• Title, Summary, Keyword: 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh₁

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Preparation of a 20(R)-Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ and the 20(S) Epimer from Protopanaxadiol Saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (인삼의 Protopanaxadiol계 사포닌으로부터 20(R)-Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ 및 20(S) 이성체의 제조)

  • 김신일;백남인;김동선;이유희;강규상;박종대
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.432-437
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    • 1991
  • A mixture of 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg$_{3}$ was obtained under mild acidic hydrolysis from protopanaxadiol saponins, ginsenosides Rb$_{1}$, Rb$_{2}$, Rc and Rd. The product was acetylated to give the peracetates, which were further converted into 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg$_{3}$, 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg$_{3}$, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh$_{2}$ and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh$_{2}$ by the direct alkaline treatment depending upon two kinds of temperature conditions respectively. The structure and physicochemical properties of a prosapogenin, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh$_{2}$, were investigated.

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Production of the Rare Ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3) by Enzymatic Conversion Combined with Acid Treatment and Evaluation of Its Anti-Cancer Activity

  • Song, Bong-Kyu;Kim, Kyeng Min;Choi, Kang-Duk;Im, Wan-Taek
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1233-1241
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    • 2017
  • The ginsenoside Rh2 has strong anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the application of ginsenoside Rh2 is restricted because of the small amounts found in Korean white and red ginsengs. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX (comprising 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3 as a 10-g unit) with high specificity, yield, and purity, a new combination of enzymatic conversion using the commercial enzyme Viscozyme L followed by acid treatment was developed. Viscozyme L treatment at pH 5.0 and $50^{\circ}C$ was used initially to transform the major ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd into ginsenoside F2, followed by acid-heat treatment using citric acid 2% (w/v) at pH 2.0 and $121^{\circ}C$ for 15 min. Scale-up production in a 10-L jar fermenter, using 60 g of the protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside mixture from ginseng roots, produced 24 g of ginsenoside Rh2-MIX. Using 2 g of Rh2-MIX, 131 mg of 20(S)-Rh2, 58 mg of 20(R)-Rh2, 47 mg of Rk2, and 26 mg of Rh3 were obtained at over 98% chromatographic purity. Then, the anti-cancer effect of the four purified ginsenosides was investigated on B16F10, MDA-MB-231, and HuH-7 cell lines. As a result, these four rare ginsenosides markedly inhibited the growth of the cancer cell lines. These results suggested that rare ginsenoside Rh2-MIX could be exploited to prepare an anti-cancer supplement in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries.

Complete Assignment of $^1H-$ and $^{13}C-NMR$ Signals for (20S)- and (20R)-ginsenoside $Rh_2$ by 2D-NMR Techniques (2D-NMR 기법을 이용한 (20S)-와 (20R)-ginsenoside $Rh_2$$^1H-$$^{13}C-NMR$ Signals의 완전 동정)

  • Kim, Dong-Seon;Lee, You-Hui;Park, Jong-Dae;Jeong, So-Young;Lee, Chun-Bae;Kim, Shin-Il;Baek, Nam-In
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.184-189
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    • 1995
  • (20S)- and (20R)-Ginsenoside $Rh_2$ were prepared from crude ginseng saponin by chemical treatments. The $^1H-$ and $^{13}C-NMR$ signals of these compounds were fully assigned by various NMR techniques such as DEPT, $^1H-^1H$ COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY.

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Antiviral activity of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 against murine gammaherpesvirus

  • Kang, Soowon;Im, Kyungtaek;Kim, Geon;Min, Hyeyoung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.496-502
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    • 2017
  • Background: Ginsenosides are the major components of Panax ginseng Meyer, an herbal medicine used for the treatment of various diseases. Different ginsenosides contribute to the biological properties of ginseng, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effects of 15 ginsenosides and compound K on gammaherpesvirus. Methods: The antiviral activity of ginsenosides was examined using the plaque-forming assay and by analyzing the expression of the lytic gene. Results: 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited the replication and proliferation of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), and its half-maximal inhibitory concentration ($IC_{50} $) against MHV-68 was estimated to be $2.77{\mu}M$. In addition, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced lytic replication of human gammaherpesvirus in the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-positive cell line BC3. Conclusion: Our results indicate that 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 can inhibit the replication of mouse and human gammaherpesviruses, and thus, has the potential to treat gammaherpesvirus infection.

CHEMICAL STUDIES ON CRUDE DRUG PROCESSING RED GINSENG AND WHITE GINSENG (생약에 관한 화학구조-홍삼 및 백삼-)

  • Kitagawa Isao
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.159-168
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    • 1984
  • 생약의 화학적 특성에 대한 계속적인 연구가 이루어짐에 따라 우리는 홍삼 및 백삼의 화학성분을 상대적으로 규명하였다. 홍삼은 극성이 약한 분획에서 5개의 새로운 배당체(20R-ginsenoside $Rg_{2},\;Rh_{1};20R$, 20S-ginsenoside $Rg_{3}; ginsenoside\;Rh_{2}$와 새로운 아세칠렌 화합물(Panaxytriol)을 함유하는 특징적인 성분들이 gins - enoside Rh1, Rg2와 함께 분리되었다. ginsenoside Rh2는 배양된 종양세포에 대해 세포독소 효과를 보여주었다. 백삼은 수용성 분획에서 특징적인 성분이 있는 것으로 밝혀졌으며, 여기에서 malonly-ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc 및 Rd로 명명된 새로운 배당체 성분이 분리되었다. Malona-ginsenosides는 백삼에서는 주요한 배당체이지만, 홍삼에서는 검출되지 않았다.

