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The Study on the Ultrastructure and Distribution of Dopaminergic Cells in the Brain of Mongolian Gerbil after Water Deprivation (절수에 의한 Mongolain gerbil 뇌 Dopamine성 면역반응세포의 분포와 미세구조의 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Chi-Won;Lee, Kyoung-Youl;Park, Il-Kwon;Kwon, Hyo-Jung;Kim, Moo-Kang;Lee, Kang-Lee
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.193-204
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    • 2000
  • Nowadays, mongolian gerbil is widely utilized in the research of brain and water deprivation because of congenitally incomplete Willis' circle, audiogenic seizure in low noise, and special cholesterol metabolism without water absorption for a long time. In this study, we intended to identify the time lapse changes in the general morphoogy and ultrastructure of the catecholaminergic neurons of mongolian gerbil brain in after long-term water deprivation. Fifteen mongolian gerbils were divided into 3 groups (5, 10, and 20-day water deprivation groups), each with 5 mongolian gerbils. Additional 5 mongolian gerbils which received water without limitation were used as a control. The brain sections were immunostained using tyrosine hysroxylase (TH), $ dopamine-\beta-hydroxylase$ (DBH), and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltrasferase (PMNT) antibodies. And immunoreactive cells were observed by electromicroscopy for the ultrastructural changes . The TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) nerve cells were observed in the para- and peri-ventricular nucleus of the 3 rd ventricle in the hypothalamus and the substantia nigra. The number of TH-IR neurons in these areas was decreased from the 5th day of the water deprivation to the 10 th day and reincreased until 20 th day water deprivation. The shape and density of the dopamine-secreting cells identified by immunohistochemistry showed changes in the continuous water deprivation. Electron microscopy revealed a round nucleus in the neurons of control group but 5-day water deprivation group showed a dense and irregularly shaped nucleus. Also in the 5-day water-deprived group, mitochondria was decreased in number and junctins were disappered. Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex did not show changes after water-deprivation. In this results, we can conclude that dopamine are involved in the water metabolism in mongolian gerbil, and mongolian gerbil could be used as an animal model for the researches of water deprivation.

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Performance Evaluation of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Algorithms in Crop Classification: Impact of Hyper-parameters and Training Sample Size (작물분류에서 기계학습 및 딥러닝 알고리즘의 분류 성능 평가: 하이퍼파라미터와 훈련자료 크기의 영향 분석)

  • Kim, Yeseul;Kwak, Geun-Ho;Lee, Kyung-Do;Na, Sang-Il;Park, Chan-Won;Park, No-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.811-827
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to compare machine learning algorithm and deep learning algorithm in crop classification using multi-temporal remote sensing data. For this, impacts of machine learning and deep learning algorithms on (a) hyper-parameter and (2) training sample size were compared and analyzed for Haenam-gun, Korea and Illinois State, USA. In the comparison experiment, support vector machine (SVM) was applied as machine learning algorithm and convolutional neural network (CNN) was applied as deep learning algorithm. In particular, 2D-CNN considering 2-dimensional spatial information and 3D-CNN with extended time dimension from 2D-CNN were applied as CNN. As a result of the experiment, it was found that the hyper-parameter values of CNN, considering various hyper-parameter, defined in the two study areas were similar compared with SVM. Based on this result, although it takes much time to optimize the model in CNN, it is considered that it is possible to apply transfer learning that can extend optimized CNN model to other regions. Then, in the experiment results with various training sample size, the impact of that on CNN was larger than SVM. In particular, this impact was exaggerated in Illinois State with heterogeneous spatial patterns. In addition, the lowest classification performance of 3D-CNN was presented in Illinois State, which is considered to be due to over-fitting as complexity of the model. That is, the classification performance was relatively degraded due to heterogeneous patterns and noise effect of input data, although the training accuracy of 3D-CNN model was high. This result simply that a proper classification algorithms should be selected considering spatial characteristics of study areas. Also, a large amount of training samples is necessary to guarantee higher classification performance in CNN, particularly in 3D-CNN.

