• Title, Summary, Keyword: 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol

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20(S)-protopanaxadiol promotes the migration, proliferation, and differentiation of neural stem cells by targeting GSK-3β in the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway

  • Lin, Kaili;Liu, Bin;Lim, Sze-Lam;Fu, Xiuqiong;Sze, Stephen C.W.;Yung, Ken K.L.;Zhang, Shiqing
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.475-482
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    • 2020
  • Background: Active natural ingredients, especially small molecules, have recently received wide attention as modifiers used to treat neurodegenerative disease by promoting neurogenic regeneration of neural stem cell (NSC) in situ. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the bioactive ingredients in ginseng, possesses neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of PPD on NSC proliferation and differentiation and its mechanism of action are incompletely understood. Methods: In this study, we investigated the impact of PPD on NSC proliferation and neuronal lineage differentiation through activation of the Wnt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β/β-catenin pathway. NSC migration and proliferation were investigated by neurosphere assay, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and EdU assay. NSC differentiation was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Involvement of the Wnt/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway was examined by molecular simulation and Western blot and verified using gene transfection. Results: PPD significantly promoted neural migration and induced a significant increase in NSC proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a remarkable increase in anti-microtubule-associated protein 2 expression and decrease in nestin protein expression were induced by PPD. During the differentiation process, PPD targeted and stimulated the phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9 and the active forms of β-catenin, resulting in activation of the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Transfection of NSCs with a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant at S9A significantly hampered the proliferation and neural differentiation mediated by PPD. Conclusion: PPD promotes NSC proliferation and neural differentiation in vitro via activation of the Wnt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway by targeting GSK-3β, potentially having great significance for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Biotransformation of Intestinal Bacterial Metabolites of Ginseng Saponin to Biologically Active Fatty-acid Conjugates

  • Hasegawa Hideo;Saiki Ikuo
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.317-334
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    • 2002
  • Ginsenosides are metabolized (deglycosylated) by intestinal bacteria to active forms after oral administration. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol $20-O-{\beta}-D-glucopyranoside$ (M1) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (M4) are the main intestinal bacterial metabolites (IBMs) of protopanaxadiol- and protopanaxatriol-type glycosides. M1 was selectively accumulated into the liver soon after its intravenous (i.v.) administration to mice, and mostly excreted as bile; however, some M1 was transformed to fatty acid ester (EMl) in the liver. EM1 was isolated from rats in a recovery dose of approximately $24mol\%.$ Structural analysis indicated that EM1 comprised a family of fatty acid mono-esters of M1. Because EM1 was not excreted as bile as Ml was, it was accumulated in the liver longer than M1. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M1 was attenuated by fatty acid esterification, implying that esterification is a detoxification reaction. However, esterified M1 (EM1) inhibited the growth of B16 melanoma more than Ml in vivo. The in vivo antitumor activity paralleled with the pharmacokinetic behavior. In the case of M4, orally administered M4 was absorbed from the small intestine into the mesenteric lymphatics followed by the rapid esterification of M4 with fatty acids and its spreading to other organs in the body and excretion as bile. The administration of M4 prior to tumor injection abrogated the enhanced lung metastasis in the mice pretreated with 2-chloroadenosine more effectively than in those pretreated with anti-asialo GMl. Both EM1 and EM4 did not directly affect tumor growth in vitro, whereas EM1 promoted tumor cell lysis by lymphocytes, particularly non-adherent splenocytes, and EM4 stimulated splenic NK cells to become cytotoxic to tumor cells. Thus, the esterification of IBM with fatty acids potentiated the antitumor activity of parental IBM through delay of the clearance and through immunostimulation. These results suggest that the fatty acid conjugates of IBMs may be the real active principles of ginsenosides in the body.

