• Title, Summary, Keyword: 후방산란인자

Search Result 14, Processing Time 0.049 seconds

Prediction of rice growth parameters by X-band automatic scatterometer system (X-band 자동관측시스템을 이용한 벼 생육인자 추정)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, S.Young;Choe, Eun-Young;Lee, Hoon-Yol
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.40-45
    • /
    • 2009
  • 본 연구에서는 기후 등의 영향을 받지 않고 레이더 산란 측정을 할 수 있는 X-band antenna 기반의 자동관측 시스템을 이용하여 벼 생육시기에 따른 후방산란계수와 벼 생육인자와의 관계를 분석하여 후방산란계수를 이용한 벼 생육인자를 추정한 것을 목적으로 하였다. 2008년도 국립농업과학원 시험포장 ($37^{\circ}$15'28.0"N, $126^{\circ}$59'21.5"E)에서 추청벼를 대상으로 생육시기별 후방산란계수를 관측하였는데 모든 편파별 후방산란계수가 벼 유수형성기 (7월 말경)까지 증가하다가 그 후 감소하다가 수확기가 가까워지는 9월 중순이후 다시 증가하는 dual-peak 현상을 보였고 특히 W-편파의 경우 9월 초순부터 후방산란계수 증가가 다른 polarization에 비해 크게 나타났다. 후방산란계수와 작물생육인자와의 관계를 분석한 결과 고주파수인 X-band는 상대적으로 바이오메스, 엽 면적지수와의 상관이 낮게 나타났지만 이삭 건물중은 VV-편파 후방산란계수와 상관관계를 보였다. 이삭 건물중과 상관관계가 높게 나타난 X-band의 W-편파 후방산란계수를 이용하여 수확기 이삭 건물중을 추정하였는데 VV-편파 후방산란계수와 이삭 건물중과는 결정계수 $(R^2)$가 0.85이었고, 이삭 건물중 실측값과 추정값을 비교해 본 결과 1:1 line에 근접하게 분포하였다 ($R^2$=0.85).

  • PDF

Construction of X-band automatic radar scatterometer measurement system and monitoring of rice growth (X-밴드 레이더 산란계 자동 측정시스템 구축과 벼 생육 모니터링)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, Suk-Young;Lee, Hoon-Yol
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.43 no.3
    • /
    • pp.374-383
    • /
    • 2010
  • Microwave radar can penetrate cloud cover regardless of weather conditions and can be used day and night. Especially a ground-based polarimetric scatterometer has advantages of monitoring crop conditions continuously with full polarization and different frequencies. Kim et al. (2009) have measured backscattering coefficients of paddy rice using L-, C-, X-band scatterometer system with full polarization and various angles during the rice growth period and have revealed the necessity of near-continuous automatic measurement to eliminate the difficulties, inaccuracy and sparseness of data acquisitions arising from manual operation of the system. In this study, we constructed an X-band automatic scatterometer system, analyzed scattering characteristics of paddy rice from X-band scatterometer data and estimated rice growth parameter using backscattering coefficients in X-band. The system was installed inside a shelter in an experimental paddy field at the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) before rice transplanting. The scatterometer system consists of X-band antennas, HP8720D vector network analyzer, RF cables and personal computer that controls frequency, polarization and data storage. This system using automatically measures fully-polarimetric backscattering coefficients of rice crop every 10 minutes. The backscattering coefficients were calculated from the measured data at a fixed incidence angle of $45^{\circ}$ and with full polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH) by applying the radar equation and compared with rice growth data such as plant height, stem number, fresh dry weight and Leaf Area Index (LAI) that were collected at the same time of each rice growth parameter. We examined the temporal behaviour of the backscattering coefficients of the rice crop at X-band during rice growth period. The HH-, VV-polarization backscattering coefficients steadily increased toward panicle initiation stage, thereafter decreased and again increased in early-September. We analyzed the relationships between backscattering coefficients in X-band and plant parameters and predicted the rice growth parameters using backscattering coefficients. It was confirmed that X-band is sensitive to grain maturity at near harvesting season.

Correlation analysis of suspended sediment concentration and acoustic backscatter intensity (음파 후방산란강도와 부유사 농도의 상관관계 분석)

  • Park, JJi-Youn;Ryu, Hong Ryul;Kim, Dong-Ho;Hwang, Kyu-Nam
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.282-287
    • /
    • 2019
  • 본 연구의 목적은 음파를 이용하는 유속계로부터 관측된 후방산란강도와 실측된 부유사농도의 상관관계를 해석하여, 두 인자 사이의 관련 매개변수를 정량적으로 산정하고 관계식을 도출하는데 있다. 이를 위해 층별 유속계인 Aquadopp Profiler를 사용하여 사질 퇴적물 및 고령토 부유퇴적물 관측센서 검보정 챔버 실험을 수행하였다. 두 인자의 상관관계는 선형회귀분석을 통해 해석하였으며 그 결과로 도출된 접합곡선의 기울기는 각각 안목 A1 이 2.065, 안목 A2가 1.576, 고령토시료일 때 2.588의 값을 갖는데 이러한 차이는 시료 특성으로 설명될 수 있다. 서로 다른 입경을 갖는 시료는 후방산란 민감도에 차이가 있으며 이러한 영향으로 두 시료에서 산정된 계수 값에 차이가 발생한다. 본 연구를 통하여 도출된 측정 결과들은 후방산란강도에 미치는 수층 부유입자들의 영향이 매우 큼을 잘 보여준다. 일반적으로 수층 부유입자는 저면 퇴적물이 부유된 것으로 간주될 수 있으며, 또한 저면 퇴적물은 각 해역별로 site-specific 하다고 할 수 있다.

  • PDF

Estimation of Wheat Growth using a Microwave Scatterometer (마이크로파 산란계를 이용한 밀 생육 추정)

  • Kim, Yihyun;Hong, Sukyoung;Lee, Kyungdo;Jang, Soyeong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.46 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-31
    • /
    • 2013
  • Microwave remote sensing can help monitor the land surface water cycle and crop growth. This type of remote sensing has great potential over conventional remote sensing using the visible and infrared regions due to its all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. In this paper, a ground-based multi-frequency (L-, C-, and X-band) polarimetric scatterometer system capable of making observations every 10 min was developed. This system was used to monitor the wheat over an entire growth cycle. The polarimetric scatterometer components were installed inside an air-conditioned shelter to maintain constant temperature and humidity during the data acquisition period. Backscattering coefficients for the crop growing season were compared with biophysical measurements. Backscattering coefficients for all frequencies and polarizations increased until dat of year 137 and then decreased along with fresh weight, dry weight, plant height, and vegetation water content (VWC). The range of backscatter for X-band was lower than for L- and C-band. We examined the relationship between the backscattering coefficients of each band (frequency/polarization) and the various wheat growth parameters. The correlation between the different vegetation parameters and backscatter decreased with increasing frequency. L-band HH-polarization (L-HH) is best suited for the monitoring of fresh weight (r=0.98), dry weight (r=0.96), VWC (r=0.98), and plant height (r=0.96). The correlation coefficients were highest for L-band observations and lowest for X-band. Also, HH-polarization had the highest correlations among the polarization channels (HH, VV and HV). Based on the correlation analysis between backscattering coefficients in each band and wheat growth parameters, we developed prediction equations using the L-HH based on the observed relationships between L-HH and fresh weight, dry weight, VWC and plant height. The results of these analyses will be useful in determining the optimum microwave frequency and polarizations necessary for estimating vegetation parameters in the wheat.

Measurements of Monostatic Bottom Backscattering Strengths in Shallow Water of the Yellow Sea (서해 천해환경에서 단상태 해저면 후방산란강도 측정)

  • Son, Wuju;Son, Su-Uk;Choi, Jee Woong;Cho, Sungho;Jung, Seom-Kyu
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.34 no.6
    • /
    • pp.444-454
    • /
    • 2015
  • Measurements of bottom backscattering strengths in a frequency range of 6-14 kHz were made on the shallow water off the southern Gyeonggi Bay in Yellow Sea in May 2013, as part of the KIOST-HYU joint acoustics experiment. Geological surveys for the experimental area were performed using multi-beam echo sounder, sparker system, and grab sampling to investigate the bottom topography, sub-bottom profile and composition of surficial sediment, respectively. In this paper, the backscattering strengths as a function of grazing angle (in range of $28^{\circ}{\sim}69^{\circ}$) were estimated and compared to the predictions obtained by Lambert's law and APL-UW scattering model. Finally, the effects of geoacoustic parameters corresponding to the experimental area on the backscattering strengths are discussed.

Estimation of Paddy Rice Growth Parameters Using L, C, X-bands Polarimetric Scatterometer (L, C, X-밴드 다편파 레이더 산란계를 이용한 논 벼 생육인자 추정)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, Suk-Young;Lee, Hoon-Yol
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.25 no.1
    • /
    • pp.31-44
    • /
    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to measure backscattering coefficients of paddy rice using a L-, C-, and X-band scatterometer system with full polarization and various angles during the rice growth period and to relate backscattering coefficients to rice growth parameters. Radar backscattering measurements of paddy rice field using multifrequency (L, C, and X) and full polarization were conducted at an experimental field located in National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS), Suwon, Korea. The scatterometer system consists of dual-polarimetric square horn antennas, HP8720D vector network analyzer ($20\;MHz{\sim}20\;GHz$), RF cables, and a personal computer that controls frequency, polarization and data storage. The backscattering coefficients were calculated by applying radar equation for the measured at incidence angles between $20^{\circ}$ and $60^{\circ}$ with $5^{\circ}$ interval for four polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH), respectively. We measured the temporal variations of backscattering coefficients of the rice crop at L-, C-, X-band during a rice growth period. In three bands, VV-polarized backscattering coefficients were higher than hh-polarized backscattering coefficients during rooting stage (mid-June) and HH-polarized backscattering coefficients were higher than VV-, HV/VH-polarized backscattering coefficients after panicle initiation stage (mid-July). Cross polarized backscattering coefficients in X-band increased towards the heading stage (mid-Aug) and thereafter saturated, again increased near the harvesting season. Backscattering coefficients of range at X-band were lower than that of L-, C-band. HH-, VV-polarized ${\sigma}^{\circ}$ steadily increased toward panicle initiation stage and thereafter decreased, and again increased near the harvesting season. We plotted the relationship between backscattering coefficients with L-, C-, X-band and rice growth parameters. Biomass was correlated with L-band hh-polarization at a large incident angle. LAI (Leaf Area Index) was highly correlated with C-band HH- and cross-polarizations. Grain weight was correlated with backscattering coefficients of X-band VV-polarization at a large incidence angle. X-band was sensitive to grain maturity during the post heading stage.

Soil Moisture Retrieval of Mountainous Area on Korean Peninsula using Sentinel-1 Data (Sentinel-1 자료를 이용한 한반도 산지에서의 토양수분 복원 연구)

  • Cho, Seongkeun;Choi, Minha
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.102-102
    • /
    • 2019
  • 토양수분은 수문 및 기상 현상의 주요 요인으로 가뭄, 홍수 및 범람과 같은 자연 재해와 관련이 깊은 인자이다. 이러한 토양수분의 관측 기술 중 위성 데이터를 활용한 원격탐사 기술은 광범위한 지역의 관측이 용이하고 지점이 아닌 공간 데이터를 제공하는 장점을 지니고 있어 토양수분의 관측에 유리하다. 특히 높은 해상도의 위성기반 토양수분 데이터는 토양수분의 변동성이 큰 지역의 수문, 기상학적 현상을 보다 자세히 분석할 수 있게 해주며 가뭄 및 범람과 같은 수자원 관련 재해를 정확하게 분석하는데 요구된다. 이로 인해 최근 Sentinel-1 위성에서 운용중인 Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) 데이터를 이용한 매우 높은 공간해상도(10m~1km)를 지니고 있는 토양수분데이터 생산에 관한 연구가 세계적으로 활발히 진행되고 있다. 그러나 국내에서는 Sentinel-1 위성을 이용한 토양수분 데이터 복원에 관한 연구가 미비한 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 파주 감악산 설마천 유역에서의 Sentinel-1 위성의 SAR 데이터를 이용한 고해상도 토양수분 데이터를 복원하고자 한다. 파주 설마천 유역은 감악산 일대로 경사가 심하고 식생이 두터운 산악지형이다. SAR를 이용하여 산지에서 신뢰성 있는 토양수분 자료를 복원하기 위해서는 가장 큰 오차의 원인으로 작용하는 경사와 식생을 고려하여야 한다. 먼저 표면 경사의 영향의 경우 SAR 센서의 레이더 입사각과 수치 표고 모델을 이용하여 고려하고자 한다. 다음 과정으로 표면 경사가 고려된 Sentinel-1 데이터의 후방산란계수와 Landsat-8 데이터 및 지점 토양수분 데이터를 이용하여 식생에 따른 후방산란계수의 거동을 Water Cloud Model을 이용하여 분석하였다. Water Cloud Model은 토양위의 식생의 수분이 후방산란계수에 혼동을 주는 구름과 같이 작용한다고 가정하고 식생수분을 후방산란계수와 레이더 입사각 및 식생지수를 통해 계산하는 모델이며 이를 이용하여 토양수분 복원에 있어 식생의 영향을 제거하고자 하였다. 이를 통해 식생과 표면 경사를 고려하여 복원된 토양수분 데이터를 설마천 유역의 지점 데이터와 비교 분석하고 다른 위성기반 토양수분 데이터 및 강우 데이터를 이용하여 평가하였다. 본 연구결과를 통해 한반도 산지에서의 SAR 데이터를 이용한 토양수분 복원 기술의 기초가 마련될 것이며 이를 통해 산지가 대부분인 한반도의 토양수분 거동을 이해하는데 유용한 자료를 제공할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. 본 연구 이후에는 연구결과분석을 통한 산지에서의 고해상도 토양수분 복원 알고리즘을 분석, 보완하고 한반도에서의 SAR 기반 토양수분 데이터의 정확도를 높이는 연구가 진행되어야 할 것이다.

  • PDF

Monitoring soybean growth using L, C, and X-bands automatic radar scatterometer measurement system (L, C, X-밴드 레이더 산란계 자동측정시스템을 이용한 콩 생육 모니터링)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, Suk-Young;Lee, Hoon-Yol;Lee, Jae-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.191-201
    • /
    • 2011
  • Soybean has widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. Microwave remote sensing has a great potential over the conventional remote sensing with the visible and infrared spectra due to its all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. In this investigation, a ground-based polarimetric scatterometer operating at multiple frequencies was used to continuously monitor the crop conditions of a soybean field. Polarimetric backscatter data at L, C, and X-bands were acquired every 10 minutes on the microwave observations at various soybean stages. The polarimetric scatterometer consists of a vector network analyzer, a microwave switch, radio frequency cables, power unit and a personal computer. The polarimetric scatterometer components were installed inside an air-conditioned shelter to maintain constant temperature and humidity during the data acquisition period. The backscattering coefficients were calculated from the measured data at incidence angle $40^{\circ}$ and full polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH) by applying the radar equation. The soybean growth data such as leaf area index (LAI), plant height, fresh and dry weight, vegetation water content and pod weight were measured periodically throughout the growth season. We measured the temporal variations of backscattering coefficients of the soybean crop at L, C, and X-bands during a soybean growth period. In the three bands, VV-polarized backscattering coefficients were higher than HH-polarized backscattering coefficients until mid-June, and thereafter HH-polarized backscattering coefficients were higher than VV-, HV-polarized back scattering coefficients. However, the cross-over stage (HH > VV) was different for each frequency: DOY 200 for L-band and DOY 210 for both C and X-bands. The temporal trend of the backscattering coefficients for all bands agreed with the soybean growth data such as LAI, dry weight and plant height; i.e., increased until about DOY 271 and decreased afterward. We plotted the relationship between the backscattering coefficients with three bands and soybean growth parameters. The growth parameters were highly correlated with HH-polarization at L-band (over r=0.92).

Monitoring Wheat Growth by COSMO-SkyMed SAR Images (COSMO-SkyMed SAR 영상을 이용한 밀 생육 모니터링)

  • Kim, Yihyun;Hong, Sukyoung;Lee, Kyungdo;Jang, Soyeong;Lee, Hoonyol;Oh, Yisok
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.35-43
    • /
    • 2013
  • We analyzed the relationships between backscattering coefficients of wheat measured by COSMO-SkyMed SAR and biophysical measurements such as biomass, vegetation water content, and soil moisture over an entire wheat growth period. Backscattering coefficients increased until DOY 129 and then decreased along with fresh weight, dry weight, and vegetation water content. Correlation analysis between backscattering and wheat growth parameters revealed that backscatter correlated well with fresh weight (r=0.88), vegetation water content (r=0.87), and dry weight (r=0.80), while backscatter did not correlated with soil moisture (r=0.18). Prediction equations for estimation of wheat growth parameters from the backscattering coefficients were developed.

A New Approach for the Calculation of Neutron Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients for PMMA Slab Phantom (PMMA 평판형 팬텀에서의 중성자 선량당량 환산계수의 새로운 계산법)

  • Kim, Jong-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Oh
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
    • /
    • v.21 no.4
    • /
    • pp.297-311
    • /
    • 1996
  • ANSI decided PMMA slab phantom as a calibration phantom and introduced a conversion coefficient calculation method for it. For photon, the conversion coefficient can be obtained by using backscatter factor and conversion coefficient of the ICRU tissue cube and backscatter factor of the PMMA slab. For neutron, however, the ANSI has not introduced any conversion coefficient calculation method for the PMMA slab. In this work, the ANSI method for the photon conversion coefficient calculation was applied to the neutron conversion coefficient calculation of the PMMA slab. Quality weighted tissue kerma of neutron was applied to calculate the backscatter factors on the ICRU cube and the PMMA slab. The dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube was also calculated by using MCNP code. Then, the dose conversion coefficient of the PMMA slab was calculated from two backscatter factors and the dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube. The discrepancies of the dose conversion coefficients of the PMMA slab and the ICRU cube were less than 10% except 1eV(20%), 1keV(17%), and 4 MeV(16%).

  • PDF