• Title, Summary, Keyword: 13D05

Search Result 914, Processing Time 0.05 seconds

Effect of Quality Grade and Storage Time on the Palatability, Physicochemical and Microbial Quality of Hanwoo Striploin Beef

  • Yim, Dong-Gyun;Kim, Yu-Jin;Chung, Ku-Young
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
    • /
    • v.35 no.4
    • /
    • pp.449-458
    • /
    • 2015
  • The effects of quality grade and storage time on physicochemical, sensory properties and microbial population of Hanwoo striploin beef were investigated. After a total of 30 Hanwoo beef were slaughtered, the cold carcasses were graded by official meat grader at 24 h postmortem. The carcasses were categorized into five groups (quality grade 1++, 1+, 1, 2, and 3) and were vacuum-packaged and stored. The samples were kept for 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22 and 25 d for analyses. As the quality grade was increased, moisture, protein and ash contents decreased (p<0.05). Higher quality grade corresponded with higher fat contents. The shear force values decreased with increasing quality grade and showed decreases sharply during the first 4 d (p<0.05). pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, and volatile basic nitrogen for grade 1++ groups were lower than for grade 3 (p<0.05). CIE L* and b* values increased as increased quality grade (p<0.05). Meat color decreased until 13 d and fluctuated after 15 d of storage (p<0.05). Regarding the sensory scores, higher quality grade corresponded with higher juiciness, tenderness, flavor, fatty and palatability scores (p<0.05). Generally, increased storage time for 15 d improved sensory scores attributes. Results indicate that a high quality grade could positively influence physicochemical and sensory properties.

Comparison of clinical techniques to assess objectively accommodative response (타각적 조절 반응 평가의 임상 기술들의 비교)

  • Ryu, Dong-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.11 no.9
    • /
    • pp.3406-3411
    • /
    • 2010
  • Assessment of the accommodative response is an essential part of the optometric examination. This study measured objectively the accommodation responses those were measured by Autorefractor, MEM retinoscopy and Nott dynamic retinoscopy, and investigate the correlation and difference the results. Twenty-seven college students with normal visual acuity aged 19 to 29 years (mean $22.7{\pm}2.43$ years) participated in this study. Their accommodative responses to accommodative demand of 4D (25cm) were measured with Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 Autorefractor, MEM retinoscopy and Nott dynamic retinoscopy. The accommodative responses to accommodative demand of 4D were $3.70{\pm}0.25D$ by Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 Autorefractor, $3.58{\pm}0.30D$ by MEM retinoscopy and $3.77{\pm}0.29D$ by Nott dynamic retinoscopy, respectively. There were high correlations among the three techniques (p<0.05). MEM retinoscopy was measured $0.19{\pm}0.13D$ lower than Nott dynamic retinoscopy (p<0.05) and it was measured $0.12{\pm}0.24D$ lower than Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 Autorefractor (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between Nott dynamic retinoscopy and Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 Autorefractor (p>0.05). MEM retinoscopy showed lesser accommodative responses than Nott dynamic retinoscopy and Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 Autorefractor. Author suggest that Nott dynamic retinoscopy may use Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 Autorefractor interchangeably to evaluate accommodative responses expect MEM retinoscopy.

Antenna Gain Enhancement Using FSS(Frequency Selective Surface) with Defect Mode Characteristic (결함 모드 특성을 갖는 주파수 선택적 표면에 의한 안테나 이득 향상)

  • Kim, June-Hyong;Nam, Sung-Soo;Cho, Tae-Joon;Lee, Hong-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.147-153
    • /
    • 2009
  • In this paper, FSS(Frequency Selective Surface) using defect mode characteristic is proposed. The unit cell using defect mode characteristic of the proposed FSS is offered lower resonant frequency in the same cell size. The number of suitable array is optimized 13 by 13. Also, the patch antennas operated in WCDMA(Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) Tx band and Rx band are designed for the comparison. The gain value of proposed FSS-1 complex structure (the patch antenna of Tx band and FSS) is improved 3.3 dB from 9.98 dBi to 13.28 dBi in Tx band. The gain value of proposed FSS-2 complex structure(the patch antenna of Rx band and FSS) is improved 5.53 dB from 9.81 dBi to 15.34 dBi in Rx band. Also the measured impedance bandwidth($VSWR{\leq}2$) of manufactured $13{\times}13$ array antenna is from 337 MHz(1.87 to 2.21 GHz). The measured radiation gain is 11.39 dBi(1.94 GHz), 13.11 dBi(2.05 GHz), 11.09 dBi(2.14 GHz). The measured radiation efficiency is 81 %. Because the proposed FSS structure has more higher gain, it will be applied to antenna of WCDMA repeater system.

