• Title, Summary, Keyword: ACTH

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Polymorphism of ACTH Released by Adenohypophysis of Fetal Rat during Perinatal Period (주산기 태아 흰쥐의 뇌하수체 전엽에서 분비되는 ACTH의 다형현상)

  • Kim, Hee-Seung;Chatelain, Alain
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.215-225
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    • 1985
  • 흰쥐의 태아에서 ACTH의 분비양상을 알아보기 위하여, 태아의 제태일수에 따라 혈장 및 뇌하수체 전엽에서 여러 분자형태의 ACTH를 방사면역측정법으로 측정하였다. 태아의 혈장 ACTH농도는 제태 19일에서 가장 높았으며 그후 계속 감소하여 출생후 1주에서 가장 낮은 값을 보였다. 출생 1주후부터 ACTH농도는 다시 증가하기 시작하여 출생후 21일에서는 거의 성체의 값에 도달하였다. 측정된 ACTH는 chromatogram상에서 항상 3가지 peak가 나타났다. 즉 'big'형 ('big' ACTH, $MW\approx44,000$), 'intermediate'형 ('intermediate' ACTH, $MW\approx13,000$)및 'little'형 ('little' ACTH, $MW\approx4,500$)으로 구분되었다. 임신말기 (제태기간 17일에서 21일 사이)에서 태아 혈장의 ACTH는 'little'형의 비율이 증가한 반면 'big'형의 비율은 감소하였다. 그러나 뇌하수체 전엽에서 분비된 ACTH는 3가지 형이 같은 비율이었다. 뇌하수체 전엽에서 분리한 'big'형의 ACTH를 시침관내에서 trypsin을 처리한 결과 'intermediate'형과 little'형이 출현하였다. 이 결과로 미루어 태아 흰쥐의 뇌하수체에서 분비된 ACTH가 순환도증 다른 형으로 전환될 수 있음이 시사된다.

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Influence of Panax Ginseng on Hepatic DNA Synthesis in Mice Receiving ACTH ( II ) (고려인삼이 ACTH를 받은 마우스의 간 조직 DNA 합성능에 미치는 영향(II))

  • Chang, Won-Sang;Hong, Yong-Ha;Kim, Kee-Yun
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.75-78
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    • 1974
  • It was planned to investigate, by observing incorporation of $[^3H]$ thymidine into liver cells, the influence of Panax Ginseng upon hepatic DNA synthesis in mice that received ACTH. Thirty male mice $(body\;weight:\;18{\sim}20\;g)$ were divided equally into the ginseng-ACTH and the saline-ACTH groups. Each animal of the ginseng-ACTH and the saline-ACTH groups received every day (subcutaneously) 0.05 m1/10 g body weight of ginseng extract (4 mg of ginseng alcohol extract in 1 ml of saline) and the same amount of saline, respectively, for 5 days. On the 5th experimental day, all animals received 0.01 unit of ACTH intraperitoneally one hour. after the last medication, and $1{\mu}Ci/g$ body weight of $[^3H]$ thymidine after one more hour. Five animals, at a time, of each group were sacrificed 1, 10, and 24 hours after thymidine administration, and their hepatic radioactivity was measured autoradiographically in terms of the % number of radioactive cells in 1,000 cell counts (Radioactive Index, R.1.). Following results were obtained: 1. The hepatic radioactive indices obtained from the saline-ACTH group 1, 10, and 24 hr after $[^3H]$ thymidine administration were $1.50{\pm}0.32,\;2.16{\pm}0.33\;and\;2.79{\pm}0.31\;(mean{\pm}S.D.)$, respectively. 2. The corresponding values obtained from the ginseng-ACTH group $(2.71{\pm}0.22,\;3.85{\pm}0.29,\;and\;5.06{\pm}0.31)$ were significantly higher than the values of the saline-ACTH group. It is inferred from the above results that the ginseng tends to prevent reduction in hepatic DNA synthesis caused by ACTH administration.

