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A Study on the Establishment and Application of Landscape Height Based on View and Topographical Features - Focusing on the Maximum Height Regulation District around Bukhan Mountain National Park - (조망 및 지형특성에 따른 경관고도 도출과 적용 방안 - 북한산 국립공원 인근의 최고고도지구를 중심으로 -)

  • Chang, In-Young;Shin, Ji-Hoon;Cho, Woo-Hyun;Shin, Young-Sun;Kim, Eon-Gyung;Kwon, Yoon-Ku;Im, Seung-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2011
  • The landscape of Seoul was dynamically changed and developed with the rapid post-war economic growth. Seoul city designated a height regulation district to preserve and manage the city landscape and protect it from haphazard construction. The designation of a maximum height regulation district has obvious purpose and simple regulations which makes the implementation and management easy to apply yet the altitude restriction lacks an objective basis for its enforcement. Many studies have been done and the current uniform height regulation requires more objective and logical guidelines. This study selected the Bukhan Mountain area, a National Park designated to protect the environment, to present a new landscape height guideline to minimize environmental degradation and to harmonize the artificial and natural landscapes of the area. Document research was done to identify the regulation types(absolute height regulation, view line regulation, oblique line restriction regulation) and principles for height regulation district establishment, acknowledge the current status and issues of the Bukhan Mountain area's maximum height regulation district. Gangbuk-Gu was chosen as the site and survey was conducted on outstanding view points and view corridors of residents. From document research, an appropriate landscape height guideline was selected and applied to Gangbuk-Gu. According to the guideline, suitable heights for buildings were suggested. These were then applied to three-dimensional simulations and a final guideline was suggested.

Role of Postoperative Radiotherapy for Patients with Pathological Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer after Curative Resection (근치적 절제술 후 병기3의 비소세포성 폐암에서 수술 후 방사선 치료의 역할)

  • Kim, Mi-Young;Wu, Hong-Gyun;Kim, Hak-Jae;Heo, Dae-Seog;Kim, Young-Whan;Kim, Dong-Wan;Lee, Se-Hoon;Kim, Joo-Hyun;Kim, Young-Tae;Kang, Chang-Hyun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.44-52
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for patients with pathological stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at a single institution. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2007, 88 patients diagnosed as having pathologic stage III NSCLC after curative resection were treated with PORT. There were 80 patients with pathologic stage IIIA and eight patients with pathologic stage IIIB in the AJCC 6th staging system. The majority of patients (n=83) had pathologic N2 disease, and 56 patients had single station mediastinal LN metastasis. PORT was administered using conventional technique (n=76) or three-dimensional conformal technique (n=12). The median radiation dose was 54 Gy (range, 30.6 to 63 Gy). Thirty-six patients received chemotherapy. Radiation pneumonitis was graded by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system, and other treatment-related toxicities were assessed by CTCAE v 3.0. Results: Median survival was 54 months (range, 26 to 77 months). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates were 45% and 38%, respectively. The number of metastatic lymph nodes was associated with overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.037; p-value=0.040). The 5-year locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) rates were 88% and 48%, respectively. Multiple stations of mediastinal lymph node metastasis was associated with decreased DFS and DMFS rates (p-value=0.0014 and 0.0044, respectively). Fifty-one relapses occurred at the following sites: 10 loco-regional, 41 distant metastasis. Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis was seen in three patients, and symptoms were well tolerated with anti-tussive medication. Grade 2 radiation esophagitis was seen in 11 patients. There were no grade 3 or more severe complications associated with PORT. Conclusion: Our retrospective data show that PORT for pathological stage III NSCLC is a safe and feasible treatment and could improve loco-regional control. The number of metastatic lymph nodes and stations of mediastinal lymph node metastasis were analyzed as prognostic factors. Furthermore, efforts are needed to reduce distant metastasis, which is a major failure pattern of advanced stage NSCLC.

