• Title, Summary, Keyword: A View from the Bridge

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Study on Narrators in the Realism Plays -Our Town and A View from the Bridge (사실주의 연극의 Narrator 연구 - Our Town과 A View from the Bridge의 경우)

  • Oh, Soonmo
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.395-403
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    • 2017
  • Narrators used to take an important role in the theatre of ancient Greece. They gave the audience an important information, explained the situations and conflicts between characters by talking to the audience directly. But in the realism play in the 20th century, which is represented as the 'fourth wall,' anything that can interrupt commitments of the audience such as a narrator, was excluded. However the two representative playwright in the 20th century, Thorton Wilder and Arthur Miller took narrators in their plays, Our Town and A View form the Bridge. This study shows why they adopted narrators in their play, which was unusual at that time and how this form of narrator affects to the meaning of the plays.

A study of the rail and bridge stability according to rail conditions on the bridge (교량상 레일 조건에 따른 레일 및 교량의 안전성 연구)

  • Min, Kyung-Ju;Kim, Young-Kook;Woo, Yong-Keun
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.505-515
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    • 2009
  • In railway bridges, various loads including train load, transverse load and braking force are applied to continuous CWR or semi-continuous longer rail located on non-continuous bridge superstructures. The rail-girder interaction due to thermal expansion is also very complex in railway bridges because the thermal characteristics for each of the rails and girder are quite different. Recently, the bridge retrofits for seismic loads were performed on bridges not designed for these loads. These retrofits may however have limitations with respect to rail-girder interactions because, in general these retrofits address issues related only to seismic loads. In this study of seismic evaluations for railway bridges, the load effects on the bridge rails from the road beds through the continuous rails shall be considered. Practical methods will be proposed which will increase the railway stability. For this, rail-girder interaction analyses due to train loads, temperature changes and seismic loads were performed and the results reviewed from a practical point of view.

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A Study on the Optimal Span Length Selection of Conventional Railway Bridges considering Resonance Suppression (공진소멸 현상을 이용한 기존선 철도교량의 지간 최적화를 위한 연구)

  • Kim Sungil;Chung Wonseok;Choi Eunsoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.137-144
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    • 2005
  • The possibility of resonance exists always in railway bridges unlike highway bridges because railway bridges are loaded repeatedly by specific trains which has equidistant wheel loads. Resonance phenomenon of the bridge can be broken out when exciting frequencies by tram determined from the speed and effective beating internal coincides with natural frequencies of the bridge Excessive fluctuations of dynamic displacements and accelerations by resonance cause unpleasant passenger comfort and instability of railway structures. On the other hand, resonance suppression phenomenon that all the previous loads which pass through the bridge sum to zero can be occurred. In case we apply this resonance suppression properly, design of stable railway bridge from dynamics point of view can be made. In the present study, most dominant beating internal of conventional trams will be find. A(ter that. specific span length of the bridge which derives resonance suppression can be selected for railway bridges which accomplishes superior dynamic behavior.

Ambient Vibration measurements and finite element modelling for the Hong Kong Ting Kau Bridge

  • Au, F.T.K.;Tham, L.G.;Lee, P.K.K.;Su, C.;Han, D.J.;Yan, Q.S.;Wong, K.Y.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.115-134
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    • 2003
  • The Ting Kau Bridge in Hong Kong is a cable-stayed bridge comprising two main spans and two side spans. The bridge deck is supported by three towers, an end pier and an abutment. Each of the three towers consists of a single reinforced concrete mast which reduces its section in steps, and it is strengthened by transverse cables and struts in the transverse vertical plane. The bridge deck is supported by four inclined planes of cables emanating from anchorages at the tower tops. In view of the threat from typhoons, the dynamic behaviour of long-span cable-supported bridges in the region is always an important consideration in their design. This paper is devoted to the ambient vibration measurements of the bridge for evaluation of dynamic characteristics including the natural frequencies and mode shapes. It also describes the modelling of the bridge. A few finite element models are developed and calibrated to match with the field data and the results of subsequent structural health monitoring of the bridge.

Optimisation of bridge deck positioning by the evolutionary procedure

  • Guan, Hong;Steven, G.P.;Querin, O.M.;Xie, Y.M.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.551-559
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    • 1999
  • This paper presents some simple thinking on an age-old question that given a bridge of a certain span and loading, from the point of view of the structural efficiency, where should the bridge deck be positioned? Generally, this decision is made for other reasons than structural efficiency such as aesthetics and the analyst is often presented with a fait accompli. Using the recently invented Evolutional Structural Optimisation (ESO) method, it is possible to demonstrate that having the deck at different vertical locations can lead to a very different mass and shape for each structural form resembling cable-stayed and cable-truss bridges. By monitoring a performance index which is the function of stresses and volume of discretised finite elements, the best optimised structure can be easily determined and the bridge deck positioning problem can be efficiently solved without resorting to any complex analysis procedures.

