• Title, Summary, Keyword: 1971-2005

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A Study on Characteristics of Self-Contained Three-Dimensional Organic Body found in Architecture of Ito Toyo (이토 토요의 건축에 나타난 자기완결적 3차원 조직체의 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Jin
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2017
  • Recent projects of Japanese architect, Ito Toyo have been evolved into innovative and experimental stages that are unique and different from other contemporary architects. Since Ito established his own office in 1971, there were several critical changes and developments in terms of architectural philosophy as well as design methods. Particularly, after Sendai Mediatheque, Ito has tended to focus on creating three-dimensional organic body in which architectural form, space, structure, facilities, images are merged all together. With this new type of three-dimensional structure, Ito aims to generate a new notion of architecture as 'living organism'. This paper tried to analyze Ito's new concept of architecture, design process of three-dimensional organic body and its ultimate characteristics and meanings. For the analysis, three projects were selected: Taichung Metropolitan Opera House(2005), Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive(2007), The New Deichman Library in Oslo(2008). These projects clearly represent several types of three-dimensional organic body. After the comparative studies, it is found that, in Ito's design process and method, there are unique characters: ambivalent relationship between plan and three-dimensional form, aiming new/hyper reality through complicated collaboration of analogue and digital design tools, and contradictory relationship with surrounding urban context. Although there are some limitations and restrictions, ever-evolving Ito's design concept and methods are very much valid and meaningful in contemporary spatial design in various perspectives.

Development of process technique of the alumina membrane with nano-sized pore array (나노미터 크기의 미세구조물을 제작하기 위한 공정기술 개발)

  • Lee, J.H.;Lee, B.W.;Kim, C.K.;Lee, K.H.
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.1971-1973
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    • 2005
  • We fabricated an alumina membrane with nano-sized pore array by anodic oxidation using the thin film aluminum deposited on silicon wafer. It is important that the sample prepared by metal deposition method has a flat aluminum surface and a good adhesion between the silicon wafer and the thin film aluminum. The oxidation time was controlled by observation of current variation. The nano-sized pores with diameter of $60{\sim}120nm$ was obtained by $40{\sim}80$ voltage. The pore widening process was employed for obtaining the flat surface because the pores of the alumina membrane prepared by the fixed voltage method shows the structure of rough surface. Finally, the sample was immersed to the phosphoric acid with 0.1M concentration to etching the barrier layer. The sample will be applied to electronic sensors, field emission display, and template for nano- structure.

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A Settlement Process and Trend of the Two Bathroom Planning of Apartments - Focused on the Apartment Plan in 30s pyung - (서울 지역 아파트 Two Bathroom의 정착과정과 추이 - 30평형대 아파트 평면을 중심으로 -)

  • Hwang, Yun-Jung;Shin, Kyoung-Joo
    • Proceeding of Spring/Autumn Annual Conference of KHA
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    • pp.147-150
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    • 2005
  • The oh purpose of this study is to provide a basic study for a desirable bathroom planning of the 30s pyung apartments. This study explores the change of the bathroom planning and analyzes the bathroom plans of the existing apartments. The data are 2053 case of the bathroom plan of the 30s pyung apartments constructed in Seoul and the new town between 1971-2004. In this stud, a settlement process and trend of the two bathroom plan in the 30s pyung apartments are examined. The findings were as follows: 1) The introduction of the two bathroom from 1970 to 1980. 2) The introduction of the two bathroom from 1990 to 2000. For the better planning of the bathroom, factors like family size, life cycle, and manner of bathroom use should be analyzed in the future studies. The analysis of the dweller's consciousness, satisfaction, and the demands on the bathroom in 30s pyung apartments, and to give useful information on the bathroom of 30s pyung apartments.

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New classification of animal viruses by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (동물바이러스의 새로운 분류)

  • Jang Hyung-Kwan;Song Hee-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.49-69
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    • 2005
  • More than 30 years have elapsed since the first report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) was published in 1971. Since that publication, the ICTV recognizes about 1,550 virus species, but some 30,000 virus strains and isolates are being tracked by virologists in different fields of biology. The ICTV is the 'international court' of experts that rules on names and relationships of all virus, but only to the level of species. Virus taxonomy is changing rapidly, with changes ranging from the trivial(use of italics for species names) to profound reorganization driven by the explosion of sequence information. The universal system of viral taxonomy now accepts Linnean-like classification at the levels of order, family, subfamily, genus, and species. The suffix '-virales' identifies an order, Families are identified by the suffix '-viridae' subfamilies are identified by the suffix '-virinae', and genera are identified by the suffix '-virus'. The importance of distinguishing subspecies, strains, and isolates in vaccine development, diagnostics, etc. is recognized, but these lower levels are not formally classified by ICTV. This paper mainly introduces taxonomy and classification of animal viruses on the basis of the seventh report of the ICTV edited by Van Regenmortal et al. in 2000.