In vitro Anti-tumor Effect of an Engineered Vaccinia Virus in Multiple Cancer Cells and ABCG2 Expressing Drug Resistant Cancer Cells (재조합 백시니아 바이러스의 다양한 암세포 및 ABCG2 과발현 내성 암세포에 대한 항 종양 효과 연구)

  • Park, Ji Hye;Yun, Jisoo;Heo, Jeong;Hwang, Tae Ho;Kwon, Sang Mo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.835-846
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    • 2016
  • Chemo-resistance is the biggest issue of effective cancer therapy. ABCG2 is highly correlated with multi-drug resistance, and represent a typical phenotype of multiple cancer stem-like cells. Accumulating evidence recently reported that oncolytic viruses represent a new strategy for multiple aggressive cancers and drug resistant cancers including cancer stem cell-like cells and ABCG2 expressing cells. In this study, we generated an evolutionally engineered vaccinia virus, SLJ-496, for drug-resistant cancer therapy. We first showed that SLJ-496 treatment enhanced tumor affinity using cytopathic effect assay, plaque assay, as well as cell viability assay. Next, we clearly demonstrated that in vitro SLJ-496 treatment represents significant cytotoxic effect in multiple cancers including colorectal cancer cells (HT-29, HCT-116, HCT-8), gastric cancer cells (AGS, NCI-N87, MKN-28), Hepatocellular carcinoma cells (SNU-449, SNU-423, SNU-475, HepG2), as well as mesothelioma cell (NCI-H226, NCI-H28, MSTO-221h). Highly ABCG2 expressing HT-29 cells represent cancer stem like phenotype including stem cell marker expression, and self-renewal bioactivities. Interestingly, we demonstrated that in vitro treatment of SLJ-496 showed significant cytotoxicity effect, as well as viral replication capacity in ABCG2 overexpressing cell. In addition, we also demonstrated the cytotoxic effect of SLJ-496 in Adriamycin-resistant cell lines, SNU-620 and ADR-300. Taken together, these findings provide us a pivotal clue that cancer therapy using SLJ-496 vaccinia virus might be new therapeutic strategy to overcome ABCG2 expressing cancer stem-like cell and multiple chemo-resistance cancer cells.

The Properties of Beam Intensity Scanner (BInS) for Dose Verification in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (방사선 세기 조절 치료에서 선량을 규명하는 데 사용된 BlnS System의 특성)

  • 박영우;박광열;박경란;권오현;이명희;이병용;지영훈;김근묵
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2004
  • Patient dose verification is one of the most Important responsibilities of the physician in the treatment delivery of radiation therapy. For the task, it is necessary to use an accurate dosimeter that can verify the patient dose profile, and it is also necessary to determine the physical characteristics of beams used in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) The Beam Intensity Scanner (BInS) System is presented for the dosimetric verification of the two dimensional photon beam. The BInS has a scintillator, made of phosphor Terbium-doped Gadolinium Oxysulphide (Gd$_2$O$_2$S:Tb), to produce fluorescence from the irradiation of photon and electron beams. These fluoroscopic signals are collected and digitized by a digital video camera (DVC) and then processed by custom made software to express the relative dose profile in a 3 dimensional (3D) plot. As an application of the BInS, measurements related to IWRT are made and presented in this work. Using a static multileaf collimator (SMLC) technique, the intensity modulated beam (IMB) is delivered via a sequence of static portals made by controlled leaves. Thus, when static subfields are generated by a sequence of abutting portals, the penumbras and scattered photons of the delivered beams overlap in abutting field regions and this results in the creation of “hot spots”. Using the BInS, inter-step “hot spots” inherent in SMLC are measured and an empirical method to remove them is proposed. Another major MLC technique in IMRT, the dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) technique, has different characteristics from SMLC due to a different leaf operation mechanism during the irradiation of photon and electron beams. By using the BInS, the actual delivered doses by SMLC and DMLC techniques are measured and compared. Even if the planned dose to a target volume is equal in our experimental setting, the actual delivered dose by DMLC technique is measured to be larger by 14.8% than that by SMLC, and this is due to scattered photons and contaminant electrons at d$_{max}$.

