• Title, Summary, Keyword: 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol

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Complete Assignment of $^{1}H$ and $^{13}C$-NMR Signals for (20S) and (20R)-Protopanaxadiol by 2D-NMR Techniques (2D-NMR 기법을 이용한 (20S)와 (20R)-Protopanaxadiol의 $^{1}H$- 및 $^{13}C$-NMR 완전 동정)

  • 백남인;김동선
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 1995
  • (20S)- and (20R)-protopanaxadiol were prepared from crude ginseng saponin by chemical treatment. The $^{1}H$- and $^{13}C$-NMR signals of these compounds were fully assigned by various NMR techniques such as DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY.

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항균성 및 항암성 배당체의 합성연구

  • 임광식
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.115-115
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    • 1993
  • i) total ginsenoside의 분리 시판백삼(900g)을 상법에 따라 처리, 조 saponin을 얻었으며 (24g) 이를 20(S)-protopanaxadiol을 얻는 원료로 사용하였다. ii) 20(S)-protopanaxadiol의 분리연구 본 연구에서 가장 중요한 단계는 20(S)-protopanaxadiol을 다량 얻는 것이다. 그러나 인삼 saponin을 산으로 가수분해하면 진성 aglycone 인 20(S)-protopanaxadiol이 얻어지지 않고 artifact sapogenol인 panaxadiol이 얻어진다. 이를 해결하기 위하여 sodium ethoxide의 ethanol 용액, sodium butoxide의 butanol 용액, sodium methoxide의 pyridine 용액, sodium methoxide의 DMSO 용액등의 조건에서의 가수분해를 검토한 결과 aprotic polar splvent인 DMSO용매중에서의 분해가 가장 좋음을 알았다. iii) ginsenoside Rh$_2$의 합성연구 Koenigs-Knorr 법에 의하여 bromosugar와 20(S)-protopanaxadiol의 glycosidation 반응결과 약 40%의 수득률로 합성됨을 확인하였다.

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Regioselective Synthesis of Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ (진세노사이드 $Rh_2$의 방향선택적 합성)

  • 신명희;정지형;장은하;임광식
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.328-333
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    • 2001
  • Ginsenoside Rh$_2$, a minor glycoside constituent of the red ginseng is known as an unique antitumor compound. Several attempts to prepare it in a large scale including semisynthesis from betulafolientriol, an 3-epimer of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, has been reported. We have previously reported a synthesis of ginsenoside Rh$_2$from 20(S)-protopanaxadiol obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of total ginsenoside. The regioselective synthesis of this compound was achieved by protection of 12-OH group.

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Preparation of a 20(R)-Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ and the 20(S) Epimer from Protopanaxadiol Saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (인삼의 Protopanaxadiol계 사포닌으로부터 20(R)-Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ 및 20(S) 이성체의 제조)

  • 김신일;백남인;김동선;이유희;강규상;박종대
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.432-437
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    • 1991
  • A mixture of 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg$_{3}$ was obtained under mild acidic hydrolysis from protopanaxadiol saponins, ginsenosides Rb$_{1}$, Rb$_{2}$, Rc and Rd. The product was acetylated to give the peracetates, which were further converted into 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg$_{3}$, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg$_{3}$, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh$_{2}$ and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh$_{2}$ by the direct alkaline treatment depending upon two kinds of temperature conditions respectively. The structure and physicochemical properties of a prosapogenin, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh$_{2}$, were investigated.

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Metabolism of Ginseng Saponins by Human Intestinal Bacteria (Park II) (사람의 장내세균에 의한 인삼 사포닌의 대사(제2보))