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The Effect of Exam Stress and Vitamin B Complex on Plasma ACTH, Cortisol and Prolactin Level (시험 스트레스와 Vitamin B 복합제가 혈장 ACTH, Cortisol 및 Prolactin치에 미치는 영향)

  • Koh, Kyung-Bong
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 1996
  • The study was designed to find out the effect of exam stress and vitamin B complex on hormones such as plasma ACTH, cortisol and prolactin. 21 medical students completed the whole period of the study. Global assessment of recent stress(GARS) scale and SCL-90-R were used to measure stress perception and psychopathology. Radioimmunoassay was used to assess plasma ACTH, cortisol and prolactin. Plasma ACTH level was significantly higher 2 weeks prior to examination and exam period, respectively, than 4 weeks prior to the exam. However, there were no significant differences in plasma cortisol and prolactin level among the three periods. No significant differences were also found in plasma ACTH, cortisol and prolactin level between vitamin and non-vitamin groups during each period. Scores of stress perception in economic area significantly had a positive correlation with plasma ACTH and prolactin level, respectively, 2 weeks prior to the exam. In psychopathology, scores of hostility subscale significantly had a Positive correlation with plasma ACTH level. There were no significant differences in change of each of the hormones over time as well as between vitamin and non-vitamin groups. In conclusion, it was found that ACTH was more sensitive to exam stress than cortisol or prolactin, and that vitamin B complex had no significant influence on ACTH, cortisol and prolactin level.

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Preanalytical Stability of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Depends on Time to Centrifugation (전혈에서 시간과 온도에 따른 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone의 안정성 평가)

  • Shin, Sun-Young;Lee, Hyun-Joo;Min, Gyung-Sun;Lee, Ho-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.116-119
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    • 2009
  • Background: Preanalytical factors can affect reliability of hormone assay results. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in blood is considered highly unstable because of proteolytic degradation, so storage of blood samples on ice until analysis is recommended. In clinical practice, however, this procedure may present logistical problems because most samples for ACTH measurement must be shipped from the place of sample collection to the laboratory. Therefore, we studied the impact of time and temperature before plasma separation and analysis on the results of ACTH assays. Methods: A total number of 22 patients were enrolled in this study. We obtained 2 blood samples. ACTH concentrations were 35~126 pg/mL. ACTH concentrations were measured by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using commercial kits (CIS Biointernational, Gif-sur-Yvette, France). Results: ACTH levels showed a significant difference between the samples of $22^{\circ}C$ EDTA and $4^{\circ}C$ EDTA. Measured ACTH concentrations significantly decreased with time before freezing at $-20^{\circ}C$. ACTH levels showed no significant difference between the groups of after storage for 24 hr without centrifugation at $22^{\circ}C$ and $4^{\circ}C$. Conclusion: We recommend that blood samples be obtained on pre-chilled EDTA collection tubes. The shortest possible time between sample collection and processing is always the best laboratory practice.

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Active Immunization against Adrenocorticotropic Hormone in Growing-Finishing Barrows: An Initial Trial and Evaluation

  • Lee, C.Y.;Baik, K.H.;Jeong, J.H.;Lee, S.D.;Park, J.K.;Song, Y.M.;Kim, Y.S.;Sohn, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.410-415
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    • 2002
  • Adrenal glucocorticoids, secreted by the stimulus of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), are catabolic hormones in the pig. The present study was conducted to find whether active immunization against ACTH would suppress cortisol secretion accompanied by an increased growth rate in growing-finishing barrows. ACTH was conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin or human histone using glutaraldehyde or 3-maleimidobenzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide, under a 2 (ACTH vs no hapten)${\times}$2 (carrier)${\times}$2 (crosslinker) factorial arrangement of treatments. Cross-bred barrows weighing approximately 25 kg were injected with an ACTHcarrier or carrier only conjugate every 4th wk and slaughtered at approximately 110 kg body weight. Antibodies against ACTH were detected in serum, as determined by $[^{125}I]$ACTH-binding activity, in most animals immunized against the ACTH conjugate, but not in carrier only-injected animals, except for the animals which had received the hapten conjugated to histone via glutaraldehyde. The $[^{125}I]$ACTH-binding activity of serum increased after the second booster injection, but overall ACTH antibody titer was very low. Main effect was not detected not only for the carrier and crosslinker but for the hapten in serum cortisol concentration, ADG, loin muscle area, backfat thickness and longissimus muscle composition including fat and protein. In addition, bound $[^{125}I]$ACTH percentage had no relation to cortisol concentration or to any of the above growth-related variables. Results suggest that ACTH or its conjugates used in the present study were not immunogenically potent enough to affect the glucocorticoid secretion and thus the growth of the immunized pigs.

