service input; This study was undertaken by the Soonchunhyang University in collaboration with WHO. After a baseline survery in 1981, trained nurses/midwives were introduced into two health sub-centers in a rural setting (Seosan county) for a 2 year period from 1982 to 1984. A major service input was the establishment of midwifery services in the existing health delivery system with emphasis on nurse/midwife's role as the link between health workers (nurse aids) and village health workers, and the referral of risk patients to the private physician (OBGY specialist). An evaluation survey was made in August 1984 to assess the effectiveness of this alternative integrated approach in the study areas in comparison with the control area which had normal government services. Method of evaluation; a. In this study, the primary objective was first to examine to what extent the FP/MCH package program brought about changes in the pre-determined eight indicators (outcome and impact measures) and the following relationship was first analyzed; b. Nevertheless, this project did not automatically accept the assumption that if two or more activities were integrated, the results would automatically be better than a non-integrated or categorical program. There is a need to assess the 'integration process' itself within the package program. The process of integration was measured in terms of interactive linkages, or the quantity & quality of contacts between workers & clients and among workers. Intergrative linkages were hypothesized to be influenced by organizational factors at the HSC clinic level including HSC goals, sltrurture, authority, leadership style, resources, and personal characteristics of HSC staff. The extent or degree of integration, as measured by the intensity of integrative linkages, was in turn presumed to influence programme performance. Thus as indicated diagrammatically below, organizational factors constituted the independent variables, integration as the intervening variable and programme performance with respect to family planning and health services as the dependent variable: Concerning organizational factors, however, due to the limited number of HSCs (2 in the study area and 3 in the control area), they were studied by participatory observation of an anthropologist who was independent of the project. In this observation, we examined whether the assumed integration process actually occurred or not. If not, what were the constraints in producing an effective integration process. Summary of Findings; A) Program effects and impact 1. Effects on FP use: During this 2 year action period, FP acceptance increased from 58% in 1981 to 78% in 1984 in both the study and control areas. This increase in both areas was mainly due to the new family planning campaign driven by the Government for the same study period. Therefore, there was no increment of FP acceptance rate due to additional input of MW to the on-going FP program. But in the study area, quality aspects of FP were somewhat improved, having a better continuation rate of IUDs & pills and more use of effective Contraceptive methods in comparison with the control area. 2. Effects of use of MCH services: Between the study and control areas, however, there was a significant difference in maternal and child health care. For example, the coverage of prenatal care was increased from 53% for 1981 birth cohort to 75% for 1984 birth cohort in the study area. In the control area, the same increased from 41% (1981) to 65% (1984). It is noteworthy that almost two thirds of the recent birth cohort received prenatal care even in the control area, indicating that there is a growing demand of MCH care as the size of family norm becomes smaller 3. There has been a substantive increase in delivery care by medical professions in the study area, with an annual increase rate of 10% due to midwives input in the study areas. The project had about two times greater effect on postnatal care (68% vs. 33%) at delivery care(45.2% vs. 26.1%). 4. The study area had better reproductive efficiency (wanted pregancies with FP practice & healthy live births survived by one year old) than the control area, especially among women under 30 (14.1% vs. 9.6%). The proportion of women who preferred the 1st trimester for their first prenatal care rose significantly in the study area as compared to the control area (24% vs 13%). B) Effects on Interactive Linkage 1. This project made a contribution in making several useful steps in the direction of service integration, namely; i) The health workers have become familiar with procedures on how to work together with each other (especially with a midwife) in carrying out their work in FP/MCH and, ii) The health workers have gotten a feeling of the usefulness of family health records (statistical integration) in identifying targets in their own work and their usefulness in caring for family health. 2. On the other hand, because of a lack of required organizational factors, complete linkage was not obtained as the project intended. i) In regards to the government health worker's activities in terms of home visiting there was not much difference between the study & control areas though the MW did more home visiting than Government health workers. ii) In assessing the service performance of MW & health workers, the midwives balanced their workload between 40% FP, 40% MCH & 20% other activities (mainly immunization). However, $85{\sim}90%$ of the services provided by the health workers were other than FP/MCH, mainly for immunizations such as the encephalitis campaign. In the control area, a similar pattern was observed. Over 75% of their service was other than FP/MCH. Therefore, the pattern shows the health workers are a long way from becoming multipurpose workers even though the government is pushing in this direction. 3. Villagers were much more likely to visit the health sub-center clinic in the study area than in the control area (58% vs.31%) and for more combined care (45% vs.23%). C) Organization factors (admistrative integrative issues) 1. When MW (new workers with higher qualification) were introduced to HSC, it was noted that there were conflicts between the existing HSC workers (Nurse aids with less qualification than MW) and the MW for the beginning period of the project. The cause of the conflict was studied by an anthropologist and it was pointed out that these functional integration problems stemmed from the structural inadequacies of the health subcenter organization as indicated below; i) There is still no general consensus about the objectives and goals of the project between the project staff and the existing health workers. ii) There is no formal linkage between the responsibility of each member's job in the health sub-center. iii) There is still little chance for midwives to play a catalytic role or to establish communicative networks between workers in order to link various knowledge and skills to provide better FP/MCH services in the health sub-center. 2. Based on the above findings the project recommended to the County Chief (who has power to control the administrative staff and the technical staff in his county) the following ; i) In order to solve the conflicts between the individual roles and functions in performing health care activities, there must be goals agreed upon by both. ii) The health sub·center must function as an autonomous organization to undertake the integration health project. In order to do that, it is necessary to support administrative considerations, and to establish a communication system for supervision and to control of the health sub-centers. iii) The administrative organization, tentatively, must be organized to bind the health worker's midwive's and director's jobs by an organic relationship in order to achieve the integrative system under the leadership of health sub-center director. After submitting this observation report, there has been better understanding from frequent meetings & communication between HW/MW in FP/MCH work as the program developed. Lessons learned from the Seosan Project (on issues of FP/MCH integration in Korea); 1) A majority or about 80% of the couples are now practicing FP. As indicated by the study, there is a growing demand from clients for the health system to provide more MCH services than FP in order to maintain the achieved small size of family through FP practice. It is fortunate to see that the government is now formulating a MCH policy for the year 2,000 and revising MCH laws and regulations to emphasize more MCH care for achieving a small size family through family planning practice. 2) Goal consensus in FP/MCH shouBd be made among the health workers It administrators, especially to emphasize the need of care of 'wanted' child. But there is a long way to go to realize the 'real' integration of FP into MCH in Korea, unless there is a structural integration FP/MCH because a categorical FP is still first priority to reduce the rate of population growth for economic reasons but not yet for health/welfare reasons in practice. 3) There should be more financial allocation: (i) a midwife should be made available to help to promote the MCH program and coordinate services, (in) there should be a health sub·center director who can provide leadership training for managing the integrated program. There is a need for 'organizational support', if the decision of integration is made to obtain benefit from both FP & MCH. In other words, costs should be paid equally to both FP/MCH. The integration slogan itself, without the commitment of paying such costs, is powerless to advocate it. 4) Need of management training for middle level health personnel is more acute as the Government has already constructed 90 MCH centers attached to the County Health Center but without adequate manpower, facilities, and guidelines for integrating the work of both FP and MCH. 5) The local government still considers these MCH centers only as delivery centers to take care only of those visiting maternity cases. The MCH center should be a center for the managment of all pregnancies occurring in the community and the promotion of FP with a systematic and effective linkage of resources available in the county such as i.e. Village Health Worker, Community Health Practitioner, Health Sub-center Physicians & Health workers, Doctors and Midwives in MCH center, OBGY Specialists in clinics & hospitals as practiced by the Seosan project at primary health care level.

