• Title, Summary, Keyword: 1971-2005

Search Result 49, Processing Time 0.046 seconds

Development of Korean Dairy Industry - Fermented milk products - (한국 유가공업의 발전과 전망 - 발효유)

  • Huh, Cheol-Seong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.149-153
    • /
    • 2005
  • Lactic acid bacteria had been widely utilized in fermented foods such as fermented dairy products, traditional sauces, kimchi, fermented sausages, medicines or probiotic feed additives for a long time. LAB are also widely distributed in the mammalian gastrointestinal tracts, oral cavity, vagina, and various foods or soils. The most familiar examples of using LAB would be the fermented milk products, and those had become one of the favorite foods in Korea f3r more than 34 years of history. The main benefits of the fermented milk products were originally the improvement of the balance of intestinal flora to control diarrhea and congestion disorders, and gradually, they were chosen by the consumer preference of the taste. The very beginning of the fermented milk products in Korea was the Yakult type products in 1971, and it was the commencement of the solid foundation of the dairy industry and the understanding beneficial effect of probiotic yogurt. After middle of 80's, stirred type fermented milk products had been firstly produced, and it was the time that the domestic dairy industry took root in Korea. From 90's, functional fermented milk products were produced, and drink type yogurt sales a mount increased drastically, and these products began to be chosen not only with the values of nutrition but also with physiological functions. The health claims are classified into intestinal health, gastric health and hepatic health. The prospects for the Korean market are as follows; The majority of leading products would be the premium functional yogurt products as it was last year. It is because the sales of lower cost products shows slow-down, and industries tend to increase the commercial advertisements of premium functional yogurt products through mass media. These tendencies would make the market situation become more competitive.

  • PDF

Review of Peak Breach Outflow Predictors in Dam-Failure Modeling (댐붕괴 모델링을 위한 첨두붕괴유출량 예측식 검토)

  • Kim, Keuk-Soo;Kim, Ji-Sung;Kim, Won
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1846-1851
    • /
    • 2010
  • 댐붕괴 모델링에 관한 연구가 활성화된 시기는 미국 Baldwin Hills 댐(1964)과 Lower Van Norman(San Fernando) 댐(1971) 붕괴 사고 이후이며 1970년대 발생한 Buffalo Creek 댐(서부 버지니아, 1972), Teton 댐(아이다호, 1976), Laurel Run 댐/Sandy Run 댐(펜실바니아, 1977), Kelly Barnes 댐(조지아, 1977) 붕괴 사고로 인해 미국 댐 안전 관리 프로그램의 포괄적 재검토의 필요성이 제기되었다. 국내에서도 연천댐 붕괴(1996년)와 장현저수지와 동막저수지의 붕괴(2002년)로 하류에 위치한 가옥 및 농경지 침수로 인해 재산피해가 발생한 바 있으며, 2005년 비상대처계획 수립을 의무화하는 제도가 도입되었다. 오늘날 댐 붕괴와 붕괴로 인한 유출 수문곡선을 분석하는데 이용 가능한 수많은 도구들이 존재하고 있다. 가장 잘 알려져 있으며 가장 널리 이용되는 모형은 NWS Dam-Break Flood Forecasting Model(DAMBRK; Fread, 1977)이며 국내 댐 저수지 비상대처계획 수립을 위해 많이 이용되고 있다. DAMBRK 모형의 입력자료는 붕괴지속시간, 결괴부측면경사, 최종결괴부바닥표고, 댐붕괴시작수위 등이 요구되며, 이 중 결괴형성과정에 관련된 매개변수의 선정을 위해서는 댐붕괴 사례연구 자료가 활용되고 있다. 모형으로부터 도출된 붕괴유출수문곡선에 대한 적정성 평가는 과거 경험, 공학적 판단, 첨두유량 예측식에 의해 수행되고 있으며 가장 객관적인 기준이라 판단되는 첨두유출량 예측식은 사례연구 자료의 부족으로 인해 높은 불확실성을 안고 있다. 본 연구는 최근까지 개발된 댐결괴 첨두유출량 예측식을 기반으로 국내 건설된 댐의 대다수를 차지하는 필댐에 대해 댐높이, 댐형식별로 예측식의 적정성을 평가하였다.