Measurement Method of the Masseter Muscle Volume Using 3D Computed Tomography (3D CT를 이용한 교근의 부피측정)

  • Baek, Jung Hwan;Choi, Jong Woo;Yoo, Sun Kuk;Kim, Yong Oock;Park, Beyoung Yun
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.589-592
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    • 2005
  • Since G.N. Hounsfield's clinical use of computed tomography in 1971, digital imaging technique using computers has shown an eye opening progress. Progress has made 3-dimensional understanding of not only facial bones but muscles and other connective tissues possible through 3-dimensional reconstruction of preexisting tomographical images. Also, quantitative analysis of density, distance, volume has become possible, allowing objective analysis of preoperative and postoperative states through imaging. The authors measured the masseter muscle volume of 20 normal individuals and 8 female patients through 3-D reconstructive CT imaging and made a statistical analysis of the measurements. The method used in our study may be applied to the diagnosis of disease causing the change of the facial volume and presurgical design as a useful tool to provide objective information on the evaluation of surgery outcome.

Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

  • Chai, Jong-Yil
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2013
  • History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea.

Flood Simulation and Estimation of Flood damage Gyeongan River basin using Climate Change Scenarios (기후변화 시나리오를 이용한 경안천 유역의 홍수범람 모의 및 홍수피해액 산정)

  • Han, Dae Gun;Kim, Duck Hwan;Choi, Chang Hyun;Hong, Seung Jin;Kim, Hung Soo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.586-586
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    • 2015
  • 전 세계적으로 기후변화가 심화됨에 따라 기상이변으로 인한 홍수, 가뭄, 태풍 등의 기상재해가 급격히 증가하고 있으며, 피해규모는 물론 생명과 재산피해도 증가하는 추세이다. 기후변화에 의한 온도상승은 증기압을 더 증가시켜 홍수를 유발할 수 있는 강우의 잠재력을 증가시키고 있다(IPCC, 2001). 즉, 수문순환 과정을 빠르게 진행시키고 극한 수문사상의 빈도를 증가시키고 있기 때문에 기후변화가 홍수 재해 및 관리에 미치는 영향을 파악하고, 그에 따른 구조적, 비구조적 대책을 수립하는 것은 미래 치수계획에 있어 아주 중요하다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 IPCC 5차 평가보고서(AR5, 2013)에서 제시한 RCP 시나리오를 이용하여 경안천 유역의 홍수 범람을 모의하고 이에 따른 홍수피해액을 산정하였다. RCP4.5 시나리오와 RCP8.5 시나리오를 사용 하였으며, 목표기간별로(Reference : 1971~2005년, 목표기간I : 2006~2040년, 목표기간II : 2041~2070년, 목표기간III : 2071~2100년) 강우 유출분석 모형에 적용해 미래 기후변화가 경안천 유역의 홍수범람에 미치는 영향을 분석하고, 다차원홍수피해산정법(MD-FDA)을 통해 홍수 피해액을 추정하였다. 이를 통해 끊임없이 발생하는 자연재해로부터 보다 경제적 효과적으로 홍수피해 저감효과를 증대시킬수 있는 기초자료로 활용하고자 한다.

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Anisotropic Patterns of Liver Cancer Prevalence in Guangxi in Southwest China: Is Local Climate a Contributing Factor?

  • Deng, Wei;Long, Long;Tang, Xian-Yan;Huang, Tian-Ren;Li, Ji-Lin;Rong, Min-Hua;Li, Ke-Zhi;Liu, Hai-Zhou
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.3579-3586
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    • 2015
  • Geographic information system (GIS) technology has useful applications for epidemiology, enabling the detection of spatial patterns of disease dispersion and locating geographic areas at increased risk. In this study, we applied GIS technology to characterize the spatial pattern of mortality due to liver cancer in the autonomous region of Guangxi Zhuang in southwest China. A database with liver cancer mortality data for 1971-1973, 1990-1992, and 2004-2005, including geographic locations and climate conditions, was constructed, and the appropriate associations were investigated. It was found that the regions with the highest mortality rates were central Guangxi with Guigang City at the center, and southwest Guangxi centered in Fusui County. Regions with the lowest mortality rates were eastern Guangxi with Pingnan County at the center, and northern Guangxi centered in Sanjiang and Rongshui counties. Regarding climate conditions, in the 1990s the mortality rate of liver cancer positively correlated with average temperature and average minimum temperature, and negatively correlated with average precipitation. In 2004 through 2005, mortality due to liver cancer positively correlated with the average minimum temperature. Regions of high mortality had lower average humidity and higher average barometric pressure than did regions of low mortality. Our results provide information to benefit development of a regional liver cancer prevention program in Guangxi, and provide important information and a reference for exploring causes of liver cancer.

