• Title, Summary, Keyword: 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol

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20S-dihydroprotopanaxadiol, a ginsenoside derivative, boosts innate immune responses of monocytes and macrophages

  • Kim, Mi-Yeon;Cho, Jae Youl
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.293-299
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    • 2013
  • 20S-dihydroprotopanaxadiol (2H-PPD) is a derivative of protopanaxadiol, a glycone of ginsenosides prepared from Panax ginseng. Although ginsenosides and acidic polysaccharides are known to be major active ingredients in ginseng, the immunopharmacological activities of their metabolites and derivatives have not been fully explored. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory action of 2H-PPD on the function of monocytes and macrophages in innate immune responses. 2H-PPD was able to boost the phagocytic uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran in macrophages and enhance the generation of radicals (reactive oxygen species) in sodium nitroprusside-treated RAW264.7 cells. The surface levels of the costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 were also increased during 2H-PPD treatment. In addition, this compound boosted U937 cell-cell aggregation induced by CD29 and CD43 antibodies, but not by cell-extracellular matrix (fibronectin) adhesion. Similarly, the surface levels of CD29 and CD43 were increased by 2H-PPD exposure. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that 2H-PPD has the pharmacological capability to upregulate the functional role of macrophages/monocytes in innate immunity.

Evaluation of the gastroprotective effects of 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on gastric ulcer models in mice

  • Zhang, Kai;Liu, Ying;Wang, Cuizhu;Li, Jiannan;Xiong, Lingxin;Wang, Zhenzhou;Liu, Jinping;Li, Pingya
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.550-561
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    • 2019
  • Background: Gastric ulcer (GU) is a common gastrointestinal disease that can be induced by many factors. Finding an effective treatment method that contains fewer side effects is important. 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 is a kind of protopanaxadiol and has shown superior antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects in many studies, especially cancer studies. In this study, we examined the treatment efficacy of 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on GU. Methods: Three kinds of GU models, including an alcohol GU model, a pylorus-ligated GU model, and an acetic acid GU model, were used. Mouse endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in blood and epidermal growth factor (EGF), superoxide dismutase, and NO levels in gastric mucosa were evaluated. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of gastric mucosa and immunohistochemical staining of ET-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and epidermal growth factor receptors were studied. Ulcer index (UI) scores and UI ratios were also analyzed to demonstrate the GU conditions in different groups. Furthermore, Glide XP from $Schr{\ddot{o}}dinger$ was used for molecular docking to clarify the interactions between 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and EGF and NOS2. Results: 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 significantly decreased the UI scores and UI ratios in all the three GU models, and it demonstrated antiulcer effects by decreasing the ET-1 and NOS2 levels and increasing the NO, superoxide dismutase, EGF, and epidermal growth factor receptor levels. In addition, high-dose 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 showed satisfactory gastric mucosa protection effects. Conclusion: 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 can inhibit the formation of GU and may be a potential therapeutic agent for GU.

Production of the Rare Ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3) by Enzymatic Conversion Combined with Acid Treatment and Evaluation of Its Anti-Cancer Activity

  • Song, Bong-Kyu;Kim, Kyeng Min;Choi, Kang-Duk;Im, Wan-Taek
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1233-1241
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    • 2017
  • The ginsenoside Rh2 has strong anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the application of ginsenoside Rh2 is restricted because of the small amounts found in Korean white and red ginsengs. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (comprising 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3 as a 10-g unit) with high specificity, yield, and purity, a new combination of enzymatic conversion using the commercial enzyme Viscozyme L followed by acid treatment was developed. Viscozyme L treatment at pH 5.0 and $50^{\circ}C$ was used initially to transform the major ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd into ginsenoside F2, followed by acid-heat treatment using citric acid 2% (w/v) at pH 2.0 and $121^{\circ}C$ for 15 min. Scale-up production in a 10-L jar fermenter, using 60 g of the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside mixture from ginseng roots, produced 24 g of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX. Using 2 g of Rh2-MIX, 131 mg of 20(S)-Rh2, 58 mg of 20(R)-Rh2, 47 mg of Rk2, and 26 mg of Rh3 were obtained at over 98% chromatographic purity. Then, the anti-cancer effect of the four purified ginsenosides was investigated on B16F10, MDA-MB-231, and HuH-7 cell lines. As a result, these four rare ginsenosides markedly inhibited the growth of the cancer cell lines. These results suggested that rare ginsenoside Rh2-MIX could be exploited to prepare an anti-cancer supplement in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

Identification of Dammarane-type Triterpenoid Saponins from the Root of Panax ginseng

  • Lee, Dong Gu;Lee, Jaemin;Yang, Sanghoon;Kim, Kyung-Tack;Lee, Sanghyun
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.111-121
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    • 2015
  • The root of Panax ginseng, is a Korea traditional medicine, which is used in both raw and processed forms due to their different pharmacological activities. As part of a continued chemical investigation of ginseng, the focus of this research is on the isolation and identification of compounds from Panax ginseng root by open column chromatography, medium pressure liquid chromatography, semi-preparative-high performance liquid chromatography, Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins were isolated from Panax ginseng root by open column chromatography, medium pressure liquid chromatography, and semi-preparative-high performance liquid chromatography. Their structures were identified as protopanaxadiol ginsenosides [gypenoside-V (1), ginsenosides-Rb1 (2), -Rb2 (3), -Rb3 (4), -Rc (5), and -Rd (6)], protopanaxatriol ginsenosides [20(S)-notoginsenoside-R2 (7), notoginsenoside-Rt (8), 20(S)-O-glucoginsenoside-Rf (9), 6-O-[$\alpha$-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1$\rightarrow$2-$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl]-20-O-$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl-$3\beta$,$12\beta$, 20(S)-dihydroxy-dammar-25-en-24-one (10), majoroside-F6 (11), pseudoginsenoside-Rt3 (12), ginsenosides-Re (13), -Re5 (14), -Rf (15), -Rg1 (16), -Rg2 (17), and -Rh1 (18), and vinaginsenoside-R15 (19)], and oleanene ginsenosides [calenduloside-B (20) and ginsenoside-Ro (21)] through the interpretation of spectroscopic analysis. The configuration of the sugar linkages in each saponin was established on the basic of chemical and spectroscopic data. Among them, compounds 1, 8, 10, 11, 12, 19, and 20 were isolated for the first time from P. ginseng root.

Transformation Techniques for the Large Scale Production of Ginsenoside Rg3 (Ginsenoside Rg3의 함량증가를 위한 변환 기술)

  • Nam, Ki Yeul;Choi, Jae Eul;Park, Jong Dae
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.401-414
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    • 2013
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 (G-Rg3) contained only in red ginseng has been found to show various pharmacological effects such as an anticancer, antiangiogenetic, antimetastastic, liver protective, neuroprotective immunomodulating, vasorelaxative, antidiabetic, insulin secretion promoting and antioxidant activities. It is well known that G-Rg3 could be divided into 20(R)-Rg3 and 20(S)-Rg3 according to the hydroxyl group attached to C-20 of aglycone, whose structural characteristics show different pharmacological activities. It has been reported that G-Rg3 is metabolized to G-Rh2 and protopanaxadiol by the conditions of the gastric acid or intestinal bacteria, thereby these metabolites could be absorbed, suggesting its absolute bioavailability (2.63%) to be very low. Therefore, we reviewed the chemical, physical and biological transformation methods for the production on a large scale of G-Rg3 with various pharmacological effects. We also examined the influence of acid and heat treatment-induced potentials on for the preparation method of higher G-Rg3 content in ginseng and ginseng products. Futhermore, the microbial and enzymatic bio-conversion technologies could be more efficient in terms of high selectivity, efficiency and productivity. The present review discusses the available technologies for G-Rg3 production on a large scale using chemical and biological transformation.

Recent Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer) (고려인삼의 화학성분에 관한 고찰)

  • 박종대
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.389-415
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    • 1996
  • Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer(Araliaceae) has been traditionally used as an expensive and precious medicine in oriental countries for more than 5, 000 years. Ginseng saponin isolated from the root of Panax ginseng have been regarded as the main effective components responsible for the pharmacological and biological activities. Such as antiaging effects. antidiabetic effects anticancer effects. Protection against physical and chemical stress. Analgesic and antipyretic effects. Effects on the central nervous system, tranquilizing action and others. Thirty kinds of ginsenosides have been so far isolated from ginseng saponin and their chemical structures have been elucidated since 1960's. Among which protopanaxadiol type is 19 kinds. protopanaxatriol type. 10 kinds and oleanane type, one. Since ginsenosides are generally labile under acidic conditions ordinary acid hydrolysis is always accompanied by many side reactions, such as epimerization. hydroxylation and cyclization of side chain of the sapogenins Especially. it is well known that C-20 glycosyl linkage of ginsenoside was hydrolysed on heating with acetic acid to give an equilibrated mixture of 20(S) and 20(R) epimers. And also, the chemical transformations of the secondary metabolites have appeared during the steaming process to prepare red ginseng. Indicating demalonylation of malonyl ginsenosides, elimination of glycosyl residue at C-20 and isomerization of hydroxyl configuration at C-20. But these studies have not provided a comprehensive picture in explaning how these ginsenosides showed val'iotas pharmacological activities of ginseng. Though some of them have been involved in the mechanism of pharmacological actions. Recently, non-saponin components have received a great deal of attention for their antioxidant, anticancer antidiabetic, immunomodulating. anticomplementary activities and so on. To meet the demand for such wide applications, studies on the non-saponin components play an important role in providing a good evidence of pharmacological and biol ogical activities. Among the non-saponin constituents of Korean ginseng, polyacetylenes, phenols. Sesquiterpenes, alkaloids. polysaccharides oligosaccharides, oligopeptides and aminoglycosides together with ginsenosides of terrestrial part are mainly described.

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A Chemical Study of the Saponins and Flavonoids of Dwarf Ginseng (Panax trifolius L.) and Its Comparison to Related Species in the Araliaceae (왜생삼 (Panax trifolius L.)의 사포닌과 프라보노이드의 화학적 연구 및 오가과에 속하는 유연종과의 성분 비교연구)

  • Lee Taikwang M.;Marderosian Ara Der
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 1988
  • Dwarf ginseng (Panax trifolius L.) is a member of the ginseng family (Araliaceae). which is indigenous to North America and is distributed from Southern Canada to the Northern United States. In total. nine compounds were isolated from the leaves of Dwarf gineng. Of these. four were identified as flavonoids and five were found to be ginsenosides. Two of the flavonoids were identified to be kaempferol-3. 7-dirhamnoside and kaempferol-3-gluco-7-rhamnoside. Four of the ginsenosides were identified as notoginsenoside-Fe. ginsenoside-Rd. ginsenoside-Rc and $ginsenoside-Rb_1$ The common aglycone of these ginsenosides was shown to be (20S)-protopanaxadiol. The identification of flavonoids and ginsenosides from the root. stem. leaf. flower and fruit of Dwarf ginseng was detected by Two-Dimensional Thin-Layer Chromatography (2D-TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The quantitation of flavonoids and ginsenosides from the root. stem. leaf. flower and fruit of Dwarf ginseng and related species such as Korean gineng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) was analyzed by HPLC only. Three flavonoids (Kaempferol derivatives) labelled compound 1 $(10.8\%)$, compound 3 ($2.8\%$), and compound 4 ($8.4\%)$ were found in the root of Dwarf ginseng but not found in the roots of Korean ginseng and American ginseng. This is the first time that flavonoids have been found and identified in roots of the ginseng family (Araliaceae).

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Protein target identification of ginsenosides in skeletal muscle tissues: discovery of natural small-molecule activators of muscle-type creatine kinase

  • Chen, Feiyan;Zhu, Kexuan;Chen, Lin;Ouyang, Liufeng;Chen, Cuihua;Gu, Ling;Jiang, Yucui;Wang, Zhongli;Lin, Zixuan;Zhang, Qiang;Shao, Xiao;Dai, Jianguo;Zhao, Yunan
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.461-474
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    • 2020
  • Background: Ginseng effectively reduces fatigue in both animal models and clinical trials. However, the mechanism of action is not completely understood, and its molecular targets remain largely unknown. Methods: By screening for proteins that interact with the primary components of ginseng (ginsenosides) in an affinity chromatography assay, we have identified muscle-type creatine kinase (CK-MM) as a potential target in skeletal muscle tissues. Results: Biolayer interferometry analysis showed that ginsenoside metabolites, instead of parent ginsenosides, had direct interaction with recombinant human CK-MM. Subsequently, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), which is a ginsenoside metabolite and displayed the strongest interaction with CK-MM in the study, was selected as a representative to confirm direct binding and its biological importance. Biolayer interferometry kinetics analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry assay demonstrated that PPD specifically bound to human CK-MM. Moreover, the mutation of key amino acids predicted by molecular docking decreased the affinity between PPD and CK-MM. The direct binding activated CK-MM activity in vitro and in vivo, which increased the levels of tissue phosphocreatine and strengthened the function of the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system in skeletal muscle, thus buffering cellular ATP, delaying exercise-induced lactate accumulation, and improving exercise performance in mice. Conclusion: Our results suggest a cellular target and an initiating molecular event by which ginseng reduces fatigue. All these findings indicate PPD as a small molecular activator of CK-MM, which can help in further developing better CK-MM activators based on the dammarane-type triterpenoid structure.

Analysis of Ginsenosides of White and Red Ginseng Concentrates (백삼 및 홍삼 농축액의 사포닌 분석)

  • Ko, Sung-Kwon;Lee, Chung-Ryul;Choi, Yong-Eui;Im, Byung-Ok;Sung, Jong-Hwan;Yoon, Kwang-Ro
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.536-539
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    • 2003
  • Commercial white and red ginseng concentrates were analysed for total ginsenoside contents, and compositions of ginsenosides $Rb_1,\;Rb_2,\;Rc,\;Re,\;Rf,\;Rg_1,\;20(S)\;Rg_3,\;20(S)\;Rh_1,\;and\;20(R)\;Rh_1$. The content of crude saponin and total ginsenosides of white ginseng concentrates (WGC) were about 2-3 times higher than those of red ginseng concentrates (RGC). HPLC showed that each ginsenoside content was higher in WGC, with those of $Rb_1,\;Rg_1,\;and\;Rb_2$ being over three times higher than that of RGC. 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$, specific artifacts found only in red ginseng, were detected both in WGC and RGC by HPLC. differences in the contents of these specific ginsenosides between WGC and RGC were not significant. The contents of 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_1$, determined by HPLC were 0.40 and 0.53 in WGC, whereas 0.48% and 0.47%, and those of 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$, were 0.14 and 0.22% in WGC, and 0.10 and 0.11% in RGC using the methods of shibata and food Code, respectively.

The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of IH-901 in HT-29 Cells

  • Lee, Seung-Min;Kim, Ki-Nam;Kim, Yu-Ri;Kim, Hye-Won;Shim, Boo-Im;Lee, Seung-Ho;Bae, Hak-Soon;Kim, In-Kyoung;Kim, Meyoung-Kon
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.254-261
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    • 2007
  • 20-O-($\beta$-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20 (S)-protopanaxadiol (IH-901) is one of the major metabolites of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, and is suggested that IH-901 has been associated with various pharmacological and physiological activities. In this study, we demonstrate that IH-901 induced anti-inflammation in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Our results showed that IH-901 inhibited cell proliferation of HT-29 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We also found that IH-901 was significantly decreased expression of iNOS compared with non-treated. We observed effect of IH-901 related with inflammatory genes using by cDNA microarray. We were known that the 34 inflammatory genes such as E2F, CDK6, TNF-$\alpha$, and PKC were down-regulated. Thus, these results suggest that IH-901 may have a potential preventive factor to improving cancer induced by chronic inflammation.