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Suggestion for Comprehensive Quality Assurance of Medical Linear Accelerator in Korea (국내 선형가속기의 포괄적인 품질관리체계에 대한 제언)

  • Choi, Sang Hyoun;Park, Dong-wook;Kim, Kum Bae;Kim, Dong Wook;Lee, Jaiki;Shin, Dong Oh
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.294-303
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    • 2015
  • American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Published Task Group 40 report which includes recommendations for comprehensive quality assurance (QA) for medical linear accelerator in 1994 and TG-142 report for recommendation for QA which includes procedures such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in 2010. Recently, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) published NSSC notification no. 2015-005 which is "Technological standards for radiation safety of medical field". This notification regulate to establish guidelines for quality assurance which includes organization and job, devices, methods/frequency/tolerances and action levels for QA, and to implement quality assurance in each medical institution. For this reason, all of these facilities using medical machine for patient treatment should establish items, frequencies and tolerances for proper QA for medical treatment machine that use the techniques such as non-IMRT, IMRT and SRS/SBRT, and perform quality assurance. For domestic, however, there are lack of guidelines and reports of Korean Society of Medical Physicists (KSMP) for reference to establish systematic QA report in medical institutes. This report, therefore, suggested comprehensive quality assurance system such as the scheme of quality assurance system, which is considered for domestic conditions, based the notification of NSSC and AAPM TG-142 reports. We think that the quality assurance system suggested for medical linear accelerator also help establishing QA system for another high-precision radiation treatment machines.

Evaluation of Set-up Accuracy for Frame-based and Frameless Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (폐암 정위체부방사선치료 시 고정기구(frame) 사용 유무에 따른 셋업 정확성 평가)

  • Ji, Yunseo;Chang, Kyung Hwan;Cho, Byungchul;Kwak, Jungwon;Song, Si Yeol;Choi, Eun Kyung;Lee, Sang-wook
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.286-293
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the set up accuracy using stereotactic body frame and frameless immobilizer for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). For total 40 lung cancer patients treated by SBRT, 20 patients using stereotactic body frame and other 20 patients using frameless immobilizer were separately enrolled in each group. The setup errors of each group depending on the immobilization methods were compared and analyzed. All patients received the dose of 48~60 Gy for 4 or 5 fractions. Before each treatment, a patient was first localized to the treatment isocenter using room lasers, and further aligned with a series of image guidance procedures; orthogonal kV radiographs, cone-beam CT, orthogonal fluoroscopy. The couch shifts during these procedures were recorded and analyzed for systematic and random errors of each group. Student t-test was performed to evaluate significant difference depending on the immobilization methods. The setup reproducibility was further analyzed using F-test with the random errors excluding the systematic setup errors. In addition, the ITV-PTV margin for each group was calculated. The setup errors for SBF were $0.05{\pm}0.25cm$ in vertical direction, $0.20{\pm}0.38cm$ in longitudinal direction, and $0.02{\pm}0.30cm$ in lateral direction, respectively. However the setup errors for frameless immobilizer showed a significant increase of $-0.24{\pm}0.25cm$ in vertical direction while similar results of $0.06{\pm}0.34cm$, $-0.02{\pm}0.25cm$ in longitudinal and lateral directions. ITV-PTV margins for SBF were 0.67 cm (vertical), 0.99 cm (longitudinal), and 0.83 cm (lateral), respectively. On the other hand, ITV-PTV margins for Frameless immobilizer were 0.75 cm (vertical), 0.96 cm (longitudinal), and 0.72 cm (lateral), indicating less than 1 mm difference for all directions. In conclusion, stereotactic body frame improves reproducibility of patient setup, resulted in 0.1~0.2 cm in both vertical and longitudinal directions. However the improvements are not substantial in clinic considering the effort and time consumption required for SBF setup.

