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A study on the optimum ratio of the ingredients in preparation of black sesame gruels (흑임자죽 재료배합비의 최적화 연구)

  • 박정리;김종군;김정미
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.685-693
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    • 2003
  • The aim of this study was to develop a standardized recipe for black sesame gruel that has been preferred for generations as a nutritional food. The method focused on optimizing the mixing ratio of the components to improve the quality of the black sesame gruels that modem consumers would like. The results are summarized as follows: The more black sesame added to the gruel, the lower its brightness was, but the redness and yellowness was higher. The amount of black sesame made a significant difference in the viscosity, color, nutty taste, bitterness, appearance and overall preference. It was highest in the overall preference when the amount of black sesame was added 33g(40% of rice weight basis). Different types of rice were added to the black sesame gruel, and it was observed that the color value of the gruel was high in its brightness, redness and yellowness when 50g(60%) of glutinous rice was added to it. The black sesame gruel was most preferred when 50g of non-glutinous rice was added. The redness value was high when 15g(18%) of non-glutinous rice flour was added. The yellowness value was high when 25g(30%) of non-glutinous rice flour was added. This observation showed significant differences in the viscosity, color, nutty taste, bitterness, appearance and overall preference. In particular, the black sesame gruel was most preferred when 50g of non-glutinous rice flour was added. The addition of 7g(9%) of salt to the black sesame gruel showed the highest brightness. The redness and yellowness was the highest when 5g(6%) of salt was added. This observation showed a significant difference in the viscosity, color, nutty taste, bitterness, appearance and overall preference. The highest preference was observed when 2.5g(3%) of salt was added. Adding more materials increased the viscosity of the black sesame gruel. With increasing temperature, the viscosity became lower, and vice versa. The intensity of sweetness and spreadability was found to be proportional to the amount of additive material. In conclusion, the optimum recipe for black sesame gruels was obtained 33g(40%) of black sesame, 50g(60%) of glutinous rice (flour), 2.5g of salt, and 500$m\ell$ of water.

CHANGES IN SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF ALBINO RATS AT DIFFERENT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES

  • Hassanin, S.H.;Khali, F.A.;Abd-Elaziz, A.M.S.;EL-Sobhy, H.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.471-474
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    • 1994
  • Five experimental groups with five adult male rats in each, were exposed to 20, 35, 40 and $45^{\circ}C$ air temperature for 50-70 minutes, and to $50^{\circ}C$ for 30-50 minutes, respectively. Food and drinking water were not permitted during the exposure. Blood samples were obtained by heart puncture immediately after the thermal treatment. All the rats were hyperthermic (p<0.01) as compared to the controls ($20^{\circ}C$). Hyperthermia was associated with hypoglycemia which was significant (p<0.01) at 45 and $50^{\circ}C$ exposures. Plasma levels of GOT and GPT declined at 35 and $40^{\circ}C$ reaching the lowest (p<0.05) level at $45^{\circ}C$, while at $50^{\circ}C$ GOT level was elevated by 45% but GPT was normal as compared to the controls. Differences between groups were significant (p<0.01) for GOT and insignificant for GPT. Hematocrit value increased significantly (p<0.01) at 45 and $50^{\circ}C$, indicating hemoconcentration. It could be concluded that severe heat stress (45 and $50^{\circ}C$) resulted in critical hyperthermia, hypoglycemia, disturbed liver function, body dehydration, and hemoconcentration leading to death.

Pinus Densiflora Bark Extract (PineXol) Decreases Adiposity in Mice by Down-Regulation of Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis and Adipogenesis in White Adipose Tissue

  • Ahn, Hyemyoung;Go, Gwang-woong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.660-667
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    • 2017
  • PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antilipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or a HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight. The body weight and body fat mass in the PX50 group were statistically lower than those in the HFD group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The concentration of hepatic triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were reduced in the PX50 group compared with the HFD group (p < 0.01). Acetyl CoA carboxylase (p < 0.01), elongase of very long chain fatty acids 6 (p < 0.01), stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (p < 0.05), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (p < 0.01), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (p < 0.05) were significantly decreased in the PX50 group compared with that in the HFD group. In white adipose tissue, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (p < 0.05), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (p < 0.001), and perilipin (p < 0.01) were decreased in the PX50 group compared with those in the HFD group. Therefore, the current study implies the potential of PineXol for the prevention and/or amelioration of obesity, in part by inhibition of both hepatic lipid synthesis and adipogenesis in white adipose tissue.