  • PDF

Application of SWAT Model for Jiseok Stream Basin using Climate Change A1B Scenario (기후변화 A1B 시나리오를 이용한 지석천 유역의 SWAT 모형적용)

  • Park, Sung-Chun;Moon, Byeong-Seok;Oh, Chang-Ryeol;Yang, Dong-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.260-264
    • /
    • 2012
  • 전 지구적으로 지구온난화로 인해 기후변화가 일어나고 있으며 이에 대해 다양한 방면에서 기후변화에 대한 대응, 적응, 극복을 위한 연구가 활발히 진행되고 있다. 선진국에서는 일찍이 기후 변화관련 영향을 정량적으로 평가하고 치수정책에 반영하고자 노력하고 있으며, 우리나라의 경우도 2000년에 들어서 기후변화 관련 연구를 본격적으로 시작하였다. 지난 100년 동안 한반도 기온은 약 $1.7^{\circ}C$ 상승하여 세계온도의 증가율에 비해 2.3배 상승하였고, 최근 50년 동안 우리나라 강수량을 분석한 결과 전국적으로 강수일수는 감소하고 일강수량 80mm 이상인 호우발생 빈도는 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 남부지역에서는 연강수량이 7% 증가하고 연 강수일수는 14% 감소하며 강수강도는 18% 증가하는 것으로 분석되었다. 이상의 결과를 종합해 볼 때, 우리나라는 기후변화의 영향으로 강우일수는 감소하고 연강우량은 증가하는 것을 알 수 있으며, 이는 곧 강우강도가 강해짐에 따라 홍수와 가뭄의 발생가능성이 증가될 것으로 예상된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 기후변화에 따른 홍수와 가뭄 발생에 대응하기 위한 기초자료를 제공하고자 지석천 유역의 기후변화 시나리오에 따른 유출량 변화를 모의하였으며, 이를 위해 분포형 장기 강우-유출모형인 SWAT(Soil And Water Assessment Tool)모형을 이용하였다. 기후변화 시나리오 자료는 국내 기상청에서 제공하는 수평격자 27km의 고해상도 RCM A1B 시나리오 자료를 사용하였으며, 1971~2010년 기간의 기후변화 시나리오 자료를 지석천 유역에 인접한 광주기상청 실측 기상자료와 비교하여 편이보정 후 2011~2100년 기간의 유출량을 모의하였다. 유출량 모의값에 대한 검 보정을 위하여 지석천유역의 하류지점인 남평지점의 실측 유량을 이용하여 검 보정을 실시하였으며, 2002~2005년 기간의 자료를 이용하였다. 검 보정 결과 2002~205년 기간 동안의 유출량 모의값은 실측유량값과 유사한 경향을 나타내었으며 본 연구의 목표인 2011~2100년까지의 유출량은 기후변화 시나리오의 내용과 비슷한 첨두유량이 증가함을 나타내었다.

  • PDF

The Effects of Dramatherapy Program on Sociality of Isolated Children (연극치료 프로그램이 고립아동의 사회성에 미치는 효과)

  • Ahn, Tae-Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Elementary Counseling
    • /
    • v.6 no.1
    • /
    • pp.117-140
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study is to know the effect of drama therapy on the sociality of isolated children. To achieve this goal, the following hypothesis was built. Hypothesis I. Dramatherapy program will improve the sociality of isolated children. I -1. Dramatherapy program will improve in cooperation. I -2. Dramatherapy program will improve in independency. I -3. Dramatherapy program will improve in sociability. I -4. Dramatherapy program will improve in law-abiding. To test this hypothesis, the social and emotional isolation test was conducted in 190 children consisting of fifth-grader from N elementary school located in Busan to select 28 children whose founded to be isolated; among these children, eight who wanted to participate in the program were positioned at the experimental group and other eight who didn't want to do and who demonstrated the range of marks similar to the experimental group were positioned at the control group. The dramatherapy program was based on the theory by Robert Landy (2002), Jennings (2003) and Phil Jones (2005) to improve the sociality of isolated children and was implemented in a total of 15 sessions, two sessions a week after school. To test the effect of the program, A modified test paper by Suh, Poongyeon (1991) with the content of testing sociality into a test paper of human nature for elementary school students to be made by Jeong, Bummo (1971) was used which consists of four sub-factors: cooperation, independency, sociability, law-abiding. As a quantitative analysis, Mann-Whitney Test were analyzed for experimental and control groups. As a qualitative analysis, the interaction patterns among student were analyzed on he basis of video tapes. The tool of observe the interaction patterns among student was Interaction Process Analysis System which was made by Bales (1970). This study obtained the following result First, the drama therapy had meaningful effect on the sociality of the sociality of isolated children. But the quantitative change of the sociality test conclusion was showed meaningfully and positive social behavior was increased in periodical process analysis. Second, in the Interaction Process Analysis(IPA) affirmative interactions increased and negative interactions decreased.

