• Title, Summary, Keyword: 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol

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Analysis of Ginsenosides of White and Red Ginseng Concentrates (백삼 및 홍삼 농축액의 사포닌 분석)

  • Ko, Sung-Kwon;Lee, Chung-Ryul;Choi, Yong-Eui;Im, Byung-Ok;Sung, Jong-Hwan;Yoon, Kwang-Ro
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.536-539
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    • 2003
  • Commercial white and red ginseng concentrates were analysed for total ginsenoside contents, and compositions of ginsenosides $Rb_1,\;Rb_2,\;Rc,\;Re,\;Rf,\;Rg_1,\;20(S)\;Rg_3,\;20(S)\;Rh_1,\;and\;20(R)\;Rh_1$. The content of crude saponin and total ginsenosides of white ginseng concentrates (WGC) were about 2-3 times higher than those of red ginseng concentrates (RGC). HPLC showed that each ginsenoside content was higher in WGC, with those of $Rb_1,\;Rg_1,\;and\;Rb_2$ being over three times higher than that of RGC. 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$, specific artifacts found only in red ginseng, were detected both in WGC and RGC by HPLC. differences in the contents of these specific ginsenosides between WGC and RGC were not significant. The contents of 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_1$, determined by HPLC were 0.40 and 0.53 in WGC, whereas 0.48% and 0.47%, and those of 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$, were 0.14 and 0.22% in WGC, and 0.10 and 0.11% in RGC using the methods of shibata and food Code, respectively.

The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of IH-901 in HT-29 Cells

  • Lee, Seung-Min;Kim, Ki-Nam;Kim, Yu-Ri;Kim, Hye-Won;Shim, Boo-Im;Lee, Seung-Ho;Bae, Hak-Soon;Kim, In-Kyoung;Kim, Meyoung-Kon
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.254-261
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    • 2007
  • 20-O-($\beta$-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20 (S)-protopanaxadiol (IH-901) is one of the major metabolites of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, and is suggested that IH-901 has been associated with various pharmacological and physiological activities. In this study, we demonstrate that IH-901 induced anti-inflammation in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Our results showed that IH-901 inhibited cell proliferation of HT-29 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We also found that IH-901 was significantly decreased expression of iNOS compared with non-treated. We observed effect of IH-901 related with inflammatory genes using by cDNA microarray. We were known that the 34 inflammatory genes such as E2F, CDK6, TNF-$\alpha$, and PKC were down-regulated. Thus, these results suggest that IH-901 may have a potential preventive factor to improving cancer induced by chronic inflammation.

Hepatoprotective Effects of Ginseng Intestinal Metabolite IH-901 on Chemical-Induced Hepatic Damage

  • Sohn, Uy-Dong;Ko, Sung-Kwon;Choi, Tae-Sik;Im, Byung-Ok ;Han, Sung-Tai;Yang, Byung-Wook;Sung, Jong-Hwan;Kim, Yong-Sung;Woo, Jae-Gwang;Cho, Young-Rae;Min, Young-Sil;Jeong, Ji-Hoon;Lee, Boo-Yong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.558-560
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    • 2005
  • Hepatoprotective effects of white ginseng extract (WGE), and IH-901 (20-O-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol) derived from intestinal metabolite of ginsenoside $Rb_1$ were studied using two experimental animal models with chemical-induced hepatic damage. Administration of WGE (200 and 500 mg/kg) and IH-901 (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mM/kg) significantly decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in acute hepatitic mice induced by $CCl_4$. Administration of WGE (l00 mg/kg) and IH-901 (0.02, 0.04, and 0.08 mM/kg) significantly decreased AST and ALT levels in acute hepatitic rats induced by D-galactosamine. AST and ALT levels of IH-901 groups decreased. These results suggested WGE and IH-901 may have protective effects against chemical-induced hepatic damage.

Effects of Minor Ginsenosides, Ginsenoside Metabolites, and Ginsenoside Epimers on the Growth of Caenorhabditis elegans

  • Lee, Joon-Hee;Ahn, Ji-Yun;Shin, Tae-Joon;Choi, Sun-Hye;Lee, Byung-Hwan;Hwang, Sung-Hee;Kang, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Hyeon-Joong;Park, Chan-Woo;Nah, Seung-Yeol
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.375-383
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    • 2011
  • In the previous report, we have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rc, one of major ginsenosides, is a major component for the restoration for normal growth of worms in cholesterol-deprived medium. In the present study, we further investigated the roles of minor ginsenosides, such as ginsenoside $Rh_1$ and $Rh_2$, ginsenoside metabolites such as compound K (CK), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and protopanaxatriol (PPT) and ginsenoside epimers such as 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ in cholesterol-deprived medium. We found that ginsenoside $Rh_1$ almost restored normal growth of worms in cholesterol-deprived medium in F1 generation. However, supplement of ginsenoside $Rh_2$ caused a suppression of worm growths in cholesterol-deprived medium. In addition, CK and PPD also slightly restored normal growth of worms in cholesterol-deprived medium but PPT not. In experiments using ginsenoside epimers, supplement of 20(S)- but not 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ in cholesterol-deprived medium also almost restored worm growth. These results indicate that the absence or presence of carbohydrate component at backbone of ginsenoside, the number of carbohydrate attached at carbon-3, and the position of hydroxyl group at carbon-20 of ginsenoside might plays important roles in restoration of worm growth in cholesterol-deprived medium.