Effects of the Anabolic Steroid, Nandrolone Pheylpropionate, on Growth and Muscle Protein Metabolism in ACTH-treated Rats (ACTH를 투여한 흰쥐에서 아나보릭스테로이드인 Nandrolone Phenylpropionate가 성장한 근육단백질 대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 주종재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.874-880
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    • 1996
  • The effects of an anabolic steroid, nandrolone phenylpropionate(NPP), on body weight gain and body protein, and muscle protein metabolism were inestigated in adrenocorticotrophic hormone(ACTH)-treated male and female rats. Daily injections of 100ug/day of ACTH for 7-8 days caused a cessation of growth in females and a net loss of body weight in males which were associated with significant reductions in body protein content. However, food intake was not affected by ACTH in either sex. The weight, protein content and fractional rate of protein synthesis, measured in vivo, of gastrocnemius muscle were all significantly reduced in both sexes. NPP at a dose of 4mg/kg body weight prevented the reduction in body weight gain in ACTH-treate females but not in males. However, boy protein content was increased by NPP in both sexes which was associated with increases in the weight, protein content and fractional rate of protein synthesis of gastrocnemius muscle. ACTH treatment caused a marked increase in plasma concentrations of corticosterone in both sexes. NPP suppressed much of the increases in corticosterone concentrations in both sexes. The results of the present study suggest that NPP exerts at least part of its anabolic effect by reducing plasma concentrations of catabolic glucocorticoid hormones, through suppressing the response of the adrenals to ACTH.

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Influence of Chlordiazepoxide on the Changes of Blood Sugar and Plasma Corticosterone Level Induced by ACTH and Picrotoxin in Mice (ACTH와 Picrotoxin에 의(依)한 혈당(血糖)과 혈장(血漿) Corticosterone 치(値)의 변동(變動)에 미치는 Chlordiazepoxide의 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Young-Gyu;Shin, Man-Ryun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 1980
  • Marc et al. reported that diazepam increased plasma corticosterone level and Dasgupta et al. suggested that chlordiazepoxide(CDP) supressed the adrenal response to ACTH. In this paper, the influence of CDP on the changes of blood sugar and plasma corticosterone level induced by ACTH and picrotoxin were investigated in male mice. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1) The blood sugar and plasma corticosterone level were increased by CDP, ACTH, and picrotoxin, respectively. 2) The hyperglycemia induced by ACTH and picrotoxin were not affected by the CDP pretreatment. 3) The increase of plasma corticosterone level induced by ACTH was inhibited by the CDP pretreatment. 4) The increase of plasma corticosterone level appeared 30 minutes after picrotoxin injection was slightly enhanced, but the level of 120 minutes after picrotoxin injection was significantly inhibited by the CDP pretreatment.