  • PDF

EVALUATION OF SERUM LEVELS OF SYSTEMIC STATUS IN ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY PATIENTS (구강악안면 수술을 받은 환자들에서의 전신영양평가)

  • Kim, Uk-Kyu;Kim, Yong-Deok;Byun, June-Ho;Shin, Sang-Hun;Chung, In-Kyo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
    • /
    • v.29 no.5
    • /
    • pp.301-314
    • /
    • 2003
  • The purposes of this retrospective study were to assess the change of serum parameters in oral and maxillofacial surgery patients after operation and to determine what laboratory parameters on treatment periods were associated with the recovery of systemic condition. For purposes of assessing systemic nutritional status, several serum parameters were chosen. The sample patients were randomsubjects extracted from three category patient groups- oral cancer, odontogenic abscess, facial bone fracture based on treated patients at department of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Pusan National University Hospital from September 1, 1998, to September 1, 2002. Each groups were consisted with 10 patients. Each patient chart was examined and blood sample parameters were reviewed with clinical signs, symptoms and vital sign at preoperative day, postoperative 1 day, postoperative 1 week. Several parameters were analyzed statistically for extraction of mean values and differences between the periods groups. The findings of serum parameters of cancer, abscess and fracture groups were as follows: 1. In cancer patients, Hb, MCV, albumin, cholesterol, LDH, AST, ALT, neutrophil, platelet, leukocyte, Na, K, Cl, BUN, creatinine were analyzed. Values of Hb, albumin, AST, neutrophil, leukocyte, Cl showed significantly differences according to periods. 2. In abscess patients, CRP, ESR, leukocyte, body temperature, neutrophil were analyzed. Values of CRP, leukocyte, body temperature, neutrophil showed significanlty differences according to periods. 3. In fracture patients, same parameters with cancer patient's were chosen. Values of platelet, Cl only showed significantly differences according to periods. 4. In cancer patients, data regarding correlation was analyzed statistically as Pearson's value. A positive correlation was found between Hb and albumin, K, Na(P<0.05). A positive correlation was also found between neutrophil and leukocyte(P<0.05). Positive correlations were found between cholesterol and ALT, LDH and platelet, creatinine both, Platelet and BUN, Na and K(P<0.01). 5. In abscess patients, Peason's correlation values were analyzed on parameters. A positive correlation was found only between CRP and neutrophil(P<0.05). 6. In fracture patients, The correlations of parameters also were statistically analyzed. Positive correlations were found between MCV and K, albumin and LDH, AST and three parameters of creatinine, Na, Cl, K and neutrophil, neutrophil and three parameters of leukocyte, BUN, K(P<0.05). Positive correlations were found between LDH and AST, ALT and AST, creatinine both(P<0.01). This retrospective clinical study showed the CRP levels only on abscess patients may be useful in determination of clinical infected status, but the levels of other parameters on cancer, fracture patients did not showed significant values as diagnostic aids for clinical status.