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Metabolism of Ginseng Saponins and Its Significance

  • Yamasakia Kazuo;Kasai Ryoji;Matsuura Hiromichi;Tanaka Osamu
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.253-261
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    • 2002
  • To follow the metabolic fate of aglycone of ginseng saponins,in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed. Incubation of 20(S)-prtopanaxatriol (1) with rat liver S9 fraction afforded unique ocotillol derivatives, 20, 24-epoxysides (3 and 4). Also 20(S)-prtopanaxadiol (2) gave the corresponding epoxides (5). Healthy volunteers were taken with Sanchi Ginseng, which contains protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol saponins and no ocotillol saponins. From the alkaline hydrolysate of the urine samples of these volunteers,3 was detected as well as 1, and the ratio of 3/1 increased up to 2.0 at the maximum at 50 hrs. Biochemical significance of the ocotillol derivatives is discussed, since the main bioactive saponin in Panax vietnamensis is an ocotillol-type saponin, majonoside R2 (7).

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Four New Darnmarane-Glycosidesl Ginsenosides $Rg_5, Rh_4, Rs_3, AND Ff_2$, from Korean Red Ginsengs the Root off]unarm ginseng C. A. Meyer

  • Jong Dae Park;Nam
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.115-126
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    • 1998
  • Four new dammarnae-glycosides named ginsenosides Rgs, Rh4, RsB and Rf2 have been isolated 1'rom Korean red ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae) and their chemical structures have been elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including'H-'H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY, as 3-0- [$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl(1 ~2)-$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl] dammar-20(22) , B4-diene-3P,12P-diol (ginsenoside Rgs),6-0-$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl-dammar-20(22),24-diene-3P,6P, 12P-triol (ginsenoside Rh4),3-0- [6" -0-acetyl-D-glucopyranosyl(1 ~2)--D-glucopyranosyl] 20(5)- protopanaxadiol (ginsenoside Rs3) and 6-0- [u-L-rhamno-pyranosyl(1 ~2)-$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl] dammarane -3$\beta$, 6a, 12 $\beta$, 20(R),25-pentol(ginsenoslde Rfa). The absolute stereo structure of a double bond at C-20(22) was determined as entgegen type by applying NOESY.OESY.

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Korean Red Ginseng Saponin Fraction Downregulates Proinflammatory Mediators in LPS Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells and Protects Mice against Endotoxic Shock

  • Yayeh, Taddessee;Jung, Kun-Ho;Jeong, Hye-Yoon;Park, Ji-Hoon;Song, Yong-Bum;Kwak, Yi-Seong;Kang, Heun-Soo;Cho, Jae-Youl;Oh, Jae-Wook;Kim, Sang-Keun;Rhee, Man-Hee
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.263-269
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    • 2012
  • Korean red ginseng has shown therapeutic effects for a number of disease conditions. However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effect of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (RGSF) in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, in this study, we showed that RGSF containing 20(S)-protopanaxadiol type saponins inhibited nitric oxide production and attenuated the release of tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, interleukin (IL)-6, granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GMCSF), and macrophage chemo-attractant protein-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, RGSF down-regulated the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxyginase-2, IL-$1{\beta}$, TNF-${\alpha}$, GMCSF, and IL-6. Furthermore, RGSF reduced the level of TNF-${\alpha}$ in the serum and protected mice against LPS mediated endotoxic shock. In conclusion, these results indicated that ginsenosides from RGSF and their metabolites could be potential sources of therapeutic agents against inflammation.

항암성 Ginsenoside류의 합성

  • 임광식
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.226-226
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    • 1994
  • 천연의 Triterpene이나 Steroid의 01igo당 배당체는 항균작용, 소염작용, 항암작용등의 유용한 생리활성을 가지는것이 많다. 따라서 이들 화합물군으로 부터 신의약품이 개발될 가능성이 매우크다 하겠다. 그러나 천연물은 그 작용이 약하거나 순수하게 다량 분리하기가 쉽지않다. 생리활성이 강하고, 부작용이 적은 배당체를 이용가능한 양만큼 다량을 순수하게 얻기 위하여는 합성의 기법이 절대적으로 필요하다. 이를 위하여 연구자는 천연의 총배당체 (배당체혼합물)로부터 aglycone을 얻고 여기에 g1ycosidation 반응으로 당을 결합시킴으로써 천연 또는 비 천연성 배당체를 합성하고 생리활성을 검토, 신물질을 창출하고자 한다. Aglycone으로는 Ginsenosides의 aglycone인 20(s)-protopanaxadiol 및 20(S)-protopanaxatriol, Soyasapogenol B, Oleanlic acid를 사용하고, 목표로하는 생리활성은 항암작용, 항군작용, alcohol 흡수 저해작용을 지향한다.