Evaluation of Moisture and Feed Values for Winter Annual Forage Crops Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (근적외선분광법을 이용한 동계사료작물 풀 사료의 수분함량 및 사료가치 평가)

  • Kim, Ji Hea;Lee, Ki Won;Oh, Mirae;Choi, Ki Choon;Yang, Seung Hak;Kim, Won Ho;Park, Hyung Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.114-120
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to explore the accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS) for the prediction of moisture content and chemical parameters on winter annual forage crops. A population of 2454 winter annual forages representing a wide range in chemical parameters was used in this study. Samples of forage were scanned at 1nm intervals over the wavelength range 680-2500nm and the optical data was recorded as log 1/Reflectance(log 1/R), which scanned in intact fresh condition. The spectral data were regressed against a range of chemical parameters using partial least squares(PLS) multivariate analysis in conjunction with spectral math treatments to reduced the effect of extraneous noise. The optimum calibrations were selected based on the highest coefficients of determination in cross validation($R^2$) and the lowest standard error of cross-validation(SECV). The results of this study showed that NIRS calibration model to predict the moisture contents and chemical parameters had very high degree of accuracy except for barely. The $R^2$ and SECV for integrated winter annual forages calibration were 0.99(SECV 1.59%) for moisture, 0.89(SECV 1.15%) for acid detergent fiber, 0.86(SECV 1.43%) for neutral detergent fiber, 0.93(SECV 0.61%) for crude protein, 0.90(SECV 0.45%) for crude ash, and 0.82(SECV 3.76%) for relative feed value on a dry matter(%), respectively. Results of this experiment showed the possibility of NIRS method to predict the moisture and chemical composition of winter annual forage for routine analysis method to evaluate the feed value.

Development of Adaptive Spatial Filter to Improve Noise Characteristics of PET Images (PET 영상의 잡음개선을 위한 적응적 공간 필터 개발)

  • Woo, S. K.;Choi, Y.;Im, K. C.;Song, T. Y.;Jung, J. H.;Lee, K. H.;Kim, S. E.;Choe, Y. S.;Park, C. C.;Kim, B. T.
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.253-261
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    • 2002
  • A spatially adaptive falter was formulated to imrove PET image qualify and the Performance of the filter was evaluated using simulation and phantom and human PET studies. In the proposed filter. if a pixel was identified as the edge Pixel, the Pixel value was Preserved. Otherwise a Pixel was replaced by the mean of the pixel values weighted by 2:7: 2. A Pixel was identified as the edge Pixel. if it satisfies the following conditions : the number of ADs (absolute difference between center and neighborhood pixels) which is smaller than THl (($pix_max{\times}0.1/log_2(NPM)$, NPM : mean of 6 neighborhood pixels excluding minimum and maximum) is 8-k and the number of ADs which is lager than TH2 ($NPM{\times}0.1$) is k. where k : 2, 3, …, 6. The results of this study demonstrate the superior performance of the Proposed titter compared to Gaussian fitter, weight median filter and subset averaged median filter. The proposed tittering method is simple but effective in increasing uniformity and contrast with minimal degradation of spatial resolution of PET images and thus. is expected to Provide improved diagnositc quality PET images .