A Survey on the Hearing Disturbance of High School Students in Korea (한국고교생(韓國高校生)에 대(對)한 난청실태조사(難聽實態調査))

  • Rhee, Kyu-Shik;Kim, Doo-Hie
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.115-123
    • /
    • 1972
  • As a link of chain study program of school health, a survey was made up by the screening test with audiometry for hearing disturbance on 18,675 high school students who are mainly aged in 15-19 years from November 5.1969 to October 30. 1970. The results obtained were summerized as follows. According to our criteria as table 3, the rates of the profound, the severe and the moderate who required the appropriate hearing aids were 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.14% respectively:-the cumulative percentage was 0.197. When the marginal, 0.23% should be included the cumulative rate was 0.41%. But there was no-significance by sex and school classes. If we will make the special classes for them one class would be estimated out of 10,000 persons when a class is formed with about 15 persons. Otherwise when we examined that according to each ear of persons, the rates of the profound, the severe and the moderate were 0.17%, 0.22% and 0.33% respectively and their cumulative percentage wag 0.72. There was no significance also by sex and age. By the way, the rate of hearing disturbance in urban high school students tended to lower than rural. And the perceptive disturbance was higher than rural in rate. The conductive disturbance tended to oppose in comparison with the above.

  • PDF

THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS TETRACYCLINE HCL CONCENTRATION TREATED ROOW SURFACES ON PROLIFERATION AND SPREADING OF PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT CELLS (다양한 농도의 테트라사이클린로 처리된 치근면이 치주인대세포의 증식과 전개에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Oh-Chul;Sun, Jo-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
    • /
    • v.24 no.3
    • /
    • pp.581-596
    • /
    • 1994
  • This in vitro study was undertaken to obtain optimal tetracycline concentration that aids proliferation and spreading of human periodontal ligament cells, for clinical application in root surfaces of periodontally diseased teeth. Periodontal ligament cells used in this study were obtained from explants of periodontal ligament of 1st premolar teeth which were extracted for the purpose of orthodontic treatment. The cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium(DMEM) supplemented with 100 U/ml penicillin, $100\;{\mu}g/ml$ streptomycin and 10% FBS at $37^{\circ}C$, 100% humidity, 5% $CO_2-95%$ air. Cells were used between the third to 4th passage. After root planing of periodontally extracted teeth, the root slabs were cut with carborundum disk. In the cell proliferation experiment, experimental groups were root planing only group, immersed groups in 25, 50, 75, 100, 150mg/ml aqueous solution of Tetracycline HCl followed by a vigorous rinse in PBS. Human PDL cells at concentration of $1{\times}10^5\;cells/ml$ were seeded in each culture well which contained root slabs and incubated for 6 hours. Then, all of the root slabs were moved into new 24 culture well and incubated 24, 48 and 72 hours. The cell counting was done by inverted phase contrast microscope after trypsinization. The following results were obtained. The cell number was increased in order root planing only group, 25, 150, 50, 75, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 24, 48 and 72 hours. The maximal cell number was obtained when the root slabs were immersed in solution with 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl. There were statistically significant between the root planing only group and 75, 100 mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 24 hours, between the root planing only group and 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 48 hours, between the root planing only group and 50, 75, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group, between 25 and 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated group in 72 hours(p<0.05). In the cell spreading experiment, after 30 minutes of incubated, in the root planing only group, the cells were generally round in shape. The cell surface was mostly covered with blebs. The cells started to attach to root surface by cytoplasmic extension in 50, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated groups, more numerous cells attached to root surface than root planing only group. Many orifices of dentinal tubule were exposed, cells showed radially spreaded cytoplasm and unspreaded central region of the cell was covered with blebs. After 6 hours of incubation, in the root planing only group, cells showed radially spreaded cytoplasm and were attached flat appearance. In 50, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated groups, cellular margin was concaved and cytoplasm showed elongated appearance with polarity. After 24 hours of incubation, in the root planing group, cells showed characteristic polarity. In 50, 100mg/ml of Tetracycline HCl treated groups, cells showed more elongated and spindle - like appearance.

