• Title, Summary, Keyword: 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol

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A Modified Alkaline Hydrolysis of Total Ginsenosides Yielding Genuine Aglycones nad Prosapogenols

  • Im, kwang-Sik;Chang, Eun-Ha;Je, Nam-Gyung
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.454-457
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    • 1995
  • To improve the yield of genuine aglycones from glycosides, the conditions of alkaline hydrolysis were investigated, and a modified method was established. The modified method empolyed pyridine as an aprotic solvent. To complete the hydrolysis and obtain 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (1) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol(2), which are the genuine aglycones of ginsenosides, total ginsenosides were refluxed with sodium methoxide in pyridine. Addition of methanol, a protic polar solvent to the reaction miuxture, led partial hydrolysis yielding a mixture of the genuine prosapogenols. Of the prosapogenols compound 3 and 6 characteristically possessed D-glucopyranosyl moiety attached at the sterically hindered C-20 hydroxyl group. 3 and 6 were not obtaijned by other hydrolysisw methods except by the soil bacterial hydrolysis.

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Retro-synthesis of Analogues of Ginsenosides (역합성법에 의한 진세노사이드 유사체의 합성)

  • Chang, Eun-Ha;Je, Nam-Gyung;Im, Kwang-Sik
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 1996
  • Glycosidation of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol obtained by the alkaline hydrolysis of total ginsenosides with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-${\alpha$-D-glucopyranosyl bromide in the presence of $CdCO_3$ in benzene-dioxane gave a mixture of acetylated monoglucosides and diglucosides in a total yield of 68%. Under the same condenstion condition, 20-dehydroxyglucosides were formed by dehydration of 12-O-glucosides. The structures of produced glycosides were elucidated as 3-O-${\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, 12-O-${\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl-dammar-20(22), 24-dien-$3{\beta},12{\beta}$-diol, 3,12-di-O-${\beta}$-D-glucopyranosyl-dammar-20(22), 24-dien-$3{\beta},\;12{\beta}$-diol, respectively.

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Comparative Studies on the Effects of Total, Protopanaxadiol and Protopanaxatriol saponins of Ginseng 1. Their Effects on Lipid and Glucose Content in Rat Serum (인삼 총사포닌, 디올계 및 트리올계 사포닌의 효과 1. 흰쥐 혈청 지질 및 당함량에 미치는 영향)

  • 임창진;박은희;홍순근;이동권
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.41-48
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    • 1981
  • Total saponin, protopanaxadiol-saponin and protopanaxatriol-saponin were isolated and purified from the side roots of red ginseng. After we administered them orally into rats during 5 weeks, we observed their effects on lipid and glucose content in rat serum. The change in body weight of protopanaxatriol- saponin treated group was slightly larger than those of other groups. Total lipid content in total saponin treated group showed an increase of about 20 % over that in control group. However, protopanaxadiol-saponin and protopanaxatriol- saponin treated groups showed no change. While triglyceride content in total saponin treated group decreased 29oyo compared to it s content in control group, its content in protopanaxatriol-saponin treated group increased 45%. Three saponin treated groups showed lower value than control group in total ant free cholesterol levels. While glucose content in total saponin treated group decreased slightly, that in Protopanaxadiol-saponin treated group decreased slightly compared to that in control group. And protopanaxatriol- saponin trented group showed the significant decrease of 25%. From these results, it is supposed that total saponin accelerates the conversion of lipid into glucose and that protopanaxatriol- saponin accelerates the conversion of glucose into lipid.

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Effects of Saponins on the Osmotic Behavior of Multilamellar Liposomes

  • Yu, Byung-Sul;Chung, Hyun-Ho;Kim, Aeri
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 1984
  • Effects of total ginseng saponin, 20-S-protopanaxadiol saponin, 20-S-protopanaxatriol saponin and playcodon saponin on the osmotic behavior of liposomes were investigated by optical measurement. These saponins showed different activities on liposomal membrane, and cholesterol in liposomes was an important factor to this variation of saponin activities.

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Solubilization of IH-901, a Novel Intestinal Metabolite of Ginseng Saponin, in Aqueous Solution (인삼사포닌의 소장내 최종대사물인 IH-901의 수용액중 가용화)

  • Kwon, Oh-Seung;Chung, Youn-Bok
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of the present study was to formulate the aqueous solution of $20-O-{\beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol\;(IH-901)$, an intestinal bacterial metabolic derivative from Ginseng protopanaxadiol saponin. For this purpose, the effects of various solubilization agents such as cosolvents [ethanol, propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG 300), polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400), glycerin], surfactants $(Tween\;80,\;Cremophor^{\circledR}\;RH40,\;Cremophor^{\circledR}\;EL,\;Poloxamer\;407,\;Poloxamer\;188)$ and a complexation agent $[hydroxypropyl-{\beta}-cyclodextrin\;(HPBCD)]$, on the solubility of IH-90l in aqueous solution were evaluated. The solubility of IH-901 in water was under $1\;{\mu}g/ml\;at\;20^{\circ}C$. Cosolvents such as ethanol, PG, PEG 300, PEG 400 and glycerin did not enhance the solubility of IH-901 at the 0 - 40% concentration range. The solubility of IH-901 was significantly elevated by the addition of cosolvents over the 80% concentration range. On the other hand, tween 80, $Cremophor^{\circledR}\;EL,\;Cremophor^{\circledR}\;RH40$ and HPBCD showed enhanced effects on the solubility of IH-901. The enhanced effects of Poloxamer 407 or Poloxamer 188 on the IH-901 solubility were less pronounced compared with $Cremophor^{\circledR}\;EL\;or\;Cremophor^{\circledR}\;RH40$. As a results, $Cremophor^{\circledR}$ aqueous solution was selected as an optimum solvent system. The aqueous solutions containing 10% $Cremophor^{\circledR}\;EL$ and 7% $Cremophor^{\circledR}\;RH40$ were formulated as dosing solutions containing 5.0 mg/ml of IH-901 for its intravenous and oral administration, respectively. The formular showed physical stability after stored for 7 days at $4^{\circ}C$.

20S-Protopanaxadiol, an aglycosylated ginsenoside metabolite, induces hepatic stellate cell apoptosis through liver kinase B1-AMP-activated protein kinase activation

  • Park, Sang Mi;Jung, Eun Hye;Kim, Jae Kwang;Jegal, Kyung Hwan;Park, Chung A;Cho, Il Je;Kim, Sang Chan
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.392-402
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    • 2017
  • Background: Previously, we reported that Korean Red Ginseng inhibited liver fibrosis in mice and reduced the expressions of fibrogenic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The present study was undertaken to identify the major ginsenoside responsible for reducing the numbers of HSCs and the underlying mechanism involved. Methods: Using LX-2 cells (a human immortalized HSC line) and primary activated HSCs, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assays were conducted to examine the cytotoxic effects of ginsenosides. $H_2O_2$ productions, glutathione contents, lactate dehydrogenase activities, mitochondrial membrane permeabilities, apoptotic cell subpopulations, caspase-3/-7 activities, transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and immunoblot analysis were performed to elucidate the molecular mechanism responsible for ginsenoside-mediated cytotoxicity. Involvement of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related signaling pathway was examined using a chemical inhibitor and small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Results and conclusion: Of the 11 ginsenosides tested, 20S-protopanaxadiol (PPD) showed the most potent cytotoxic activity in both LX-2 cells and primary activated HSCs. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by 20S-PPD was blocked by N-acetyl-$\text\tiny L$-cysteine pretreatment. In addition, 20S-PPD concentration-dependently increased the phosphorylation of AMPK, and compound C prevented 20S-PPD-induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, 20S-PPD increased the phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), an upstream kinase of AMPK. Likewise, transfection of LX-2 cells with LKB1 siRNA reduced the cytotoxic effect of 20S-PPD. Thus, 20S-PPD appears to induce HSC apoptosis by activating LKB1-AMPK and to be a therapeutic candidate for the prevention or treatment of liver fibrosis.

Effects of 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol on the Inflammatory Mediators Release from the Activated Mast Cells (20(S)-Protopanaxadiol 및 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol이 활성화된 비만세포로부터의 염증 매개체 유리에 미치는 영향)

  • Ro, Jai-Youl;Han, Yong-Nam;Choi, Kwang-Tae;Lee, Chang-Ho
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.316-323
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    • 2009
  • Ginseng saponins have various pharmacological effects on the immune system. 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) are the species of ginseng saponin metabolites that are formed by human intestinal bacteria and detected in circulation. The effects of PPD and PPT on the inflammatory mediator release from the activated mast cells were tested. Histamine release was evaluated in activated guinea pig lung mast cells, and the secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and the tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$) was assessed in an HMC-1 cell after treating it with ginseng saponin metabolites. The results are as follows. PPT, at its maximum concentration of $100\;{\mu}M$, completely abolished the secretion of IL-4 from the PMA-stimulated HMC-1 cell. It also inhibited IL-8 secretion from the same cells by about 40-50% of the PMA-treated DMSO control. PPD, at its maximum concentration of $100\;{\mu}M$, showed a tendency to induce histamine release from the guinea pig lung mast cells. It inhibited the secretion of IL-4 (by 89% of the PMA-treated DMSO control) in the PMA-stimulated HMC-1 cell, but did have a significant effect on the IL-8 release from the same cell. Both PPD and PPT showed no effects, however, on the release of TNF-${\alpha}$ from the PMA-stimulated HMC-1 cell. These results suggest that PPD and PPT are from the ginseng metabolites that are responsible for the immunomodulating activity of ginseng extracts when they are taken orally.

Changes in the Functional Components of Lactobacillus acidophilus-Fermented Red Ginseng Extract and Its Application to Fresh Cheese Production (Lactobacillus acidophilus로 발효한 홍삼 농축액의 기능성 성분 변화 및 이를 이용한 신선치즈 제조)

  • Park, Jong-Hyuk;Moon, Hye-Jung;Oh, Jeon-Hui;Lee, Joo-Hee;Jung, Hoo-Kil;Choi, Kyung-Min;Cha, Jeong-Dan;Lim, Ji-Ye;Han, Su-Beom;Lee, Tae-Bum;Lee, Min-Jung;Choi, Hye-Ran
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2014
  • In this study, our aim was to investigate the changes in ginsenosides and polyphenols in red ginseng extract fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus and to manufacture fresh cheese using fermented red ginseng extract. Red ginseng extract (3%, w/v) was fermented by L. acidophilus for 24 h. On performing lactic acid bacteria counts, we determined that L. acidophilus reached its maximum growth phase after 16 h; this was followed by decrease in growth. During fermentation, the levels of ginsenosides Rg3 (20S) and Rg3 (20R) as well as protopanaxadiol (20R), F1, and compound K increased, while those of s Rb2, Rd, Rf, and Rg1 decreased. The pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts in fresh cheese prepared using fermented red ginseng extract were measured during the storage period. The pH decreased over time, while titratable acidity and viable cell counts increased with increase in the duration of the storage period. Sensory tests showed that the overall sensory properties of fresh cheese prepared using 1% fermented red ginseng extract were similar to those of the control groups. This result suggests that L. acidophilus-fermented red ginseng has potential for development as a new bioactive material.

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Prototypes of Panaxadiol and Panaxatriol Saponins Suppress LPS-mediated iNOS/NO Production in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophage Cells (RAW264.7 대식세포에서 LPS 매개 iNOS/NO 생성에 대한 protopanaxadiol saponin 및 protopanaxatriol saponin의 억제효과)

  • Kim, Jin-Ik;Narantuya, Nandintsetseg;Choi, Yong-Won;Kang, Dae-Ook;Kim, Dong-Wan;Lee, Kyoung;Ko, Sung-Ryong;Moon, Ja-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1422-1430
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to investigate the modulatory effects of two prototypes of Panax ginseng saponin fractions, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol saponins (PDS) and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol saponins (PTS), on the induction of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells. For this purpose, RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS ($10{\mu}g/ml$) before, after, or simultaneously with PDS or PTS ($150{\mu}g/ml$), and the released level of nitric oxide (NO) and expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were evaluated. When RAW264.7 cells were treated with LPS and ginseng saponin fractions simultaneously for 24 hr, PTS, compared to PDS, more strongly attenuated the NO production induced by LPS treatment. When the cells were pretreated with LPS for 2 hr followed by PDS or PTS treatment for 24 hr, both ginseng saponins strongly reduced NO release. The pretreatment of RAW264.7 cells with PDS or PTS for 2 hr followed by LPS treatment for 24 hr significantly attenuated the LPS-induced production of NO. PTS showed stronger inhibitory potency to NO generation than PDS. Our western blot experiment showed that both PDS and PTS ($150{\mu}g/ml$) also significantly down-regulated the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 induced by LPS treatment. Our results suggest that both PDS and PTS possess strong protective effects against LPS-stimulated inflammation and that their protective effects are mediated by the suppression of NO synthesis via down-regulation of pro-inflammatory enzymes, iNOS, and COX-2 in the RAW264.7 cells.

A Ginseng Saponin Metabolite-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Cells Involves a Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway and its Downstream Caspase-8 Activation and Bid Cleavage

  • Oh, Seon-Hee;Lee, Bang-Wool;Yin, Hu-Quan;Kim, Hyun-Mi;Lee, Byung-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.146-146
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    • 2003
  • 20-O-(${\beta}$-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (IH901), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng saponins formed from ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2 and Rc, is suggested to be a potential chemopreventive agent. Here we show that IH901 induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells.(omitted)

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