50-GHz AWG Interrogation of a Multiple-FBG Temperature Sensor (50-GHz AWG를 이용한 다중 광섬유격자 브래그 파장 계측)

  • Moon, HyungMyung;Kwak, SeungChan;Kim, JinBong;Yim, Ju-Wan;Park, Dong-Young;Im, Kiegon
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.226-229
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    • 2019
  • We investigated an interrogation system for fiber Bragg gratings by using a 50-GHz 96-channel array waveguide grating. Linearity of the sensitivity (the wavelength shift in response to the change in strain or temperature) is achieved for a Bragg grating of sufficiently wide bandwidth. The present wavelength-monitoring system could measure the change in Bragg wavelength with a resolution of 0.01 nm, at intervals of 10 seconds. When this interrogation system was used for a linear array of 12 acrylaterecoated fiber gratings, the wavelength sensitivity changed from 0.018 nm/℃ to 0.01 nm/℃ when the operating temperature changed from -25℃ to 85℃.

DNA Fingerprinting of Red Jungle Fowl, Village Chicken and Broilers

  • Mohd-Azmi, M.L.;Ali, A.S.;Kheng, W.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.1040-1043
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    • 2000
  • The genomic mapping of Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus), local Village Chicken, and broiler was carried out by random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) technique. Two different sets of arbitrary primers were used (Operon OPA01-20 and Genemed GM01-50). All the genomes of the three species of chickens were amplified with OPA01-20 primers. The genomes of the Red Jungle Fowl and local Village Chicken were further amplified with GM01-50 primers. Analysis of the results based on band sharing (BS) and the molecular size of individually amplified DNA fragments showed that Red Jungle Fowl and local Village Chicken shared the species similarity of 66% with Operon primers 01-20, 64% between local Village Chicken and broiler, and 63% when DNA bands between Red Jungle Fowl and broiler were compared. With GM01-50, the BS between Red Jungle Fowl and local village chicken increased to 72%. The results showed that the local village chicken is more closely related to Red Jungle Fowl than to broiler in the genetic distance. On the other hand, broiler is 1% closer in genetic distance to local village chicken than to Red Jungle Fowl. The results also indicated that primers like OPA-7, 8 and 9 can be used as species specific DNA markers for these three species of chickens.

A Study on the Pheripheral Anticholinergic Effect of Minaprine (Minaprine의 말초 항콜린 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Mook-Hee;Lee, Jong-Bum;Cheung, Seung-Douk
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 1989
  • The authors studied ED50 of bethanechol on the contractilities of the smooth muscles isolated from various organs of rat under the presence of atropine(a classical competitive blocker of cholinergic muscarinic receptor) or minaprine(a newly developed antidepressant drug) to investigate the pheripheral anticholinergic effect of minaprine. The results were as follows ; 1) There was no significant difference between ED50 of bethanechol in the control group and that under the presence of minaprine $10^{-8}M$ and $10^{-7}M$ in the smooth muscles isolated from the duodenum. 2) There was no significant difference between ED50 of bethanechol in the control group and that under the presence of minaprine $10^{-8}M$ and $10^{-7}M$ in the smooth muscles isolated from the ascending colon. 3) There was significant difference between ED50 of bethanechol in the control group and that under the presence of minaprine $10^{-8}M$ and $10^{-7}M$ in the smooth muscles isolated from the urinary bladder(P<0.01). 4) There was significant difference between ED50 of the atropine $10^{-8}M$ and minaprine ($10^{-8}M$) in the smooth muscles isolated from the urinary bladder(P<0.05).