  • PDF

Association between Genetic Polymorphisms of Milk Proteins and Milk Compositions in Holstein Cows (Holstein 종(種) 유우(乳牛)의 유단백질(乳蛋白質)의 유전적다형(遺傳的多型)과 유조성분간(乳組成分間)의 연관성)

  • Sang, Byong Chan;Lee, Jo Yoon;Choi, Jong Woo;Sung, Chang Keun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.56-67
    • /
    • 1993
  • To applying of genetic markers of milk proteins as dairy cow registration and selection aids for genetic improvement, genopypes controlling the 4 milk protein loci, ${\alpha}S1$-casein (${\alpha}S1$-CN), ${\beta}$-casein(${\beta}$-CN), ${\kappa}$-casein(${\kappa}$-CN), and ${\beta}$-lactoglobulin(${\beta}$-LG), from a total of 159 Holstein lactating cows reared at National Animal Breeding Station in 1992 were detected by polyacrylamide gel(PAGE) electrophoresis, and associations between genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins and milk compositions were analyzed. The observed distribution of phenotypes for ${\alpha}S1$-CN, ${\beta}$-CN, ${\kappa}$-CN and ${\beta}$-LG were agreement with those expected under the assumption of genetic equilibrium. The observed genotypic frequencies of the ${\alpha}S1$-CN BB, ${\beta}$-CN AA, ${\kappa}$-CN AA and ${\beta}$-LG AB genotypes were founded to be very high as 79.87%, 84.28%, 71.70% and 49.10%, respectively. Gene frequencies were 0.899 and 0.101 for ${\alpha}S1-CN^B$ and ${\alpha}S1-CN^C$, 0.921 and 0.079 for ${\beta}-CN^A$ and ${\beta}-CN^B$, 0.837 and 0.163 for ${\kappa}-CN^A$ and ${\kappa}-CN^B$, 0.378 and 0.622 for ${\beta}-LG^A$ and ${\beta}-CN^B$. According to the results of analysis of variance, the genotypes of the ${\alpha}S1-CN$, ${\beta}-CN$, ${\kappa}-CN$ and ${\beta}-LG$ were significantly difference for fat, protein and total solid percentage in milk compositions. On milk compositions, the ${\kappa}$-CN BB genotype was very high fat and protein percentage more than ${\kappa}$-CN AA and AB genotypes, and ${\beta}$-LG AA genotype was very high fat percentage more than ${\beta}$-LG AB and BB genotype at 5% level of significant difference, respectively. As a consequence, the fat and protein percentage may be improved to select to ${\kappa}$-CN BB and ${\beta}$-LG AA genotypes.