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Effect of Ginseng on Visceral Nucleic Acid Content of Rats (고려인삼이 흰쥐의 장기조직 핵산 함유량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chul;Choi, Hyun;Kim, Chung-Chin;Kim, Jong-Kyu;Kim, Myung-Suk;Huh, Man-Kyung
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.23-42
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    • 1971
  • I. Chemical analysis A study was planned to see if administration of ginseng extract has any influence upon the adrenal, the hepatic, the splenic, and the pancreatic nucleic acid contents of rats, and to estimate the effect of ACTH administration as a substitute for stress reaction upon these nucleic acid contents of rats previously primed with ginseng. Ninety male rats$(body\;weight:\;150{\sim}200gm)$ were divided into the ginseng, the saline, and the normal control groups, which received for 5 days 0.5ml/100 gm body weight of ginseng extract solution (4 mg of ginseng alcohol extract in 1 ml of saline), same amount of saline, or no medication, respectively. On the 5th experimental day, each of the 3 groups was further divided into 2 subgroups yielding the ginseng, the ginseng-ACTIT, the saline, the saline-ACTH, the normal control, and the normal-ACTH subgroups. The ginseng, the saline, and the normal control subgroups were sacrificed 3 hours after the last medication, while the ginseng-ACTH, the saline·ACTH, and the normal-ACTH subgroups received ACTH(0.1 unit/subject) 1 hour after the last medication and were sacrificed after 1 more hour. The adrenal gland, the liver, the spleen and the pancreas of each rat were measured for RNA and DNA contents using the chemical method of Schmidt-Thannhauser-Schneider. Following results were obtained: 1. Adrenal RNA and DNA contents and RNA/DNA ratio were all significantly higher in the ginseng group compared with the values obtained from the normal control and the saline groups. Generally administration of ACTH reduced nucleic acid contents of the viscera examined. However, in the ginseng group the rate of decrease [(value of ginseng-ACTH subgroup-value of ginseng subgroup) x100/value of ginseng subgroup)] in adrenal RNA and DNA contents and in RNA/DNA ratio were more conspicuous than they were in the normal control and the saline groups. 2. Hepatic RNA and DNA contents and RNA/DNA ratio were all significantly less in the ginseng group than in the normal control and the saline groups. After ACTH, the rate of decrease in hepatic RNA, DNA, and RNA/DNA ratio of the ginseng· group was less conspicuous than those of the other 2 groups. 3. With regard to the splenic nucleic acid contents, the RNA and the RNA/DNA values of the ginseng group were higher than those of the normal control group but lower than those of the saline group, while the DNA value of the ginseng group was lower than that of the normal control group but higher than that of the saline group. Following administration of ACTH, the rate of decrease in RNA and DNA contents and in RNA/DNA ratio of the ginseng group was more conspicuous than that of the normal control group but less remarkable than that of the saline group. 4. Pancreatic RNA and DNA contents were notably lower in the ginseng group than in the normal control and the saline groups. However, the RNA/DNA ratio of the ginseng group was higher than that of the normal control and the saline groups.'After ACTH, the rate of decrease in pancreatic RNA and RNA/DNA ratio of the ginseng group was less than that of the normal. control group but more than that of the saline group, while the DNA content was actually increased in the ginseng group though it decreased in the normal control and the saline groups. Although the results are not clear enough for an accurate interpretation, they seem to indicate that ginseng exerts notable influence upon the RNA and DNA contents and the RNA/DNA ratio of the viscera stodied. On the whole the drug tends to increase the RNA and DNA contents and RNA/DNA ratio of the adrenal gland but seems to diminish the values of the other 3 viscera. In the early period following ACTH, ginseng facilitates the fall in RNA and DNA contents and RNA/DNA ratio of the adrenal gland, while it tends to reduce the fall in the values of the other viscera studied. II. Autoradiographic and histochemical analysis It was planned autoradiographically and histochemically to affirm and extend the results obtained in part I with regard to the chemically assessed change in the adrenal, the pancreatic, the hepatic and the splenic DNA and RNA contents under the influence of ginseng and ACTH. Fourty male mice (body weight: $18{\sim}20gm$) and 20 male rats were used. Each animal species was divided into the saline, the ginseng, the saline-ACTH, and the ginseng-ACTH groups according to the administered drugs. In the mice, the adrenal, the pancreatic, the splenic and the hepatic DNA-synthetic activity was assessed autoradiographically after administration of $^3H$-thymidine. In the rats, the RNA content of the above 4 organs was assessed histochemically after staining them with methylgreen pyronine. Following results were obtained: 1. Labeled cells were significantly more numerous in the adrenal cortex, the spleen and the liver of the ginseng group than in those of the saline group, although they were less numerous in the pancreas of the ginseng group than in the pancreas of the saline group. The adrenocortical, the pancreatic, the splenic and the hepatic tissues were stained with methylgreen pyronine more deeply in the ginseng group than in the saline group. 2. The adrenocortical, the pancreatic, the splenic and the hepatic tissues contained labeled cells less numerously in the saline-ACTH and the ginseng-ACTH group than in the saline and the ginseng groups. All these tissues were also stained with methylgreen pyronine less deeply in the saline-ACTH and the ginseng-ACTH groups than in the saline and the ginseng groups. 3. However, the adrenal cortex, the spleen, the pancreas, and the liver contained labeled cells more numerously in the ginseng-ACTH group than in the saline-ACTH group. the 4 tissues were stained with methylgreen pyronine more deeply in the ginseng-ACTH group than in the saline-ACTH group. It is inferred from the above results that though with exception, the ginseng mostly facilitates cellular synthesis of nucleic acids and mitigates reduction in nucleic acid content of tissues after administration of ACTH.