Recruitment and Succession of Riparian Vegetation in Alluvial River Regulated by Upstream Dams - Focused on the Nakdong River Downstream Andong and Imha Dams - (댐 하류 충적하천에서 식생이입 및 천이 - 낙동강 안동/임하 댐 하류하천을 중심으로 -)

  • Woo, Hyo-Seop;Park, Moon-Hyung;Cho, Kang-Hyun;Cho, Hyung-Jin;Chung, Sang-Joon
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.455-469
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    • 2010
  • Changes of geomorphology in alluvial river and vegetation recruitment on its floodplain downstream from dams are investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively focusing on the downstream of Andong dam and Imha dam on the Nakdong River. Results of the analyses of river morphology and bed material in the study site show a general trend of riverbed degradation with a max scour of 3 m and bed material coarsening from pre-dam value of 1.5 mm in D50 to post-dam value of 2.5 mm. Decrease in bed shear stress due to the decrease in flood discharge have caused vegetation recruitment on the once-naked sandbars. As result, the ratio of area of vegetated bars over total area of bars has drastically changed from only 7% in 1971 before the Andong dam (constructed in 1976) to 25% after it, and increased to 43% only three year after the Imha dam (constructed in 1992) and eventually to 74% by 2005. Analysis of the vegetation succession at Wicjeol subreach, one of the three subreaches selected in this study for detailed investigation, has clearly shown a succession of vegetation on once-naked sand bars to a pioneering stage, reed and grass stage, willow shrub and eventually to willow tree stages. At the second subreach selected, two large point bars in front of Hahoe Village seem to have maintained their sand surfaces without a signifiant vegetation recruitment until 2005. The sand bars, however, seem to have been invaded by vegetation recently, which warns river managers to have a countermeasure to protect the sand bars from vegetation invasion in order to conserve them for the historical village of Hahoe. On the other hand, recruitment and establishment of vegetation on the sand bars by artificial disturbance of the river, such as damming, can create an unique habitat of backmarsh in the sandy river, as shown in the case of Gudam Wetland, and may increase the biodiversity as compared with relatively monotonous sand bars. Last, the premise in this study that decrease in flood discharge due to upstream dams and decrease in bed shear stress can induce vegetation recruitment on the naked sand bars in the river has been verified with the analyses of the distribution of dimensionless bed shear stress along the selected cross section in each subreach.

Occurrence of Earthworm and Effect of Plant Extracts on Earthworm in Golf Courses (골프장에서 지렁이의 발생과 식물체 추출물이 지렁이에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Dong-Woon;Hong, Yong;Jung, Young-Hack;Choi, Sung-Hwan;Choo, Ho-Yul;Yun, Jae-Su
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2010
  • Occurrence of earthworms for turfgrass growing seasons and effect of earthworms by some plant extracts and plant oils in golf courses were investigated at the three locations golf courses in Korea 2005 to 2006. There were no differences in monthly occurrence of earthworm except Anseong Benest Golf Club, namely, Anseong Benest Golf Club was highly occurred in July in 2006. Density of earthworm was not different between fairway and rough in Dongrae Benest Golf Club (opened in 1971) while density was higher in rough than fairway in Anseong Benest Golf Club (opened in 1999) and Gapyeong Benest Golf Club (opened in 2000). In case of Gapyeong Benest Golf Club, earthworm density was higher in old courses than recently opened courses. Effect of plant extracts such as mustard oil, wintergreen oil, Quisqualis indica, Daphne genkwa, Pharbitis nil, Zingiber officinale, Xanthium strumarium, and Camellia sinensis on earthworm, mustard oil, wintergreen oil and tea saponin were highly toxic to earthworm, Eisenia andrei. In the pot experiment, 100% of Eisenia andrei was dead at the treatment of 500-fold of aquatic solution of tea saponin (12.4% a.i.).