  • PDF

A Study on Health Awareness of Middle and High School Students in Yong Nam Area (영남지역(嶺南地域) 중고등학교학생(中高等學校學生)들의 보건의식행태조사(保健意識行態調査) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Hyung Nam;Nam, Chul Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
    • /
    • v.4 no.2
    • /
    • pp.119-135
    • /
    • 1991
  • The study was designed to gain necessary basic data order to grasp health knowledge, attitude, practice level of middle and high school students and to analyse th problem and to point out the method of improvement in the field of school health education. The survery was carried out through this reporter's interview for 2,400 students who attend to ten schools in Young Nam area during the period of a month from 25 the June to 25th July 1989. The result of this study can be summaried as follows. 1. The total number of answers on the question was 2,346. As for general characteristics the percent of female middle school students was 60.6% and the percent of male students was 77.7%, 45.9% of high school students was evening school students. 52.9% of middle school students and 42.3% of high school students were borne in rural area. 2. The percentage of unknown and misunderstanding for Epidemic Hepatitis infection was 46.3% of middle school students and 29.6% of high school students. 3. The percentage of unknown and misunderstanding for Epidemic Hemorrhage fever infection was 85.6% of middle school students and 66.9% of high school students. 4. The percentage of right knowledge for AIDS infection was 66.0% of middle school students and 90.4% of high school students. 5. The percentage of right knowledge for Typhoid infection was 47.8% of middle school students and 69.4% of high school students. 6. The percentage of unknown and misunderstanding for Tuberculosis infection was 71.6% of middle school students and 62.2% of high school students. 7. As for personal hygiene, the percentage of toothbrushing after every meal was high level : 44.2% of middle school students and 42.0% of high school students. 8. 60.9% of middle school students take a bath twice a week, 49.2% oh high school students take a bath a week. Times of bath of middle school students was higher than that of high school students. 9.The percentage of washing hand after using toilet was 42.1% of middle school students and 35.1% of high school students. 49.0% of middle school students and 55.1% of high school students wash hand sometimes after using toilet. 10. The percentage of change of underwear twice a week was 57.6% of middle school students and 49.8% of high school students. 11. The percentage of habit of unbalanced diet was 30.% of middle school students and 27.6% of high school students. 50.8% of middle school students and 51.7% of high school students have balanced diet. 12. Index of health practice of personal hygiene can be summarized as follows. A. A case of middle school students. 1) The percentage of health practice index in male and female was 49.6% and 48.1% respectively. Index of female students was higher than that of male students. 2) As for parent's occupation, public servants and company emplyee was upper level. Farming was low level. 3) As for income level, middle, level with 56.5% was highest in high income level and low level with 27.4% was highest in low income level. B. A case of high school students. 1) Middle level of health practice index was 46.0% of male students, upper and low level was 32.4% and 28.0% of female students respectively. 2) Middle level of health practice index was high in farming and company employee and upper level was high in commerce and service, low level with 60.0% was high in unemployed. 3) Upper practice index 35.7% appears in the rich and low practice index 38.3% appears in the poor. 13. Average points of Health practice about personal hygiene were as follows. (Full marks at 4). A. A case of middle school. Female (1.87 point) was higher than male (1.26 point). Night time (2.03 point) was higher than day time (1.66 point) and middle or small cities (2.17 point) are high than any other places. As for parent's occupation, students whose parents are company clerk get high marks (2.32) and ten students whose parent's job are service get next high marks (2.20). B. A case of high school. Female (1.53 point) was higher than male (1.22 point), as parents educational level were higher the point were higher, and as income level was higher, the points of health practice (1.78) were higher, and as for parents occupation, service get highest point (1.93) and commerce get next high point (1.86) public servant get low point (1.66). 14. The percentage of experience in smoking was 11.9% of middle school students and 60.9% of high school students. 15. The percentage of experience in inhalation of bond and administrating LSD was 4.3% of male middle school students, 8.4% of female middle school students, 6.9% of male high school students and 4.2% of female high school students. The knowledge level of communicable disease infection are very low in middle and high school students and practice level of personal hygiene are also very low. As a whole we can evaluate that middle and high school students are low level of health knowledge and practice. In conclusion, we must consider preparation for school health education program through establishing of health subjects in the carriculum, and securing of health education teachers and using materials and media program of health education. It is very important to establish macroscopic policy and strategy for public health education and to get people have right knowledge and practice for health.