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A Case of Secondary Hypoadrenocorticism in a Dog (이차성 부신겉질저하증 1례)

  • Bae Bo kyoung;Seo Kyoung won;Yoon Hwa young;Lee Chang woo
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.70-73
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    • 2005
  • A 9-year old female Shih Tzu dog was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Seoul National University with a history of chronic intermittent anorexia and vomiting of 4-year duration. She visited 3 years ago with the same clinical signs but has not been treated regularly due to waxing-waning course. On the physical examination, no specific findings were found. CBC, serum chemistry, radiography, ACTH stimulation test, evaluation of serum T4 and TSH concentration were performed. Hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed with the ACTH stimulation test. And then, secondary hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed with ACTH stimulation test, pre-ACTH aldosterone concentration, endogenous ACTH concentration. As electrolyte concentrations were normal, glucocorticoid (0.15 mg/kg bid PO) alone was administered. She has recovered from the clinical signs and has been doing well. It is suggested that the differentiation of secondary hypoadrenocorticism from primary hypoadrenocorticism is important as the secondary hypoadrenocorticism occurs rarely and the symptoms are non-specific with normal electrolyte concentrations.

Influence of Panax Ginseng on DNA Synthesis of Submandibular Gland in Mice Receiving ACTH(II) (고려인삼이 ACTH를 받은 마우스의 악하선 조직 DNA 합성능에 미치는 영향( II ))

  • Hong, Yong-Ha;Kim, Kee-Yun
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.45-48
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    • 1974
  • It was planned to investigate, in mice that received ACTH, the influence of Panax Ginseng upon DNA synthesis of submandibular gland by observing incorporation of $[^3H]$ thymidine into the tissue cells. Thirty male mice $(body\;weight:\;18{\sim}20\;g)$ were divided equally into the ginseng-ACTIH and the saline-ACTH groups. Each animal of the ginseng-ACTH and the saline-ACTH groups received every day (subcutaneously) 0.05 m1/10 g body weight of ginseng extract(4 mg of ginseng alcohol extract in 1 ml of saline) and the same amount of saline, respectively, for 5 days. On the 5th experimental day, all animals received 0.01 unit of ACTH intraperitoneally one hour after the last medication, and $1\;{\mu}Ci/g$ body weight of $[^3H]$ thymidine after one more hour. Five animals, at a time, of each group were sacrificed 1, 10, and 24 hr after $[^3H]$ thymidine administration, and the radioactivity of cells in their mandibular gland was measured autoradiographically in terms of the % number of radioactive cells in 1,000 cell counts (Radioactive Index, R.1.). Results obtained were as follows: 1. The radioactive indices obtained from submandibular gland of the saline-ACTH group 1, 10 and 24 hr after $[^3H]$ thymidine administration were $15.2{\pm}0.32,\;20.1{\pm}0.30,\;and\;24.5{\pm}0.52(mean{\pm}S.D.)$ in the mucous cells, $13.0{\pm}0.22,\;10.2{\pm}0.05,\;and\;7.5{\pm}0.42$ in the serous cells. and $10.5{\pm}0.40,\;13.6{\pm}0.32,\;and\;15.9{\pm}0.42$ in the duct cells, while the $mean{\pm}S.D.$ of the values obtained from the 3 cell types 1, 10 and 24 hr after $[^3H]$ thymidine were $10.9{\pm}0.28,\;12.4{\pm}0.31,\;and\;10.0{\pm}0.39.$ Thus the radioactive indices obtained from the ginseng-ACTH group were generally lower than those obtained from the saline-ACTH group. It is inferred from the above results that the ginseng tends to promote the suppressive action of ACTH upon DNA synthesis of cells in the mandibular gland.

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