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The Effect of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract on the Immunotoxicity of Diethylstilbestrol in ICR Mice (마우스에 있어서 Diethylstilbestrol의 면역독성에 미치는 홍삼 Ethanol 유출물의 영향)

  • 이덕행;안영근
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.6 no.1_2
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    • pp.39-57
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    • 1991
  • The effect of red ginseng ethanol extract on the immunotoxicity of diethylstilbestrol (DES) was studied in ICR mice. ICR male mice were divided into S groups (10 mice/group), and red ginseng ethanol extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt., respectively) and DES (1 mg/kg body wt.) were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to ICR mice once a day for 2 weeks. Mice were sensitized and challenged with sheep red blood cells (S-RBC). Immune response were evaluated by humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, non-specific immunity, and circulating leukocyte counts. The results of this study were summarized as followings: 1. The DES-treated control group as compared with normal group showed the tendency to decrease body weight rate and relative liver weight, decreased both humoral and cellular immune responses, phagocyte activity, and circulating leukocyte counts, but increased the natural killer (NK) cell activity. 2. Compared with the DES-treated control group, DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract-treated groups significantly decreased the body weight rate (P<0.01). Relative liver weight was significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (50mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01), but significantly increased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01). Relative spleen and thymus weights were significantly enhanced in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01), but significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (200 mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01). 3. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract-treated groups rather than in the DES-treated control group (P<0.01). Especially, it weakened the decrease in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group. 4. Phagocyte activity and circulating leukocyte counts were significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract-treated groups rather than in the DES-treated control group (P<0.01). Especially, it weakened the decrease in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group. NK cell activity was significantly enhanced in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (100 mg/kg)-treated group (P<0.01), but significantly decreased in DES plus red ginseng ethanol extract (50 and 200 mg/kg)-treated groups (P<0.01).

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Studies on Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Depolymerized Alginate from Sea tangle, Laminalia japonicus by Thermal Decomposition 7. Effects of Depolymerized Alginate on Fecal Composition in Rats (다시마 (Laminaria japonicus) Alginate의 가열가수분해에 따른 물리$\cdot$화학적 및 생물학적 특성에 관한 연구 7. 저분자 Alginate에 의한 랫드 분변의 성분 변화)

  • KIM Yuck-Yong;CHO Young-Je
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.84-90
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    • 2001
  • This study was performed to know the effect of depolymerized alginate obtained by hydrolysis of alginate through a heating process at $121^{\circ}C$ on intestinal environment, Rats were fed with diets containing $1\%$, $5\%$, and $10\%$ of each depolymerized alginate (HAG-10, HAG-50, HAG-100 and alginate) for 35 days, The changes of weight, moisture content, pH and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) of fecal, and a short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were checked in the rats. The fecal weight and moisture content were the highest in rats fed with alginate diets (p<0.01), followed by HAG-100, HAG-50 and HAG-10 in order. The $5\%$ of HAG-50 diets induced a significant increase in contents of protein and lipid of feces, resulting in the decrease of apparent digestibility of protein and lipid (p<0.01). The pH and VBN content in feces of the rats decreased in $5\%$ and $10\%$ of HAG-50 diets, but $10\%$ of HAG-100 diets; $5\%$ and $10\%$ of alginate diets brought about an increase of fecal pH and VBN (p<0.01), The amount of n-butyric acid in feces was increased while propionic and acetic acid contents decreased significantly (p<0.01) in diets containing $5\%$ and $10\%$ HAG-50. However, the feces of rat fed diet containing $5\%$ and $10\%$ alginate showed a tendency to being opposite in results than that of HAG-50.

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Replacement of sucrose with other sweeteners and high methoxyl pectin in low caloric pectin gels (대체 감미료와 high methoxyl pectin을 이용한 저열량 pectin gel의 제조)