  • PDF

A Grounded theory Approach on the Experience of Sexual Abuse Victims (성폭력 피해여성의 경험에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyung-Hee;Nam, Sun-Young;Chee, Soon-Ju;Kwon, Hye-Jin;Chung, Yeon-Kang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.77-98
    • /
    • 1996
  • This studies designed to work out a theoretical framework on the experience of sexual abuse from the perspective of grounded theory in an effort to provide more practical and efficient nursing intervention for female victims. The subcategories identified were "sexual abuse", "threatening", "absent mindness", "embarrassment", "horripilation", "dizziness", "wondrousness", "filthiness", "sexual curiosity", "violence level", "victim's age", "neighbors response", "victims personality", "common experience", "sexual abuse information", "family relations", "level of familiarity", "hiding", "suppression", "self-torture", "self-protection", "avoidance", "asking aid", "withdrawal", "hatred", "confusion", "dodging, "remmant", and "pursuing". The 29 subcategories given above were further integrated into 16 categories such as "victimizedness", "being astounded", "filthiness", "degree", "developmental stage", "response pattern", "personality", "rarity", "information availability", "family support", "cover-up", "escaping", "informing", "negative internalization", and "positive pursuit of change". The core categories linked to all the other categories turned out to be "being taken aback" and "filthiness" incorporating the relevant subcategories. A total of 23 theoretical hypothesis emerged in the process of analyzing data. 1. the grater sexual curiosity, the weaker the senses of being taken aback and filthiness. 2. The weaker sexual curiosity, the stronger the senses of being taken aback and filthiness. 3. The stronger the level of violence, The more violent the senses of being taken aback and filthiness. 4. The lower the level of violence, the weaker the senses of being taken aback and filthiness. 5. The younger the victims, the stronger the senses of being taken aback and filthiness. 6. The older the victims, The weaker the senses of being taken aback and filthiness. 7. 'Escaping' will transpire regardless of the given circumstances. 8. The weaker the senses of being taken aback and filthiness, the more probable 'informing' and 'escaping' transpire. 9. The stronger the senses of being taken aback and filthiness, the more probable 'informing' and 'escaping' transpire. 10. The more protective the response from 'informing' and 'escaping' transpire around, the more likely the response to being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'informing' and 'escaping'. 11. The more repelling the response from around, the more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'covering-up' and 'escaping'. 12. The more open minded the personality of the subject, the more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'informing' and 'escaping'. 13. The more closed the personality of tile subject, the more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'covering-up' and 'escaping'. 14. The more frequent the experience of sexual abuse, the more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'informing' and 'escaping'. 15. The less frequent the experience of sexual abuse, the more lilely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'covering-up' and 'escaping'. 16. The more available information concerning sexual abuses, the more likely response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'informing' and 'escaping. 17. The less available information concerning sexual abuses, the more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'covering-up' and 'escaping'. 18. The more cohesive the family of the subject, the more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'informing' and 'escaping'. 19. The less cohesive the family of the subject, the more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'covering-up' and 'escaping'. 20. The less familiar the subject is with the abuser, the more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'informing' and 'escaping'. 21. The less familiar the subject is with the abuser, the more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' will be 'covering-up' and 'escaping. 22. The more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' is 'informing and 'escaping', the more positive changes the subject will pursue. 23. The more likely the response to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' is 'covering-up' and 'escaping', the more negative changes the subject will pursue. The following four hypotheses were conformed in the process of data analysis. 1) In case the level of violence is strong but 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' in weak because of strong sexual curiosity and also if information concerning sexual abuse is not readily available and the frequency is low, negative internationalization marked by 'covering-up' and 'escaping' will take place despite the fact the subject is open-minded, the family is cohesive and the abuser is unfamiliar. 2) In case the level of violence is weak but 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' is weak combined with weak sexual curiosity and also if information concerning sexual abuse is readily available and the response from around is protective and the frequency is high, the subject will pursue positive changes to 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness', further aided by the fact that the subject is open-minded, the family is cohesive and the abuser is unfamiliar. 3) In case the level of violence is strong and 'being taken abuse' and 'filthiness' is strong because of weak sexual curiosity and also if information concerning sexual abuse is reading available and the response from around is readily available and the response from around is protective and the frequency is low, the subject will persue positive changes marked by 'informing' and 'escaping' despite the fact that the family cohesion is weak and the abuser is familiar. 4) In case the level of violence is strong and 'being taken aback' and 'filthiness' is strong because of weak sexual curiosity and also if information concerning sexual abuse is not readily available and the response from around is respelling and the frequency is low negative internalization like 'covering-up' and 'escaping' will take place, further aggravated by the fact that the subject's personality is closed, family cohesion is weak, and subject is familiar. On the basis of the above finding, it is recommended that nursing intervention should focus on promoting the milieu conductive to the victims pursuing positive changes along with the adequate aids from protection facilities as well as from the people around them.

  • PDF

Development of Practical Problem-Based Home Economics Teaching.Learning Process Plans by Blended Learning Strategy - Focusing on a Unit 'the Youth and Consumer Life' - (Blended Learning(BL) 전략을 활용한 실천적 문제 중심 가정과 교수 학습 과정안 개발 - '청소년과 소비생활' 단원을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jin-Hee;Chae, Jung-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
    • /
    • v.20 no.4
    • /
    • pp.19-42
    • /
    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to develop practical problem-based home economics teaching.learning process plans about a unit 'the youth and consumer life' of middle school eighth-grade Technology and Home Economics by applying blended learning(BL) strategy. According to ADDIE instructional design model, this study was conducted in the following procedure: analysis, design/development, implementation, and evaluation. In the stage of design and development, the selected unit was converted into a practical problem-based unit, and practical problem-based teaching. learning process plans were designed in detail by using BL strategy. An online study room for practical problem-based home economics instruction grounded in BL strategy was prepared by using Edunet(http://community.edunet4u.net/${\sim}$consumer2). Eight-session lesson plans were mapped out, and study aids for students and materials for teachers were prepared. In the implementation stage, the first-session teaching plans that dealt with a minor question 'what preparations should be made to become a wise consumer' were utilized when instruction was provided to 115 eighth graders who were in three different province, and the other one was in a middle school in the city of Daejeon. The experimental teaching was implemented for two weeks in the following procedure: preliminary program, pre-online learning, main instruction and post- online learning. The preliminary program was carried out in a session in the classroom, and pre-online learning was provided before the main instruction was given in a session in the classroom. After the main instruction was completed, post-online learning was offered. In the evaluation stage, a survey was conducted on all the learners and teachers to find out their opinions and suggestions.