Comparison of Helical TomoTherapy with Linear Accelerator Base Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy for Head & Neck Cases (두경부암 환자에 대한 선량체적 히스토그램에 따른 토모치료외 선형가속기기반 세기변조방사선치료의 정량적 비교)

  • Kim, Dong-Wook;Yoon, Myong-Geun;Park, Sung-Yong;Lee, Se-Byeong;Shin, Dong-Ho;Lee, Doo-Hyeon;Kwak, Jung-Won;Park, So-Ah;Lim, Young-Kyung;Kim, Jin-Sung;Shin, Jung-Wook;Cho, Kwan-Ho
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 2008
  • TomoTherapy has a merit to treat cancer with Intensity modulated radiation and combines precise 3-D imaging from computerized tomography (CT scanning) with highly targeted radiation beams and rotating beamlets. In this paper, we comparing the dose distribution between TomoTherapy and linear accelerator based intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for 10 Head & Neck patients using TomoTherapy which is newly installed and operated at National Cancer Center since Sept. 2006. Furthermore, we estimate how the homogeneity and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) are changed by motion of target. Inverse planning was carried out using CadPlan planning system (CadPlan R.6.4.7, Varian Medical System Inc. 3100 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1129, USA). For each patient, an inverse IMRT plan was also made using TomoTherapy Hi-Art System (Hi-Art2_2_4 2.2.4.15, TomoTherapy Incorporated, 1240 Deming Way, Madson, WI 53717-1954, USA) and using the same targets and optimization goals. All TomoTherapy plans compared favorably with the IMRT plans regarding sparing of the organs at risk and keeping an equivalent target dose homogeneity. Our results suggest that TomoTherapy is able to reduce the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) further, keeping a similar target dose homogeneity.

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The Usability Analysis of 3D-CRT, IMRT, Tomotherpy Radiation Therapy on Nasopharyngeal Cancer (NPC의 방사선치료시 3D-CRT, IMRT, Tomotherapy의 유용성 분석)

  • Song, Jong-Nam;Kim, Young-Jae;Hong, Seung-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.365-371
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    • 2012
  • The radiation therapy treatment technique is developed from 3D-CRT, IMRT to Tomotherapy. and these three technique was most widely using methods. We find out a comparison normal tissue doses and tumor dose of 3D-CRT, IMRT(Linac Based), and Tomotherapy on Head and Neck Cancer. We achieved radiological image used the Human model phantom (Anthropomorphic Phantom) and it was taken CT simulation (Slice Thickness : 3mm) and GTV was nasopharngeal region and PTV(including set-up margin) was GTV plus 2mm area. and transfer those images to the radiation planning system (3D-CRT - ADAC-Pinnacle3, Tomotherapy - Tomotherapy Hi-Art System). The prescription dose was 7020 cGy and measuring PTV's dose and nomal tissue (parotid gland, oral cavity, spinal cord). The PTV's doses was Tomotherapy, Linac Based - IMRT, 3D-CRT was 6923 cGy, 6901 cGy and 6718 cGy its dose value was meet TCP because its value was up to the 95% based on 7020 cGy, Nomal tissue (parotid gland, oral cavity, spinal cord) was 1966 cGy(Tomotherapy), 2405 cGy(IMRT), 2468 cGy(3D-CRT)[parotid gland], 2991 cGy(Tomotherapy), 3062 cGy(IMRT), 3684 cGy (3D-CRT)[oral cavity], 1768 cGy(Tomotherapy), 2151 cGy(IMRT), 4031 cGy(3D-CRT)[spinal cord] its value did not exceeded NTCP. All the treatment techniques are equated with tumor and nomal tissue doses. The 3D-CRT was worse than other techniques on dose distribution, but it is reasonable in terms of TCP and NTCP baseline Tomotherapy, IMRT -dose distribution was relatively superior- was hard to therapy to claustrophobic patients and patients with respiratory failure. Particularly, in case on Tomotherapy, it take MVCT before treatment so dose measurement will be unnecessary radiation exposure to patients. Conclusion, Tomotherapy was the best treatment technique and 2nd was IMRT, and 3rd 3D-CRT. But applicable differently depending on the the patient's condition even though dose not matter.