Characterizing a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of (20S)-and (20R)-ginsenoside Rg3 to be proposed as standard reference materials

  • Kim, Il-Woung;Sun, Won Suk;Yun, Bong-Sik;Kim, Na-Ri;Min, Dongsun;Kim, Si-Kwan
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.124-134
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    • 2013
  • The authentication of the physico-chemical properties of ginsenosides reference materials as well as qualitative and quantitative batch analytical data based on validated analytical procedures is a prerequisite for certifying good manufacturing practice (GMP). Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1, representing protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol ginsenosides, respectively, are accepted as marker substances in quality control standards worldwide. However, the current analytical methods for these two compounds recommended by Korean, Chinese, European, and Japanese pharmacopoeia do not apply to red ginseng preparations, particularly the extract, because of the relatively low content of the two agents in red ginseng compared to white ginseng. In manufacturing fresh ginseng into red ginseng products, ginseng roots are exposed to a high temperature for many hours, and the naturally occurring ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 are converted to artifact ginsenosides such as Rg3, Rg5, Rh1, and Rh2 during the heating process. The analysis of ginsenosides in commercially available ginseng products in Korea led us to propose the inclusion of the (20S)- and (20R)-ginsenoside Rg3, including ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1, as additional reference materials for ginseng preparations. (20S)- and (20R)-ginsenoside Rg3 were isolated by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel flash chromatography, recrystallization, and preparative HPLC. HPLC fractions corresponding to those two ginsenosides were recrystallized in appropriate solvents for the analysis of physico-chemical properties. Documentation of those isolated ginsenosides was achieved according to the method proposed by Gaedcke and Steinhoff. The ginsenosides were subjected to analyses of their general characteristics, identification, purity, content quantification, and mass balance tests. The isolated ginsenosides showed 100% purity when determined by the three HPLC systems. Also, the water content was found to be 0.534% for (20S)-Rg3 and 0.920% for (20R)-Rg3, meaning that the net mass balances for (20S)-Rg3 and (20R)-Rg3 were 99.466% and 99.080%, respectively. From these results, we could assess and propose a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of (20S)- and (20R)-ginsenoside Rg3 as standard reference materials for GMP-based quality control.

Inhibitory Effect of Ginseng Saponins and Polysaccharides on Infection and Vacuolation of Helicobacter pylori

  • Kim, Jong-Mi;Shln, Ji-Eun;Han, Myung-Joo;Park, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.706-709
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    • 2003
  • Ginsenosides and polysaccharides were isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Family Araliaceae) by treating at low ($60^{\circ}C$, LT), mild ($100^{\circ}C$, MT), and high ($120^{\circ}C$, HT) temperatures, and their inhibitory effects on growth, infection, and VacA vacuolation of Helicobacter pylori (HP) were investigated. The molecular weights of polysaccharides decreased as the processing temperature increased. Ginseng polysaccharides inhibited the HP infection into KATO III cells, but did not inhibit growth of HP and VacA vacuolation of HeLa cells. HT polysaccharides showed the most potent inhibition with $IC_50$ value of 6.8 mg/ml. Ginseng saponins did not inhibit the infection of HP into KATO cells. However, 20(s)-protopanaxadiol showed the most potent inhibition of HP growth and vacuolation of HeLa by VacA toxin with $IC_50$ values of 0.05 and 0.067 mg/ml, respectively.

Impact of NR1I2, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside compound K in healthy Chinese volunteers

  • Zhou, Luping;Chen, Lulu;Wang, Yaqin;Huang, Jie;Yang, Guoping;Tan, Zhirong;Wang, Yicheng;Liao, Jianwei;Zhou, Gan;Hu, Kai;Li, Zhenyu;Ouyang, Dongsheng
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.460-474
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    • 2019
  • Background: Ginsenoside compound K (CK) is a promising drug candidate for rheumatoid arthritis. This study examined the impact of polymorphisms in NR1I2, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes on the pharmacokinetics of CK in healthy Chinese individuals. Methods: Forty-two targeted variants in seven genes were genotyped in 54 participants using Sequenom MassARRAY system to investigate their association with major pharmacokinetic parameters of CK and its metabolite 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD). Subsequently, molecular docking was simulated using the AutoDock Vina program. Results: ABCC4 rs1751034 TT and rs1189437 TT were associated with increased exposure of CK and decreased exposure of 20(S)-PPD, whereas CFTR rs4148688 heterozygous carriers had the lowest maximum concentration ($C_{max}$) of CK. The area under the curve from zero to the time of the last quantifiable concentration ($AUC_{last}$) of CK was decreased in NR1I2 rs1464602 and rs2472682 homozygous carriers, while $C_{max}$ was significantly reduced only in rs2472682. ABCC4 rs1151471 and CFTR rs2283054 influenced the pharmacokinetics of 20(S)-PPD. In addition, several variations in ABCC2, ABCC4, CFTR, and NR1I2 had minor effects on the pharmacokinetics of CK. Quality of the best homology model of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) was assessed, and the ligand interaction plot showed the mode of interaction of CK with different MRP4 residues. Conlusion: ABCC4 rs1751034 and rs1189437 affected the pharmacokinetics of both CK and 20(S)-PPD. NR1I2 rs1464602 and rs2472682 were only associated with the pharmacokinetics of CK. Thus, these hereditary variances could partly explain the interindividual differences in the pharmacokinetics of CK.

Compound K Activates Hyaluronan Synthase 2 in transformed human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts and Increases hyaluronan in hairless mouse skin

  • Kim, Su-Jong;Kang, Byung-Yang;Cho, Si-Yang;Sung, Dae-Suk;Shin, Eiu-Suk;Chang, Hui-Kyung;Yeom, Myung-Hun;Woo, Kwang-Sik;Kim, Duk-Hee;Sim, Young-Chul;Lee, Yong-Sung
    • Proceedings of the SCSK Conference
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    • pp.741-762
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    • 2003
  • Ginsenosides, the major active ingredients of ginseng, show a variety of biomedical efficacies such as anti-aging, anti oxidation and anti-inflammatory activities. To understand the effects of compound K (20-O-D-glucopyranosyl-20 (S)-protopanaxadiol), one of the major metabolite of ginsenosides on the skin, we assessed the expression level of ∼ 100 transcripts in compound K-treated HaCaT cells using cDNA microarray analysis. Compound K treatment induced differential expression of 21 genes, which have been reported to be involved in the organization of ECM structure as well as defense responses in human skin cells. One of the most interesting findings is 2-fold increase in hyaluronan synthase2 (HAS2) gene expression by compound K. We found that change in expression of HAS2 gene represents a specific response of HaCaT cells to compound K because hyaluronan synthase 1, 3 was not changed by treatment with compound K. We also demonstrated that the compound K effectively induced hyaluronan synthesis in human skin cells and hairless mouse skin. The human clinical study indicates that topical application of compound K-containing oil-in-water emulsion showed improvement of xerosis, wrinkle and fine lines in the aged skin. We concluded that compound K has anti-aging effects by the induction of HAS2 gene expression and following hyaluronan synthase.

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Inhibition of Telomerase Activity in U937 Human Monocytic Leukemia Cells by Compound K, a Ginseng Saponin Metabolite

  • Kang Kyoung-Ah;Lee Kyoung-Hwa;Chae Sung-Wook;Kim Jeong-Ki;Seo Jung-Yeon;Ham Yong-Ho;Lee Kee-Ho;Kim Bum-Joon;Kim Hee-Sun;Kim Dong-Hyun;Hyun Jin Won
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2006
  • Telomerase activation is detected in most cancerous cells; hence, telomerase is a highly selective target for cancer therapy, which plays an important role in the apoptotic process. We have previously reported that the ginseng saponin metabolite, Compound K (20-O-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, IH901), inhibits cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the $G_1$ phase. The present study investigated the regulation of telomerase activity in Compound K treated U937 cells. Compound K treatment caused a reduction in telomerase activity and down-regulated the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, resulting in the decreased expressions of its protein, and of the c-Myc and Spl proteins (transcription factors of hTERT). These results indicate that the anticancer activity of Compound K could be mediated by inhibition of the telomerase activity.

[ $G_1$ ] Phase Arrest of the Cell Cycle by a Ginseng Metabolite, Compound K, in U937 Human Monocytic Leukamia Cells

  • Kang Kyoung Ah;Kim Yeong Wan;Kim Seung Uk;Chae Sungwook;Koh Young Sang;Kim Hee Sun;Choo Min Kyung;Kim Dong Hyun;Hyun Jin Won
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.685-690
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    • 2005
  • We recently reported that the ginseng saponin metabolite, compound K (20-O-$\beta$-D-glucopyra-nosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, IH901), inhibits the growth of U937 cells through caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway. In this study, we further characterized the effects of compound K on U937 cells and found that, in addition to apoptosis, compound K induced the arrest of the G1 phase. The compound K treated U937 cells showed increased p21 expression; an inhibitory protein of cyclincdk complex. The up-regulation of p21 was followed by the inactivation of cyclin D and the cdk4 protein, which act at the early $G_1$ phase, and cyclin E, which acts at the late $G_1$ phase. Furthermore, compound K induced the activation of JNK and the transcription factor AP-1, which is a downstream target of JNK. These findings suggest that the up-regulation of p21 and activation of JNK in the compound K treated cells contribute to the arrest of the $G_1$ phase.