  • PDF

Analysis of Metadata Standards of Record Management for Metadata Interoperability From the viewpoint of the Task model and 5W1H (메타데이터 상호운용성을 위한 기록관리 메타데이터 표준 분석 5W1H와 태스크 모델의 관점에서)

  • Baek, Jae-Eun;Sugimoto, Shigeo
    • The Korean Journal of Archival Studies
    • /
    • no.32
    • /
    • pp.127-176
    • /
    • 2012
  • Metadata is well recognized as one of the foundational factors in archiving and long-term preservation of digital resources. There are several metadata standards for records management, archives and preservation, e.g. ISAD(G), EAD, AGRkMs, PREMIS, and OAIS. Consideration is important in selecting appropriate metadata standards in order to design metadata schema that meet the requirements of a particular archival system. Interoperability of metadata with other systems should be considered in schema design. In our previous research, we have presented a feature analysis of metadata standards by identifying the primary resource lifecycle stages where each standard is applied. We have clarified that any single metadata standard cannot cover the whole records lifecycle for archiving and preservation. Through this feature analysis, we analyzed the features of metadata in the whole records lifecycle, and we clarified the relationships between the metadata standards and the stages of the lifecycle. In the previous study, more detailed analysis was left for future study. This paper proposes to analyze the metadata schemas from the viewpoint of tasks performed in the lifecycle. Metadata schemas are primarily defined to describe properties of a resource in accordance with the purposes of description, e.g. finding aids, records management, preservation and so forth. In other words, the metadata standards are resource- and purpose-centric, and the resource lifecycle is not explicitly reflected in the standards. There are no systematic methods for mapping between different metadata standards in accordance with the lifecycle. This paper proposes a method for mapping between metadata standards based on the tasks contained in the resource lifecycle. We first propose a Task Model to clarify tasks applied to resources in each stage of the lifecycle. This model is created as a task-centric model to identify features of metadata standards and to create mappings among elements of those standards. It is important to categorize the elements in order to limit the semantic scope of mapping among elements and decrease the number of combinations of elements for mapping. This paper proposes to use 5W1H (Who, What, Why, When, Where, How) model to categorize the elements. 5W1H categories are generally used for describing events, e.g. news articles. As performing a task on a resource causes an event and metadata elements are used in the event, we consider that the 5W1H categories are adequate to categorize the elements. By using these categories, we determine the features of every element of metadata standards which are AGLS, AGRkMS, PREMIS, EAD, OAIS and an attribute set extracted from DPC decision flow. Then, we perform the element mapping between the standards, and find the relationships between the standards. In this study, we defined a set of terms for each of 5W1H categories, which typically appear in the definition of an element, and used those terms to categorize the elements. For example, if the definition of an element includes the terms such as person and organization that mean a subject which contribute to create, modify a resource the element is categorized into the Who category. A single element can be categorized into one or more 5W1H categories. Thus, we categorized every element of the metadata standards using the 5W1H model, and then, we carried out mapping among the elements in each category. We conclude that the Task Model provides a new viewpoint for metadata schemas and is useful to help us understand the features of metadata standards for records management and archives. The 5W1H model, which is defined based on the Task Model, provides us a core set of categories to semantically classify metadata elements from the viewpoint of an event caused by a task.

A study on the Awareness and Behavior about Sex of Middle School Students -from middle school students in Taegu area- (일부(一部) 중학생(中學生)의 성(性)에 대한 의식행태조사(意識行態調査))