A Hydrodynamic Modeling Study to Analyze the Water Plume and Mixing Pattern of the Lake Euiam (의암호 수체 흐름과 혼합 패턴에 관한 모델 연구)

  • Park, Seongwon;Lee, Hye Won;Lee, Yong Seok;Park, Seok Soon
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.488-498
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    • 2013
  • A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to the Lake Euiam. The lake has three inflows, of which Gongji Stream has the smallest flow rate and poorest water. The dam-storage volume, watershed area, lake shape and discharge type of the Chuncheon Dam and the Soyang Dam are different. Therefore, it is difficult to analyze the water plume and mixing pattern due to the difference of the two dams regarding the amount of outflow and water temperature. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different characteristics on temperature and conductivity using the model appropriate for the Lake Euiam. We selected an integrated system supporting 3-D time varying modeling (GEMSS) to represent large temporal and spatial variations in hydrodynamics and transport of the Lake Euiam. The model represents the water temperature and hydrodynamics in the lake reasonably well. We examined residence time and spreading patterns of the incoming flows in the lake based on the results of the validated model. The results of the water temperature and conductivity distribution indicated that characteristics of upstream dams greatly influence Lake Euiam. In this study, the three-dimensional time variable water quality model successfully simulated the temporal and spatial variations of the hydrodynamics in the Lake Euiam. The model may be used for efficient water quality management.

Usefulness of Region Cut Subtraction in Fusion & MIP 3D Reconstruction Image (Fusion & Maximum Intensity Projection 3D 재구성 영상에서 Region Cut Subtraction의 유용성)

  • Moon, A-Reum;Chi, Yong-Gi;Choi, Sung-Wook;Lee, Hyuk;Lee, Kyoo-Bok;Seok, Jae-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.18-23
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: PET/CT combines functional and morphologic data and increases diagnostic accuracy in a variety of malignancies. Especially reconstructed Fusion PET/CT images or MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) images from a 2-dimensional image to a 3-dimensional one are useful in visualization of the lesion. But in Fusion & MIP 3D reconstruction image, due to hot uptake by urine or urostomy bag, lesion is overlapped so it is difficult that we can distinguish the lesion with the naked eye. This research tries to improve a distinction by removing parts of hot uptake. Materials and Methods: This research has been conducted the object of patients who have went to our hospital from September 2008 to March 2009 and have a lot of urine of remaining volume as disease of uterus, bladder, rectum in the result of PET/CT examination. We used GE Company's Advantage Workstation AW4.3 05 Version Volume Viewer program. As an analysis method, set up ROI in region of removal in axial volume image, select Cut Outside and apply same method in coronal volume image. Next, adjust minimum value in Threshold of 3D Tools, select subtraction in Advanced Processing. It makes Fusion & MIP images and compares them with the image no using Region Cut Definition. Results: In Fusion & MIP 3D reconstruction image, it makes Fusion & MIP images and compares them by using Advantage Workstation AW4.3 05's Region Cut Subtraction, parts of hot uptake according to patient's urine can be removed. Distinction of lesion was clearly reconstructed in image using Region Cut Definition. Conclusion: After examining the patients showing hot uptake on account of volume of urine intake in bladder, in process of reconstruction image, if parts of hot uptake would be removed, it could contribute to offering much better diagnostic information than image subtraction of conventional method. Especially in case of disease of uterus, bladder and rectum, it will be helpful for qualitative improvement of image.

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