Early age behavior analysis for reinforced concrete bridge pier

  • Wang, Xianfeng;Li, Dawang;Han, Ningxu;Xing, Feng
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1041-1051
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the construction of a reinforced concrete bridge pier was analyzed from durability point of view. The goal of the study is to analyze the crack iniation condition due to construction and present some recommendations for construction conditions of the reinforced concrete bridge pier. The bridge is located at the western port area of Shenzhen, where the climate is high temperature and humidity. To control the cracking of concrete, a construction simulation was carried out for a heat transfer problem as well as a thermal stress problem. A shrinkage model for heat produced due to cement hydration and a Burger constitutive model to simulate the creep effect are used. The modelling based on Femmasse(C) is verified by comparing with the testing results of a real underground abutment. For the bridge pier, the temperature and stress distribution, as well as their evolution with time are shown. To simulate the construction condition, four initial concrete temperatures ($5^{\circ}C$, $10^{\circ}C$, $15^{\circ}C$, $20^{\circ}C$) and three demoulding time tips (48h, 72h, 96h) are investigated. From the results, it is concluded that a high initial concrete temperature could result in a high extreme internal temperature, which causes the early peak temperature and the larger principle stresses. The demoulding time seems to be less important for the chosen study cases. Currently used 72 hours in the construction practice may be a reasonable choice.

Simulation of vibrations of Ting Kau Bridge due to vehicular loading from measurements

  • Au, F.T.K.;Lou, P.;Li, J.;Jiang, R.J.;Zhang, J.;Leung, C.C.Y.;Lee, P.K.K.;Lee, J.H.;Wong, K.Y.;Chan, H.Y.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.471-488
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    • 2011
  • The Ting Kau Bridge in Hong Kong is a cable-stayed bridge comprising two main spans and two side spans. The bridge deck is supported by three towers, an end pier and an abutment. Each of the three towers consists of a single reinforced concrete mast strengthened by transverse cables and struts. The bridge deck is supported by four inclined planes of cables emanating from anchorages at the tower tops. In view of the heavy traffic on the bridge, and threats from typhoons and earthquakes originated in areas nearby, the dynamic behaviour of long-span cable-supported bridges in the region is always an important consideration in their design. Baseline finite element models of various levels of sophistication have been built not only to match the bridge geometry and cable forces specified on the as-constructed drawings but also to be calibrated using the vibration measurement data captured by the Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System. This paper further describes the analysis of axle loading data, as well as the generation of random axle loads and simulation of vibrations of the bridge using the finite element models. Various factors affecting the vehicular loading on the bridge will also be examined.

Seismic Response Control of Bridge Structure using Fuzzy-based Semi-active Magneto-rheological Dampers

  • Park, Kwan-Soon;Ok, Seung-Yong;Seo, Chung-Won
    • International Journal of Safety
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.22-31
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    • 2011
  • Seismic response control method of the bridge structures with semi-active control device, i.e., magneto-rheological (MR) damper, is studied in this paper. Design of various kinds of clipped optimal controller and fuzzy controller are suggested as a semi-active control algorithm. For determining the control force of MR damper, clipped optimal control method adopts bi-state approach, but the fuzzy control method continuously quantifies input currents through fuzzy inference mechanism to finely modulate the damper force. To investigate the performances of the suggested control techniques, numerical simulations of a multi-span continuous bridge system subjected to various earthquakes are performed, and their performances are compared with each other. From the comparison of results, it is shown that the fuzzy control system can provide well-balanced control force between girder and pier in the view point of structural safety and stability and be quite effective in reducing both girder and pier displacements over the existing control method.

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A Pilot Study of Moving Loads Simulation Techniques (이동하중 재현 시험 기법에 대한 선행 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun-Min;KIm, Sung-Il
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1492-1499
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    • 2010
  • This paper is intended as an development of moving load simulation techniques. The concern with dynamic problem of railway bridge caused by the moving train loads has been growing. Over the past few years, several studies have been made on dynamic stability of railway bridge analytically. But very few attempts have been made at experimental research. From the dynamic stability view point, the moving train loads simulation test is revolutionary idea. It can be replace restrictive filed test with new laboratory test. This study investigates minimum specifications of hardware and basic parameters. it is used 39m girder and 4 actuators for experimental verification.

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A study on the bridge safety management model using Ubiquitous technology (유비쿼터스 기술을 이용한 교량 안전관리 방안 연구)

  • Jo, Byung-Wan;Kim, Do-Keun;No, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Heoun
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.489-492
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    • 2008
  • Nowadays in order to estimate safety diagnosis of bridge, a lot of data like static and dynamic displacement, accelerometer, wind velocity and so on are demanded. When it comes to measure these data, cabled sensor is essential equipment. But cabled sensors have also inefficient factors. From this point of view, considering practical aspects of using these expensive equipments which have been used to examine safety diagnosis, measuring by cabled sensors is restrictive in some respect. Recently to improve theses problems, Wireless sensor system was introduced. But this system can't perform intelligent reaction because database of this system is just based on internet. In this paper, the intelligent bridge safety management model which can be installed easily, measured at all times and dealing intelligently with various situations is developed to improve these problems.

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