Study on the structure of the articulation jack and skin plate of the sharp curve section shield TBM in numerical analysis (수치해석을 통한 급곡선 구간 Shield TBM의 중절잭 및 스킨플레이트 구조에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Sin-Hyun;Kim, Dong-Ho;Kim, Hun-Tae;Song, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.421-435
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    • 2017
  • Recently, due to the saturation of ground structures and the overpopulation of pipeline facilities requires to development of underground structures as an alternative to ground structures. Thus, mechanized tunnel construction of the shield TBM method has been increasing in order to prevent vibration and noise problems in construction of the NATM tunnel for the urban infrastructure construction. Tunnel construction plan for the tunnel line should be formed in a sharp curve to avoid building foundation and underground structures and it is inevitable to develop a shield TBM technology that suits the sharp curve tunnel construction. Therefore, this study is about the structural stability technology of the articulation jack, shield jack and skin plate for the shield TBM thrust in case of the mechanized tunnel construction that is a straight and sharp curve line. The construction case study and shield TBM operation principle are examined and analyzed by the theoretical approach. The torque of the cutter head, the thrust of the articulation jack and the shield jack, the amount of over cutting for curve is important respectively in shield TBM construction of straight and sharp curve line. In addition, it is very important to secure the stability of the skin plate structure to ensure the safety of the inside worker. This study examines the general structure and construction of the equipment, experimental simulation was carried out through numerical analysis to examine the main factors and structural stability of the skin plate structure. The structural stability of the skin plate was evaluated and optimizes the shape by comparing the loads of the articulation jack by selecting the virtual soil to be applied in a straight and sharp curve line construction. Since the present structure and operation method of the shield TBM type in domestic constructions are very similar, this study will help to develop the localized shield TBM technology for the new equipment and the vulnerability and stability review.

Recent Progress in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Research - A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2004 and 2005 - (공기조화, 냉동 분야의 최근 연구 동향 -2004년 및 2005년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰-)

  • Choi, Yong-Don;Kang, Yong-Tae;Kim, Nae-Hyun;Kim, Man-Hoe;Park, Kyoung-Kuhn;Park, Byung-Yoon;Park, Jin-Chul;Hong, Hi-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.94-131
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    • 2007
  • A review on the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineering in 2004 and 2005 has been done. Focus has been put on current status of research in the aspect of heating, cooling, air-conditioning, ventilation, sanitation and building environment. The conclusions are as follows. (1) Most of fundamental studies on fluid flow were related with heat transportation of facilities. Drop formation and rivulet flow on solid surfaces were interesting topics related with condensation augmentation. Research on micro environment considering flow, heat, humidity was also interesting for comfortable living environment. It can be extended considering biological aspects. Development of fans and blowers of high performance and low noise were continuing topics. Well developed CFD and flow visualization(PIV, PTV and LDV methods) technologies were widely applied for developing facilities and their systems. (2) The research trends of the previous two yews are surveyed as groups of natural convection, forced convection, electronic cooling, heat transfer enhancement, frosting and defrosting, thermal properties, etc. New research topics introduced include natural convection heat transfer enhancement using nanofluid, supercritical cooling performance or oil miscibility of $CO_2$, enthalpy heat exchanger for heat recovery, heat transfer enhancement in a plate heat exchanger using fluid resonance. (3) The literature for the last two years($2004{\sim}2005$) is reviewed in the areas of heat pump, ice and water storage, cycle analysis and reused energy including geothermal, solar and unused energy). The research on cycle analysis and experiments for $CO_2$ was extensively carried out to replace the Ozone depleting and global warming refrigerants such as HFC and HCFC refrigerants. From the year of 2005, the Gas Engine Heat Pump(GHP) has been paid attention from the viewpoint of the gas cooling application. The heat pipe was focused on the performance improvement by the parametric analysis and the heat recovery applications. The storage systems were studied on the performance enhancement of the storage tank and cost analysis for heating and cooling applications. In the area of unused energy, the hybrid systems were extensively introduced and the life cycle cost analysis(LCCA) for the unused energy systems was also intensively carried out. (4) Recent studies of various refrigeration and air-conditioning systems have focused on the system performance and efficiency enhancement. Heat transfer characteristics during evaporation and condensation are investigated for several tube shapes and of alternative refrigerants including carbon dioxide. Efficiency of various compressors and expansion devices are also dealt with for better modeling and, in particular, performance improvement. Thermoelectric module and cooling systems are analyzed theoretically and experimentally. (5) According to the review of recent studies on ventilation systems, an appropriate ventilation systems including machenical and natural are required to satisfied the level of IAQ. Also, an recent studies on air-conditioning and absorption refrigeration systems, it has mainly focused on distribution and dehumidification of indoor air to improve the performance were carried out. (6) Based on a review of recent studies on indoor environment and building service systems, it is noticed that research issues have mainly focused on optimal thermal comfort, improvement of indoor air Quality and many innovative systems such as air-barrier type perimeter-less system with UFAC, radiant floor heating and cooling system and etc. New approaches are highlighted for improving indoor environmental condition as well as minimizing energy consumption, various activities of building control and operation strategy and energy performance analysis for economic evaluation.