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Analysis of Ginsenosides of White and Red Ginseng Concentrates (백삼 및 홍삼 농축액의 사포닌 분석)

  • Ko, Sung-Kwon;Lee, Chung-Ryul;Choi, Yong-Eui;Im, Byung-Ok;Sung, Jong-Hwan;Yoon, Kwang-Ro
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.536-539
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    • 2003
  • Commercial white and red ginseng concentrates were analysed for total ginsenoside contents, and compositions of ginsenosides $Rb_1,\;Rb_2,\;Rc,\;Re,\;Rf,\;Rg_1,\;20(S)\;Rg_3,\;20(S)\;Rh_1,\;and\;20(R)\;Rh_1$. The content of crude saponin and total ginsenosides of white ginseng concentrates (WGC) were about 2-3 times higher than those of red ginseng concentrates (RGC). HPLC showed that each ginsenoside content was higher in WGC, with those of $Rb_1,\;Rg_1,\;and\;Rb_2$ being over three times higher than that of RGC. 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$, specific artifacts found only in red ginseng, were detected both in WGC and RGC by HPLC. differences in the contents of these specific ginsenosides between WGC and RGC were not significant. The contents of 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_1$, determined by HPLC were 0.40 and 0.53 in WGC, whereas 0.48% and 0.47%, and those of 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$, were 0.14 and 0.22% in WGC, and 0.10 and 0.11% in RGC using the methods of shibata and food Code, respectively.

Effects of Minor Ginsenosides, Ginsenoside Metabolites, and Ginsenoside Epimers on the Growth of Caenorhabditis elegans

  • Lee, Joon-Hee;Ahn, Ji-Yun;Shin, Tae-Joon;Choi, Sun-Hye;Lee, Byung-Hwan;Hwang, Sung-Hee;Kang, Ji-Yeon;Kim, Hyeon-Joong;Park, Chan-Woo;Nah, Seung-Yeol
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.375-383
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    • 2011
  • In the previous report, we have demonstrated that ginsenoside Rc, one of major ginsenosides, is a major component for the restoration for normal growth of worms in cholesterol-deprived medium. In the present study, we further investigated the roles of minor ginsenosides, such as ginsenoside $Rh_1$ and $Rh_2$, ginsenoside metabolites such as compound K (CK), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and protopanaxatriol (PPT) and ginsenoside epimers such as 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ in cholesterol-deprived medium. We found that ginsenoside $Rh_1$ almost restored normal growth of worms in cholesterol-deprived medium in F1 generation. However, supplement of ginsenoside $Rh_2$ caused a suppression of worm growths in cholesterol-deprived medium. In addition, CK and PPD also slightly restored normal growth of worms in cholesterol-deprived medium but PPT not. In experiments using ginsenoside epimers, supplement of 20(S)- but not 20(R)-ginsenoside $Rg_3$ in cholesterol-deprived medium also almost restored worm growth. These results indicate that the absence or presence of carbohydrate component at backbone of ginsenoside, the number of carbohydrate attached at carbon-3, and the position of hydroxyl group at carbon-20 of ginsenoside might plays important roles in restoration of worm growth in cholesterol-deprived medium.

Four New Darnmarane-Glycosidesl Ginsenosides $Rg_5, Rh_4, Rs_3, AND Ff_2$, from Korean Red Ginsengs the Root off]unarm ginseng C. A. Meyer

  • Jong Dae Park;Nam
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
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    • pp.115-126
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    • 1998
  • Four new dammarnae-glycosides named ginsenosides Rgs, Rh4, RsB and Rf2 have been isolated 1'rom Korean red ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae) and their chemical structures have been elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including'H-'H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY, as 3-0- [$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl(1 ~2)-$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl] dammar-20(22) , B4-diene-3P,12P-diol (ginsenoside Rgs),6-0-$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl-dammar-20(22),24-diene-3P,6P, 12P-triol (ginsenoside Rh4),3-0- [6" -0-acetyl-D-glucopyranosyl(1 ~2)--D-glucopyranosyl] 20(5)- protopanaxadiol (ginsenoside Rs3) and 6-0- [u-L-rhamno-pyranosyl(1 ~2)-$\beta$-D-glucopyranosyl] dammarane -3$\beta$, 6a, 12 $\beta$, 20(R),25-pentol(ginsenoslde Rfa). The absolute stereo structure of a double bond at C-20(22) was determined as entgegen type by applying NOESY.OESY.

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