  • PDF

The Effects of Play- using Assertion Training Program on Self-Expression, Interpersonal Relationship and Self-Efficacy of Elementary School Children (놀이 활용 자기표현훈련 프로그램이 초등학생의 자기표현, 대인관계, 자기효능감에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Jae-Cheon;Kang, Young-Ha
    • The Korean Journal of Elementary Counseling
    • /
    • v.4 no.1
    • /
    • pp.151-166
    • /
    • 2005
  • The purpose of the study was to find the effect of play-using assertion training program on elementary school children's self-expression, interpersonal relationship and self-efficacy. For the purpose of the study, the researcher sets hypotheses as follows. Hypothesis I : The play-using assertion training program has significant effect in elementary school children's self-expression. Hypothesis II : The play-using assertion training program has significant effect on elementary school children's interpersonal relationship. Hypothesis III: The play-using assertion training program has significant effect on elementary school children's self-efficacy. To verify these hypotheses, the researcher selected 10 students of 4th grade in C elementary school as a experimental group, and 11 students of 4th grade in O elementary school as a controlled group. Both schools are located at Boryoung, Chungnam. In the experimental group, the researcher administered the play-using assertion training program once a week for ten weeks. The play-using assertion training program are made by the researcher based on Jeon(1985) and Byoun and Kim(1980). To measure self-expression, the scale of self-expression made by Byoun & Kim(1980) was used. To measure interpersonal relationship, the scale of relationship change made by Schlin and Guerney(1971) was used. The scale was translated by Lee and Moon(1980). To measure self-efficacy, the scale of self-efficacy made by Han(2002) was used. The scale is based on Kim and Cha(1996) and Kim(1997). The result of the study is that the play-using assertion training program gives positive effects on students' self-expression, especially in physical area. Second, the play-using assertion training program gives positive effects on students' interpersonal relationship, especially in satisfaction, communication and friendliness. Third, the play-using assertion training program generally does not give positive effects on students' self-efficacy, but give significant effects on confidence and self-control efficacy which are sub-areas of self-efficacy.

  • PDF

An Analysis on the Labor and Capital Productivity of the Construction Industry

  • Choi, Min Soo;Kim, Moo Han
    • Architectural research
    • /
    • v.7 no.2
    • /
    • pp.91-96
    • /
    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify the reality of labor and capital productivity in the construction industry through an industry-level approach and to analyze the relationship between labor and capital productivity using a Cobb-Douglas production function. According to the research results, the construction industry has shown a very high capital productivity, while labor productivity has kept up a low level during the 1980s and 1990s. The reason was because of the lack of skillful construction workers and the decrease of capital. Meanwhile, the construction productivity has greatly increased since 2000 when there was no change in wages. This was because of a large inflow of low-wage foreign workers while the amount of value added has dramatically increased due to the liberalized sale price of apartment buildings. According to the analysis by the Cobb-Douglas production function, the elasticity coefficient of V/L to K/L in the construction industry had decreased from 1.1663 in the $1^{st}$ period(1971-1988) to 0.4465 in the $2^{nd}$ period(1989-1997), and to 0.1664 in the $3^{rd}$ period(1998-2003). Such a result means that the allocation of labor has gradually increased while the allocation of capital has decreased. Moreover there was a big increase in allocation of labor after 1998 due to the excessive deterioration of capital. In conclusion, in order to raise the construction productivity and to avoid labor-intensive production methods, investment for capital should be more increased. In particular, new machinery and equipment that can actually substitute human labor in construction sites should be more developed and applied to construction sites.

The Regional Characteristics of Daily Precipitation Intensity in Korea for Recent 30 Years (최근 30년간 한반도 일 강수강도의 지역적 특성)

  • Kim Eun-Hee;Kim Maeng-Ki;Lee Woo-Seop
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
    • /
    • v.26 no.5
    • /
    • pp.404-416
    • /
    • 2005
  • The seasonal and regional distribution of precipitation in Korea, terms of the amount of precipitation per day, number of days, and intensity was analyzed using precipitation data from 1971 to 2000. The significance level of the linear trend of these data was also investigated using the analysis of variance of each variable. The amount of precipitation per day less than 80 mm per day appeared in the Honam area which also shows a large number of precipitation day value during the fall and winter. However, the lowest amuont of precipitation per day was shown in the Youngnam area. The positive trend of the annual precipitation amount has also been detected in all stations except for a few station in Honam, and the positive trend of precipitation intensity is statistically significant in most of the stations at the Chungcheong and Gyeonggi area. The linear trend of precipitation intensity in these area is found to be significant at the $5\%$ level.