A Study on the Factors affecting the Utilization of Waterscape Facilitiesin Apartment Complexes based upon Resident Perception - Focused on the Factors of Planning·Design, Maintenance and Usage - (주민인식에 기반한 아파트단지 내 수경시설 이용 영향 요인 분석 - 계획·설계, 유지·관리, 이용 행태를 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Do-Hwan;Cho, Se-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.62-75
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    • 2017
  • This study analyzes the multiple effects of the following three aspects of waterscape facilities within apartment complexes: planning/designing, maintenance/management, and use of the facilities and suggests primary documents that will be fundamental for the methods to accelerate the implementation of waterscape facilities. A survey and analysis was conducted among a few of the most representative private apartment complexes in Seoul in accordance with the management and operation of waterscape facilities. The analysis used frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, reliability test, t-test, and PLS regression analysis. The research findings are as follows: first, the degree of use of waterscape facilities was found to be low regardless of the levels of operation, but residents' preference for the facilities was shown to be high, thus indicating there are still high expectations on the part of residents. Second, regardless of whether the facilities are being operated efficiently, the two items of location and display method under the section of planning and designing and the two items of aptitude and convenience under the section of use were found to positively affect the operation and use of waterscape facilities. Particularly, the item of freshness, cleanliness was shown to be directly and indirectly correlated with obsolescence, administration costs, and noise, which negatively affect the operation. Third, it was found that the administration costs itself that had been shown as the most negative factor of operating landscaping facilities in previous research did not cause problems in the residential area where the facilities are not operated efficiently. The finding suggests that the administration costs do not matter but that in the case of experience- and entertainment-typed facilities that residents want, they are linked to problems that do not introduce the desired facilities. Fourth, it was found that various aspects of planning, designing, maintaining, and using facilities interconnect and affect one another in the process of operating and using waterscape facilities resulting in the need to have a comprehensive approach to these three factors of planning, design, maintenance, management, and utilization. This study proposes that the needs and values of residents should be reflected to activate the introduction of landscaping facilities in the apartment complexes.

Development of Regularized Expectation Maximization Algorithms for Fan-Beam SPECT Data (부채살 SPECT 데이터를 위한 정칙화된 기댓값 최대화 재구성기법 개발)

  • Kim, Soo-Mee;Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Soo-Jin;Kim, Kyeong-Min;Lee, Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.464-472
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: SPECT using a fan-beam collimator improves spatial resolution and sensitivity. For the reconstruction from fan-beam projections, it is necessary to implement direct fan-beam reconstruction methods without transforming the data into the parallel geometry. In this study, various fan-beam reconstruction algorithms were implemented and their performances were compared. Materials and Methods: The projector for fan-beam SPECT was implemented using a ray-tracing method. The direct reconstruction algorithms implemented for fan-beam projection data were FBP (filtered backprojection), EM (expectation maximization), OS-EM (ordered subsets EM) and MAP-EM OSL (maximum a posteriori EM using the one-step late method) with membrane and thin-plate models as priors. For comparison, the fan-beam protection data were also rebinned into the parallel data using various interpolation methods, such as the nearest neighbor, bilinear and bicubic interpolations, and reconstructed using the conventional EM algorithm for parallel data. Noiseless and noisy projection data from the digital Hoffman brain and Shepp/Logan phantoms were reconstructed using the above algorithms. The reconstructed images were compared in terms of a percent error metric. Results: for the fan-beam data with Poisson noise, the MAP-EM OSL algorithm with the thin-plate prior showed the best result in both percent error and stability. Bilinear interpolation was the most effective method for rebinning from the fan-beam to parallel geometry when the accuracy and computation load were considered. Direct fan-beam EM reconstructions were more accurate than the standard EM reconstructions obtained from rebinned parallel data. Conclusion: Direct fan-beam reconstruction algorithms were implemented, which provided significantly improved reconstructions.

Building up User-Oriented Road Planning and Design Schemes (국민참여형 도로계획의 수립방향)

  • Kim, Eung-Cheol;Kwon, Young-In;Yun, Seong-Soon;Kang, Jin-Goo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2005
  • Roads deeply affect the life of people and keep doing an important role to support economic growth of a country. According to the budget plan of the ministry of construction and transportation of Korea, 8.1 trillion won have been allotted for road investment in the year of 2002 which occupy 61% of the transportation infrastructure special account (13.3 trillion won) and 4.7% of the total national budget (1,740 trillion won). It is true that services generated from road investment such as mobility enhancement and increased accessibility have shown positive effects through shortened travel time and decreased vehicle operating cost. However, it is also notable that many negative effects are gradually being discussed and those are nowadays getting severer due to enhanced people interests about road construction, increased concerns on environment and active public involvement that were evoked by traffic accidents, air pollution & noise and destruction of environment. Road construction processes in Korea are normally governed by administrative sectors (suppliers) not by users. These processes ate very weak to accomodate user s needs and community concerns thus easy to fail finalizing a road project without hassles. A public hearing process is supposed to be held in the processes of detailed design step and the environmental impact analysis. However, it is not enough to grab user's needs and community concerns. Increased public involvement frequencies, optimized public involvement timing and enhanced depth of public involvement magnitude are suggested to improve the current poor public involvement schemes in road planning and design processes. The application of these recommended methods to the road planning and design processes may guarantee the change from the current supplier-oriented schemes to the new user-oriented one. Also, this study suggests to reset objectivity and clarity of road construction process, to make conciliation guidelines based on many practical cases that produced good results, to introduce public involvement techniques in a stepwise basis, and to foster the professionals via education and training programs.

A PN-code Acquisition method Using Array Antenna Systems for CDMA2000 1x (CDMA2000 1x용 배열 안테나 시스템에서 PN 동기 획득 방법)

  • Jo, Hee-Nam;Yun, Yu-Suk;Choi, Seung-Won
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.42 no.8
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents a structure of the searcher using a diversity in array antenna systems operating in the cdma2000 1x signal environments. The new technique exploits the fact that the In-phase and quadrature components of interferers can respectively be viewed as an independent gaussian noise at each antnna element in most practical cdma signal environments. The proposed PN acquisition scheme is a singles-dwell PN acquisition system consisting of two stages, that is, the searching stage and the verification stage. The searching stage independently correlates the receiver multiple signals with PN generator of each antenna element for obtaining the synchronous energy at the entire region. Then, the searching results of each antenna element are non-coherently combinind. The verification stage compares the searching energy with the optimal threshold, which is predesigned in the lock detector, and decides whether the acquisition is successful or fail. In this paper, we analyzed the effect of tile diversity order to determine the mean acquisition time. In general, it is known that the mean acquisition time significantly decrease as the number of antenna elements increases. But, as the diversity order goes up, the enhancement of the performance is saturated. Therefore, to decrease the mean acquisition time of the searcher, we must design the optimal array antenna systems by considering the operating SNR range of the receiver, the probability of detection $P_D$ and that of false alarm $P_{FA}$ . The Performance of the proposed PN acquisition scheme is analyzed in frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels. In this paper, the effect of the number of antenna elements on PN acquisition scheme is shown according to the probability of detection $P_D$ and that of false alarm $P_{FA}$.