  • Kim, Sang Ock;Nam, Chul Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.42-65
    • /
    • 1992
  • A survey was made of 976 students who were selected among students of 5 middle schools at Taegu so that it could furnish basic knowledge about sex education of adolescents by analyzing students recognition of sex, acquaintance with the opposite-sex, sex-education, The survery took a month from Nov. 1, to Nov 30, 1991. The results of this study are summarized as follows. 1. The general characteristics of the surveyed students. The survey consisted of 332 boys middle school student & 325 girls middle school students, 157 male & 162 female students of coeducational middle schools. 32.9% of them were from the first grade, 33.2% from the second grade & 33.9% from the third grade. 35.7% of them believed in Buddhism, 19% Christianism and the mode of their living standard, 86.7%, fell on 34.7% of their parents engaged in commerce and they were followed by salary man and public officals, 93.1 % of the students, parents were alive. 44.9% of their fathers were graduates of high school and 42.2% of their mothers middle school. 2. Sexual maturity 89.1 % of the surveyed girls had experienced menstruation. The mode of first menstruation, 48.2%, was at the age of 13 and the mean of it was 12.9, 3.7% the surveyed boys had exprienced a wet drem before. The mode of the first wet dream, 40.0%, was at the age of 14 and the mean was 13.4. 21.3% of surveyed students had the experience of masturbation but the number of girls fell far short of that boys. The mode of the first masturbation, 37.0%, was at the age of 14 and the mean was 13.4. 3. The acquaintance and sexual relations with the opposite sex 1) Analyzing the students actual conditions with the opposite, I found out that 52.3% of them wanted to have any kind of relations with the opposite and that 30.25 had already had some kind of relations. 73.2% of the students having relations with the opposite thought the other sex merely as a friend and the number of students who were thinking that way was distributed evenly among schools. 28.8% of the students had got acquainted with the other sex through their frieds and there were not much difference between boys and girls in the method of getting acquainated with the opposite. About 35.2% of the students having relations with the opposite came from the third grade. 47.8% of them answered that the meeting place was not fixed and 26.4% answered that they were meeting their parthers outdoors. 60.7% replyed that they were not disturbed in their studies by the relations with the other sex. 2) Most of the students 79.4%, answered that they had never had sexual relations and 16.3% of the rest said that thery were expressing their feelings by grasping each other's hand. 3) 16.6% of the surveyed students asid that they had the exprience of smoking, 1.1 % of an illusion caused by inhaling chemical addhesives, 44.0% of drinking and 41.4% of warching pornographic films. 4. The knowledge and attitude about the sex 1) The distribution and analysis according to schools and grades : 64.8% of the surveyed students answered correctly to the questions about mensturation, 49.3 % did so about wet dreams, 94.3 % did so about conception, 60.6% did so about child birth, 73.9% did so about AIDS and 50.1 % did so about sexual diseases. Roughly speaking, they had not much knowledge of sexual diseases. 2) The recognition of sex according to schools and grades : 39.0% of the students said that they had worries about sex. 33.1 % of what they worried was concerned with their bodies and 26.8% was about the acqaintance and relationship with the opposite sex. The girls were much more concerned about the former and the boys the latter. 51.1 % of the students asid that they had no specific opinion of masturbation but 19.2% said that's alright if self-restrained. About the sexual intercourse before marriage, 75.7% said negatively. 5. The need for sex education most of the students, 99.4% said they needed sex education and there was not much difference in that thought among schools. And 49.7% answered that schools, families, and societies were equlally important in sex education. About half of the students, exactly 50.2%. considered it as the main reason of sex education to prevent accidents cauesd by ignorance of sex. 81.4% said that they had had some kind of sex education. Most of the educations, 87.0%, had taken place at schools but 5.2% said they were getting most of the knowledge about sex from therir friednds, juniors and seniors. 59.5% of the students who had ever had a sex education said "Just so, so" when asked of the level of their contentment but the number of students who said "satisfied" was only a few, 16.1 %. 20.7% of the survered answered that thery wanted sex education to be made in the course of home life, and 26.6 % of the students most wanted to know about the acquaintance and relationship with the oppostie sex, 29.0% preferred nurse teachers as proper councellors of sex education. The mode of their present councellors, 42.0%, was friends but only 7.6% answered they dicussed with teachers. 6. The correlation analysis between general characteristcs and sexual behaviors of the surveyed students revealed that sex had a signigicant(P<0.001) positive correlation with parents' love toward students(P<0.01), the experience of masturbation, smoking, an illusion caused by inhaling chemical adhesives and the experience of watching pornographic films. And the standard of living had a significant(P<0.01) positive correlation(P<0.01) with grade point average, parents' existence(P<0.01) and parents' love, but a significant(P<0.01) negative correlation with sexual worries. grade point average had a significant(P<0.01)negative correlation with the experience of an illusion caused by chemical adhesives(P<0.01) and smoking. Parents' existence had significant(P<0.01) positive correlations with parents' love and smoking but a significant(P<0.01) negative correlation with the experience of an illusion by chemical adhesives. There was a significant(P<0.01) negative correlations between parents' love and the experience of an illusion by chemical adhesives, and a significant(P<0.001) positive correlation among masturbation and sexual worries, smoking, an illusion by chemical adhesives and the experience of watching pornographic films. There was a significant(P<0.001) positive correlation among acquaintance with the opposite sex, smoking, the experience of an illusion by chemical adhesives and watching pornographic films. Sexual worries had significant(P<0.01) positive correlations with smoking, the experience of an illusion by chemical adhesives and watching pornographic films. smoking had a significant positive correlation with drinking the experirence of, an illusion by chemical adhesives and watching pornographic films. Finally, there was a significant(P<0.01) positive correlation between the drinking experience and the illusion experience by chemical adhesives. According to the results mentioned above, the fact is certain that there is a great need for sex education of adolescents. Therefore, it is desirable that the schools teach sexual physiology and normal positively and that sex education including hygien education be an independant course in the curriculums. Furthermore, it is essential that the schools should have enough nurse teachers to take up sex education, expand training opportunities for them and that they develop educational materials. Considering the unbalance of the level of sex educations between boys and girls, I want to suggest that all boys and girls have sex education evenly and lead happy lives by correction irrational thought about sex, that is to say, sex discrimination, Sex education programs, especially of middle school students, should be reexamined if it is to give the students effective and profitable knowledge about sex. In addition, the government should establish a policy of adolescents' sex education to have healthy opinions of sex settled nationwide.

  • PDF