Feed Intake and Digestibility in Korean Native Goats Fed Fermented Domestic Agricultural By-Products (국내산 농산부산물 발효사료를 급여한 재래산양의 사료섭취량 및 소화율)

  • 안종호;유황종;김현진;조익환;이주삼
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
    • /
    • v.8 no.3
    • /
    • pp.111-120
    • /
    • 2000
  • In this study, by-products of rice bran, rice hull, bean curd dregs and food waste were fermented with different ratios of 26, 26, 34 and 14% respectively and the experimental diets were prepared mixing it with various ratios of commercial diets (fermented feed commercial feed : A 80 : 20, B 70 : 30, C 60 : 40, D 50:50). In Experiment I, feed intake, nutrients digestibilities and nitrogen retention were investigated and body weight gain in Experiment 1. For chemical composition of experimental diets, crude protein contents were 13.73, 13.78, 14.45 and 15.14% in A, B, C and D respectively and the contents of crude fat and crude fiber were highest in A as 8.66 and 27.82% respectively. 2. Dry hurler intakes were significantly higher (P<0.05) in A(362.06g/d) and C(358.49g/d) than B and D. Intakes of crude protein and crude fat were not significantly different (P>0.05) among treatments however those of crude fiber and crude ash were significantly higher (P>0.05) in A(101.47g/d). 3. Dry matter digestibilities in the range of 53.38∼68.81% in all treatments have shown the highest value in C of 60% fermented feed plus 40% commercial diet but the lowest in A of 80% of fermented feed plus 20% commercial diet (P<0.05). 59.85% of digestibility of crude protein in A was also lowest among all treatments (p<0.05), 4. 8.47g/d of nitrogen intake in C was recorded highest (P<0.05) however the highest nitrogen retention was marked in B of 50% fermented feed plus 50% of commercial diet due mainly to lower excretion of nitrogen through feces. 5. The data of live weight gain in Experiment II has not been shown as a result since the proper daily gain of body weight was achieved only in D as 88.89g/d and the goats in other treatments have shown frequent diarrhea. However, neglecting the animals with diarrhea, higher amounts of concentrates in the diets (C and D) showed the tendency of higher weight gain. 6. In this study, feeding 60% fermented feed manufactured with domestic agricultural by-products of rice bran, rice hull, bean curd dregs and food waste to Korean native goats have shown satisfactory results of intake and digestibility and it indicates that utilization of domestic agricultural by-products in goats could be improved by the process of fermentation. However it's effects on body weight gain and nitrogen retention were below than expected. Different sources of feedstuff for fermentation may result in different performances of animals. However, to draw overall conclusion from this study, 50∼60% of fermented feed can be recommended in the case of mixing with concentrates.

  • PDF

Highly Robust Bendable a-IGZO TFTs on Polyimide Substrate with New Structure

  • Kim, Tae-Woong;Stryakhilev, Denis;Jin, Dong-Un;Lee, Jae-Seob;An, Sung-Guk;Kim, Hyung-Sik;Kim, Young-Gu;Pyo, Young-Shin;Seo, Sang-Joon;Kang, Kin-Yeng;Chung, Ho-Kyoon;Berkeley, Brain;Kim, Sang-Soo
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
    • /
    • /
    • pp.998-1001
    • /
    • 2009
  • A new flexible TFT backplane structure with improved mechanical reliability is proposed. Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors based on this structure have been fabricated on a polyimide substrate, and the resultant mechanical durability has been evaluated in a cyclic bending test. The panel can withstand 10,000 bending cycles at a bending radius of 5 mm without any noticeable TFT degradation. After 10K bending cycles, the change of threshold voltage, mobility, sub-threshold slope, and gate leakage current were only -0.22V, -0.13$cm^2$/V-s, -0.05V/decade, and $-3.05{\times}10^{-13}A$, respectively.

  • PDF

Changes of Refractive Correction Value with Different Age Group: A Case for Myopia Control Lens, Single Vision Lens and Reverse Geometry Contact Lens (Myopia Control Lens, Single Vision Lens, Reverse Geometry Contact Lens의 연령에 따른 굴절교정상태 변화에 대한 추적 연구)

  • Yoon, Min-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.75-84
    • /
    • 2013
  • Purpose: Changes of refractive correction value in different age group were investigated. Regarding the inhibitive effects against myopia progression after wearing reverse geometry contact lenses and myopia control lenses (MC lenses), the effects after wearing single vision lenses were compared. Methods: We organized children between the ages of six and fifteen into three groups by age, and distributed fifty-seven reverse geometry contact lenses, fifty-six MC lenses and seventy-eight single vision lenses among them to be worn. Group 1 consisted of children aged ten and under, Group 2 consisted of children between the ages of eleven and fifteen, and Group 3 represents all of the study participants. The aim of this study was to learn the inhibitive effects against myopia progression attained by changes of refractive correction value and to verify their statistical significance at twelve months and under, thirteen to twenty-four months and twenty-five to thirty-six months. Results: Changes of refractive correction value by each length of use in Group 3 were as follows. For the age group of under twelve months, participants using the reverse geometric contact lens showed no change, while those using the MC or single vision lens had significant changes (P<0.05) of $-0.36{\pm}0.10$ D and $-0.67{\pm}0.52$ D, respectively. Users of all three lens types displayed significant change (P<0.05), in the age group of between thirteen and twenty-four months, of $0.18{\pm}0.49$ D, $0.60{\pm}0.42$ D and $1.37{\pm}0.72$ D for users of the reverse geometry contact lens, the MC lens and the single vision lens, respectively. There were significant changes (P<0.05) of $0.29{\pm}0.61$ D, $0.93{\pm}0.57$ D and $1.72{\pm}0.78$ in the same respective order as the above in the age group of twenty-five to thirty-six months. Refractive correction value showed changes with different age group. Group 1 displayed significant changes (P<0.05) of $0.29{\pm}0.73$ D, $1.07{\pm}0.59$ D and $1.75{\pm}0.74$ D for users of the reverse geometry contact lens, MC lens and single vision lens, respectively, up to thirty-six months of lens wearing; Group 2, also up to thirty-six months, displayed significant changes (P<0.05) of $0.28{\pm}0.42$ D, $0.75{\pm}0.49$ D and $1.70{\pm}0.84$ D in the same respective order, and changes in refractive correction for the age group under ten years was significantly greater (P<0.05) for the age group of eleven and older. Conclusions: The results found in this study demonstrate that there were no changes of refractive correction value for the case of wearing reversing geometry contact lens up to twelve month or less. MC lens showed less changes in variations of visual acuity for all users which might be resulted in inhibiting progression of myoptia. When both reverse geometry contact lens and the MC lens are wearing for the period from 13 to 36 month, both lens showed less changes in variation of visual acuity for all users. The results suggested that the less changes in variation of visual acuity of both lens had an effect on inhibiting progression of myopia.

Effects of Dietary Protein Levels for Gestating Gilts on Reproductive Performance, Blood Metabolites and Milk Composition

  • Jang, Y.D.;Jang, S.K.;Kim, D.H.;Oh, H.K.;Kim, Y.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.27 no.1
    • /
    • pp.83-92
    • /
    • 2014
  • This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary CP levels in gestation under equal lysine content on reproductive performance, blood metabolites and milk composition of gilts. A total of 25 gilts ($F_1$, Yorkshire${\times}$Landrace) were allotted to 4 dietary treatments at breeding in a completely randomized design, and fed 1 of 4 experimental diets containing different CP levels (11%, 13%, 15%, or 17%) at 2.0 kg/d throughout the gestation. Body weight of gilts at 24 h postpartum tended to increase linearly (p = 0.09) as dietary CP level increased. In lactation, backfat thickness, ADFI, litter size and weaning to estrus interval (WEI) did not differ among dietary treatments. There were linear increases in litter and piglet weight at 21 d of lactation (p<0.05) and weight gain of litter (p<0.01) and piglet (p<0.05) throughout the lactation as dietary CP level increased. Plasma urea nitrogen levels of gilts in gestation and at 24 h postpartum were linearly elevated as dietary CP level increased (p<0.05). Free fatty acid (FFA) levels in plasma of gestating gilts increased as dietary CP level increased up to 15%, and then decreased with quadratic effects (15 d, p<0.01; 90 d, p<0.05), and a quadratic trend (70 d, p = 0.06). There were no differences in plasma FFA, glucose levels and milk composition in lactation. These results indicate that increasing dietary CP level under equal lysine content in gestation increases BW of gilts and litter performance but does not affect litter size and milk composition. Feeding over 13% CP diet for gestating gilts could be recommended to improve litter growth.

Dietary Zinc Effects on Growth Performance and Immune Response of Endotoxemic Growing Pigs

  • Roberts, E.S.;van Heugten, E.;Lloyd, K.;Almond, G.W.;Spears, J.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.10
    • /
    • pp.1496-1501
    • /
    • 2002
  • A $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of dietary Zn on performance and immune response of acutely endotoxemic growing pigs (n=96, mean BW=24.9 kg). Factors included 1) intramuscular injection of $10{\mu}g/kg$ BW of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or control and 2) supplemental Zn at 10, 50, or 150 ppm. Diets were fed beginning after weaning (initial body weight=7.6 kg) in the nursery and continued for 16 d into the grower phase. The basal corn-soybean meal grower diet contained 1% lysine and 34.3 ppm Zn. Pigs were acclimated for 12 d in the growerfinishing facility before LPS treatment on d 13. Gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency were unaffected by dietary Zn. Feed intake decreased (p<0.10) and gain/feed was greater (p<0.10) from d 13 to d 16 for pigs injected with LPS. Serum Zn and alkaline phosphatase activity increased (p<0.05) with increasing Zn levels. The febrile response to LPS peaked at 6 h post exposure and pigs were afebrile within 12 h. Rectal temperature was greater (p<0.05) in pigs receiving 50 and 150 ppm Zn than in pigs supplemented with 10 ppm Zn. In vivo cellular immune response, measured on d 13 by skin thickness response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), was greater after 6 h (p<0.05) in pigs fed 10 ppm Zn and exposed to LPS compared to all other treatments, but was not affected at 12, 24 or 48 h. Zinc did not affect mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation. Zinc supplemented at 50 or 150 ppm resulted in an enhanced febrile response in pigs subjected to iatrogenic endotoxemia, but did not affect pig performance or immune response measurements.

The study on relation between ocular function and accommodative facility (시기능과 조절 용이성과의 관계 연구)

  • Park, Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
    • /
    • v.10 no.4
    • /
    • pp.375-380
    • /
    • 2005
  • To assess convergence and accommodation at a short distance, 92 selected subjects without any ocular diseases by apperatuses of visual chart(Shinnippon CT30) and phoropter(Shinnippon VT 10) at a short distance(40 cm) were tested upon MEM retinoscopy(Welch Allyn, USA). BELL retinoscopy(Welch Allyn, USA), binocular accommodative facility (${\pm}2.00$ D flipper. Bernell Co., USA), vergence facility(prism flipper, Bernell Co., USA). There were such test results as MEM retinoscopy(R/L)($+1.05{\pm}0.87/1.02{\pm}0.80$ D). BELL retinoscopy ($17.89{\pm}12.12/17.94{\pm}11.72cm$), binocular accommodative facility (R/G)($7.69{\pm}6.48cpm$). binocular accommodative facility(polaroid)($11.76{\pm}5.22cpm$), monocular accommodative facility(R/L) ($13.9{\pm}6.27/13.8{\pm}5.96cpm$), vergence facility($13.5{\pm}6.40cpm$).

  • PDF

A Clinical Study on Presbyopia in Wearing the Near Spectacle for the First Time (근용 안경을 최초 장용하는 노안에 대한 임상적 연구)

  • Yoo, Jong-Sook;Lim, Hyeon-Seon;Lee, Soo-Cheon;Hwang, Jung-Hee;Kim, Hyo-Jung
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
    • /
    • v.13 no.4
    • /
    • pp.103-107
    • /
    • 2008
  • Purpose: This research measured the near addition powers of presbyopia in wearing the near spectacle for the first time. Methods: We evaluated age, sex, working group, spherical power and cylindrical power and measured the power of refractive error performed the both eyes (310 eyes) of 155 subjects subjectively noncycloplegic and power of addition using the cross cylinder method. Results: There were measured the near addition powers in the range of +0.75D ~ +1.75D. In case of the average addition, they were measured with +1.06D in subjects under 43 years of age, +1.08D in 44 to 46 years, +1.23D in 47 to 49 years and +1.46D in over 50 years of age. The average age in subjects was 47.6 years old and 74 male, 81 female, 71 near sighted working group and 83 far sighted working group. Conclusions: Near addition was correlated with age, working group and cylindrical power (P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.05).

  • PDF