  • 오혜숙;이명희;문수재
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.284-288
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    • 1993
  • Replacement of sucrose with sugar alcohols in high methoxyl pectin(HMP) jellies were studied. HMP jellies were sweetened with 100% sucrose, 75% sucrose and 25% maltitol, 50% sucrose and 50% maltitol, and 50% sucrose, 25% maltitol, 12.5% sorbitol and 12.5% mannitol. The effect of sugar alcohols in HMP jellies were investigted. There was only slight differences in sweetness intersity in HMP jellies. Color(p<0.05), texture(p<0.01) and preference(p<0.01) of 100fl sucrose jelly were significantly higher than other Jellies sweetened with sugar and sugar alcohols mixtures. Hunter's L(lightness), a(redness), b(yellowness) values of 100%, sucrose jellies and jellies substituted with maltitol up to 25% were not signignificantly different. But as the ratio and the number of sugar alcohols used for substition were increased, L, a and b values had been lowered signigicantly(p<0.01). Instru-mental characteristics of jelly texture were examined. Hardness of 100% sucrose jelly sweetened with sucrose and 3 kind of sugar alcohols were higher than others(p<0.05). As substitution ratio was higher, springiness and chewiness of HMP jellies were lowered(p<0.01). Springiness of HMP jellies indicated positive correlation with general acceptance of sensory scores at 5% significant level. Brittleness, gum-miness and cohesiveness in all types of jellies were not significantly different.

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Experimental Studies on the Effects of Pyeongpaesan (평폐산(平肺散)의 효능(效能)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Cheol-Hyeon;Shin, Jo-Young
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.385-408
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    • 1998
  • Pyeongpaesan (平肺散) has been used in Korea for many centuries as a treatment for respiratory disease. The effect of Pyeongpaesan (平肺散) on tracheal smooth muscle is not known. The purpose of the present study is to determine the effect of Pyeongpaesan (平肺散) on histamine and acetylcholine induced tracheal smooth muscle contraction in rats and guinea pigs. Guinea pig (500 g, male) and Sprague Dawley rats (200 g, male) were killed by $CO_2$ exposure and a segment (8-10 mm) of the thoracic trachea from each rat and guinea pig was cut into equal segments and mounted 'in pairs' in a tissue bath. Contractile force was measured with force displacement transducers under 0.5 g loading tension. The dose of histamine (His) and acetylcholine (Ach) which evoked 50% of maximal response ($ED_{50}$) was obtained from cumulative dose response curves for histamine and acetylcholine $(10^{-7}{\sim}10^{-4}M)$. Contractions evoked by His $(ED_{50})$ and Ach $(ED_{50})$ were inhibited significantly by Pyeongpaesan (平肺散). In guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, the mean percent inhibition of acetylcholine induced contraction was 13.5% (p<0.05) after $10{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散), $64.6\(p<0.01)\;after\;30{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散), and $92.8\(p<0.01)\;after\;100{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散). In rat tracheal smooth muscle, the mean percent inhibition of acetylcholine induced contraction was $60.9\(p<0.01)\;after\;30{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散), and $91.2\(p<0.01)\;after\;100{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散). Also, in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, the mean percent inhibition of histamine induced contraction was $104.8\(p<0.01)\;after\;30{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散) and $142.3\(p<0.01)\;after\;100{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散). In rat tracheal smooth muscle, the mean percent inhibition of histamine induced contraction was $63.7\(p<0.01)\;after\;30{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散), and $107.5\(p<0.01)\;after\;100{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散). Propranolol $(10^{-7}M)$ slightly but significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of Pyeongpaesan (平肺散). Following treatment with propranolol, the mean percent inhibition caused by $100{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散) fell to 15.7% (p<0.05) in guinea pig induced by acetylcholine contraction and the mean percent inhibition caused by $100{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散) fell to 22.3% (p<0.05) in guinea pig induced by histamine contraction and by $100{\mu}l/ml$ Pyeongpaesan (平肺散) fell to 28.7% (p<0.01) in rat induced by histamine contraction. Indomethacin and methylene blue $(10^{-7}\;M)$ did not significantly alter the inhibitory effect of Pyeongpaesan (平肺散). Also, I could find the effects of Pyeongpaesan (平肺散) and Pyeongpaesanga (平肺散加) morphine on the tracheal smooth muscle in guinea pig and rat did not change significantly. These results indicate that Pyeongpaesan. (平肺散) can relax histamine and acetylcholine-induced contraction of guinea pig and rat tracheal smooth muscle, and that this inhibition involves sympathetic effects and the release of cyclooxygenase products.

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