Distribution and Changing Trend on the Occurrence of Spring Colds (꽃샘추위의 발생 분포와 변화 경향)

  • Kwon Young-Ah;Kim Jiyoun;Lee Seungho
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
    • /
    • v.40 no.3
    • /
    • pp.285-295
    • /
    • 2005
  • This paper was examined distribution and changing trends on occurrence days of Spring Cold(cold surge in the flowering season) from the end of February to early in April during 1973-2004. We defined an occurrence day of Spring Colds as above $10\%$ of the anomalies of mean daily temperature or above $10\%$ of the difference of the daily mean temperature between the day before two days. In the west coastal region, the occurrence days of Spring Colds is higher in the end of February and less frequent in the early in April. In the east coastal region, the occurrence days of Spring Colds is higher in the early in April. Spring Colds is closely related with frequencies and a intensities of Siberian High. The occurrence days of Spring Colds has decreased in the most area except Ulleung island and the east coastal region.

Single Life Time Cytological Screening in High Risk Women as an Economical and Feasible Approach to Control Cervical Cancer in Developing Countries Like India

  • Misra, Jata Shankar;Srivastava, Anand Narain;Das, Vinita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.859-862
    • /
    • 2015
  • In view of funding crunches and inadequate manpower in cytology in developing countries like India, single lifetime screening for cervical cancer has been suggested. In this study, an attempt was made to cscreening to make it more effective for early detection. Cytological data were derived from the ongoing routine cervical cytology screening program for women attending Gynaecology Out Patient Department of Queen Mary's Hospital of K.G.Medical University, Lucknow, India during a span of 35 years (April 1971 - December 2005). Cervical smears in a total of 38,256 women were cytologically evaluated. The frequencies of squamous intraepithelial lesions of cervix (SIL) and carcinoma cervix were found to be 7.0% and 0.6%, respectively, in the series. Predisposing factors related to cervical carcinogenesis were analyzed in detail to establish the most vulnerable groups of women for single life time screening. The incidence of SIL and carcinoma cervix was found to be maximal in women above the age of 40 years irrespective of parity and in multiparous women (with three or more children) irrespective of age. The incidence of cervical cytopathologies was significantly higher in symptomatic women, the frequency of SIL being alarmingly higher in women complaining of contact bleeding and that of carcinoma cervix in older women with postmenopausal bleeding. It is consequently felt that single life time screening must include the three groups of women delineated above. Such selective screening appears to be the most economical, cost effective and feasible approach to affordably control the menace of cervical cancer in developing countries like India.

Evaluation of Optimum Rice Heading Period under Recent Climatic Change in Yeongnam Area (기후 변화에 따른 영남지역의 벼 출수적기 평가)

  • Kim, Choon-Song;Lee, Jae-Saeng;Ko, Jee-Yeon;Yun, Eul-Soo;Yeo, Un-Sang;Lee, Jong-Hee;Kwak, Do-Yeon;Shin, Mun-Sik;Oh, Byeong-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.17-28
    • /
    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to analyze the optimum heading period according to the recent climatic change for improvement of rice yield and grain quality in the Yeongnam area. We analyzed climatic elements including daily mean air temperature, daily range of air temperature, sunshine hours, and amount of precipitation from 1996 to 2005 in comparison with those of the 1971 to 2000 normal. Daily mean air temperature and amount of precipitation in the recent 10 years increased, but daily range of air temperature and sunshine hours decreased in comparison with the norm. Also, monthly mean air temperature was lowered remarkably in July and August. The monthly amount of precipitation largely increased in August and September. The daily range of air temperature and sunshine hours were greatly decreased from August to October, Possible cultivation periods for rice in the recent 10 years ranged from 171 days in Boughwa to 228 days in Busan and was expanded about $1{\sim}13$ days in comparison with the normal. Optimum heading date by local regions for the maximum climatic yield potential was estimated as July 31 at Bonghwa to September 7 at Busan, Masan, and Tongyeong in the recent 10 years. There was a wide difference in optimum heading date according to local legions of the Yeongnam area. Compared to the normal, optimum heading date in the recent 10 years was delayed about I~8 days in most local regions except Bonghwa, Mungyeong, and Yeongdeok. These results suggested that it is necessary to develop late maturity rice cultivars for producing high yield and quality rice grain due to the recent climatic change. Moreover, it is still more important to select the most suitable cultivation period appropriate to the changed climate of each local region in Yeongnam area.