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Action of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoidal Glycosides and Their Aglycones on Lipid Membranes (지질막에 대한 Dammarane-Type Triterpenoidal Glycosides와 그 Aglycones의 작용)

  • Kim, Yu.A.;Park, Kyeong-Mee;Hyun, Hack-Chul;Song, Yong-Bum;Shin, Han-Jae;Park, Hwa-Jin
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.269-273
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    • 1996
  • We investigated the effects of ginseng glycosides and their aglycones on processes of single ion channel formation and channel properties. The glycosides, Rg, and Rb, , and their aglycones, 20-(S)-protopanaxatriol (PT) and 20-(S)-protopanaxadiol (PD) increased the membrane permeability for ions. PT, PD, Rg1, and Rb1; at concentrations of 0.5, 3.0, 10.0 and 30.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml respectively; Induced single ion channel fluctuations with the life times in the range of 0.1~1005 in open states and conductances from 5 to 30 pS in 1 M KCI. At high concentrations of these substances, rapid fluctuations of transmembrane ion current with amplitude from hundred pS to dozen nS were observed. Against other substances, ginsenoside Rbl began to increase the membrane conductance at concentration of about 60 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml without fluctuation of single ion channel. Membranes treated with PT, PD, Rg1 and Rb1 are more permeable to K+, than to Cl while zero current membrane potentials with 10 gradients of KCI were 12, 16, 8, 25 mV respectively. Key words : Membrane conductance, single ion channel, ginsenosides.

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A ginseng saponin metabolite-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway and its downstream caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage

  • Hee, Oh-Seon;Lee, Bang-Wool;Quan, Yin-Hu;Kim, Hyun-Mi;Lee, Byung-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.107.1-107
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    • 2003
  • 20-O-(${\beta}$-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (IH901), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng saponins formed from ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2 and Rc, is suggested to be a potential chemopreventive agent. Here we show that IH901 induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. IH901 led to an early activation of procaspase-3 (6 h posttreatment), and the activation of caspase-8 became evident only later (18 h posttreatment). Caspase activation was a necessary requirement for apoptosis because caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited cell death by IH901. (omitted)

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Compound K, Ginseng Saponin Metabolite, Induces Apoptosis in Human Monocytic Leukemia cells

  • Kang, Kyong-Ah;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Hyun, Jin-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.75-75
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    • 2003
  • We report upon the cytotoxic activity of the ginseng saponin metabolite, Compound K (20-O-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, IH90l) on various human leukemia cell lines. Compound K had most effect on U937, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, which on treatment showed; a exposure of phosphatidylserine from the inner cell membrane to the outer cell membrane, the formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation, - characteristics of apoptosis. Compound K induced apoptosis by up-regulating Bax, disrupting the mitochondria membrane potential, and by activating caspase 9 and caspase 3. Therefore, we suggest that Compound K inhibit U937 cell growth by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of Bax and caspase activation.

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Ginsenoside $Rs_3$, A genuine Dammarane-Glycoside from Korean Red Ginseng

  • Baek, Nam-In;Kim, Jong-Moon;Park, Jeong-Hill;Ryu, Jae-Ha;Kim, Dong-Seon;Lee, You-Hui;Park, Jong-Dae;Kim, Shin-Il
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.280-282
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    • 1997
  • A genuine dammarane-glycoside, named as ginsenoside $ Rs_3$, was isolated from the MeOH extracts of Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) through repeated silica gel column chromatographies and its chemical structure was determined as (20S)-protopanaxadiol $3-O-[6^{11}-O-acetyl-{\beta}-D-glucopyranosyl (1{\rightarrow2)-{\beta}-D-$glucopyranoside on the basis of several spectral and physical evidences including HMBC and FAB-MS.

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