  • Hasegawa, Hideo;Ha, Joo-Young;Park, Se-Ho;Matumiya, Satoshi;Uchiyama, Masamori;Huh, Jae-Doo;Sung, Jong-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 1997
  • Following ginsenoside-Rb1-hydrolyzing assay, strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated from human feces and identified as Prevotella oris. The bacteria hydrolyzed ginsenoside Rb1 and Rd to $20-O-{\beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol$ (I), ginsenoside Rb2 to $20-O-[{\alpha}-L-arabinofuranosyl (1{\rightarrow}6)-{\beta}-D-glucopyranosyl] - 20(S)-protopanaxadiol$ (ll) and ginsenoside Rc to $20-O-[{\alpha}-L-arabinofuranosyl (1{\rightarrow} 6){\beta}-D-g1ucopyranosyl]-20(S)-protopanaxadiol$ (III) like fecal microflora, but did not attack ginsenoside Re nor Rgl (Protopanaxatriol-type). Pharmacokinetic studies of ginseng saponins was also performed using specific pathogen free rats and demonstrated that the intestinal bacterial metabolites I-111, 20(S)- protopanaxatriol(IV) and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol(V) were absorbed from the intestines to $blood(0.4-5.1\;{\mu}g/ml)$ after oral administration with total saponin(1 g/kg/day).

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Metabolism of Ginseng Saponins by Human Intestinal Bacteria (사람의 장내세균에 의한 인삼사포닌의 대사)

  • Sung, Jong-Hwan;Hasegawa, Hideo;Matsumiya, Satoshi;Uchiyama, Masamori;Ha, Joo-Young;Lee, Moon-Soon;Huh, Jae-Doo
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.360-367
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    • 1995
  • The metabolism of ginseng saponins by human intestinal bacteria was studied using human feces under anaerobic culture conditions. $Ginsenoside-Rb_1$, $-Rb_2$ and -Rc(protopanaxadiol type) were mainly metabolized to compound-K(C-K), $20-O-[{\alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl(1{\rightarrow}6)-{\beta}-{_D}-glucopyranosyl]-20(S)-protopanaxadiol(compound-Y,\;C-Y)$, $20-O-[{\alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl(1{\rightarrow}6)-{\beta}-{_D}-glucopyranosyll-20(S)-protopanaxadiol(ginsenosied-MC,{\;}MC)$, respectively, and $ginsenoside-Rg_1$ and -Re(protopanaxatriol type) to their aglycon, 20(S)-protopanaxatriol, though the pathway and rate of the metabolism were affected by fermentation medium. C-K was not decomposed any more, while C-Y and Mc were both gradually hydrolyzed to C-K.

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Tentative identification of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol metabolites in human plasma and urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

  • Ling, Jin;Yu, Yingjia;Long, Jiakun;Li, Yan;Jiang, Jiebing;Wang, Liping;Xu, Changjiang;Duan, Gengli
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.539-549
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    • 2019
  • Background: 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), the aglycone part of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, possesses antidepressant activity among many other pharmacological activities. It is currently undergoing clinical trial in China as an antidepressant. Methods: In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass tandem mass spectrometry method was established to identify the metabolites of PPD in human plasma and urine following oral administration in phase IIa clinical trial. Results: A total of 40 metabolites in human plasma and urine were identified using this method. Four metabolites identified were isolated from rat feces, and two of them were analyzed by NMR to elucidate the exact structures. The structures of isolated compounds were confirmed as (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-12,23,25-triol-3-one and (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-3,12,23,25-tetrol. Both compounds were found as metabolites in human for the first time. Upon comparing our findings with the findings of the in vitro study of PPD metabolism in human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes, metabolites with m/z 475.3783 and phase II metabolites were not found in our study whereas metabolites with m/z 505.3530, 523.3641, and 525.3788 were exclusively detected in our experiments. Conclusion: The metabolites identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in our study were mostly hydroxylated metabolites. This indicated that PPD was metabolized in human body mainly through phase I hepatic metabolism. The main metabolites are in 20,24-oxide form with multiple hydroxylation sites. Finally, the metabolic pathways of PPD in vivo (human) were proposed based on structural analysis.

Preparation of $Ginsenoside-Rh_2$ from Dammarane Saponins of Panax ginseng Leaves (인삼잎의 Dammarane계 사포닌으로부터 $Ginsenoside-Rh_2$의 제조)

  • Cha, Bae-Cheon;Lee, Sang-Guk
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.425-429
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    • 1994
  • The genuine aglycone, 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, obtained from the leaves of Panax ginseng as a result of direct alkaline treatment was isolated and characterized by spectroscopic evidences. The study on the yield of genuine aglycone which is produced from the treatment of some kinds of alkali was carried out. $Ginsenoside-Rh_2$ was synthesized by conjugation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-${\alpha}$-D-glucopyranosyl bromide to 20(S)-protopanaxadiol in the presence of silver carbonate and cadmium cabonate. The preparation of $ginsenoside-Rh_2$ by this method is a new one which the yield of this saponin can be improved in the mild condition.

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Microemulsion-based hydrogels for enhancing epidermal/dermal deposition of topically administered 20(S)-protopanaxadiol: in vitro and in vivo evaluation studies

  • Kim, Ki-Taek;Kim, Min-Hwan;Park, Ju-Hwan;Lee, Jae-Young;Cho, Hyun-Jong;Yoon, In-Soo;Kim, Dae-Duk
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.512-523
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    • 2018
  • Background: 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (20S-PPD) is a fully deglycosylated ginsenoside metabolite and has potent dermal antiaging activity. However, because of its low aqueous solubility and large molecular size, a suitable formulation strategy is required to improve its solubility and skin permeability, thereby enhancing its skin deposition. Thus, we optimized microemulsion (ME)-based hydrogel (MEH) formulations for the topical delivery of 20S-PPD. Methods: MEs and MEHs were formulated and evaluated for their particle size distribution, morphology, drug loading capacity, and stability. Then, the deposition profiles of the selected 20S-PPD-loaded MEH formulation were studied using a hairless mouse skin model and Strat-M membrane as an artificial skin model. Results: A Carbopol-based MEH system of 20S-PPD was successfully prepared with a mean droplet size of 110 nm and narrow size distribution. The formulation was stable for 56 d, and its viscosity was high enough for its topical application. It significantly enhanced the in vitro and in vivo skin deposition of 20S-PPD with no influence on its systemic absorption in hairless mice. Notably, it was found that the Strat-M membrane provided skin deposition data well correlated to those obtained from the in vitro and in vivo mouse skin studies on 20S-PPD (correlation coefficient $r^2=0.929-0.947$). Conclusion: The MEH formulation developed in this study could serve as an effective topical delivery system for poorly soluble ginsenosides and their deglycosylated metabolites, including 20S-PPD.

20(S)-Protopanaxadiol Induces Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Apoptosis through a Caspase-Mediated Pathway

  • Zhang, Hong;Xu, Hua-Li;Fu, Wen-Wen;Xin, Ying;Li, Mao-Wei;Wang, Shuai-Jun;Yu, Xiao-Feng;Sui, Da-Yun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7919-7923
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    • 2014
  • 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), a ginsenoside isolated from Pananx quinquefolium L., has been shown to inhibit growth and proliferation in several cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate its anticancer activity in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells were incubated with different concentrations of 20(S)-PPD and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. Occurrence of apoptosis was detected by DAPI and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with Rhodamine 123. The Bcl-2 and Bax expression were determined by Western blot analysis. Caspase activity was measured by colorimetric assay. 20(S)-PPD dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells, with an $IC_{50}$ value of $33.3{\mu}M$ at 24h. MCF-7 cells treated with 20(S)-PPD presented typical apoptosis, as observed by morphological analysis in cell stained with DAPI. The percentages of annexin V-FITC positive cells were 8.92%, 17.8%, 24.5% and 30.5% in MCF-7 cells treated with 0, 15, 30 and $60{\mu}M$ of 20(S)-PPD, respectively. Moreover, 20(S)-PPD could induce mitochondrial membrane potential loss, up-regulate Bax expression and down-regulate Bcl-2 expression. These events paralleled activation of caspase-9, -3 and PARP cleavage. Apoptosis induced by 20(S)-PPD was blocked by z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, suggesting induction of caspase-mediated apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the 20(S)-PPD investigated is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce cancer cell death by a caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway.