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Reflow Behavior and Board Level BGA Solder Joint Properties of Epoxy Curable No-clean SAC305 Solder Paste (에폭시 경화형 무세정 SAC305 솔더 페이스트의 리플로우 공정성과 보드레벨 BGA 솔더 접합부 특성)

  • Choi, Han;Lee, So-Jeong;Ko, Yong-Ho;Bang, Jung-Hwan;Kim, Jun-Ki
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2015
  • With difficulties during the cleaning of reflow flux residues due to the decrease of the part size and interconnection pitch in the advanced electronic devices, the need for the no-clean solder paste is increasing. In this study, an epoxy curable solder paste was made with SAC305 solder powder and the curable flux of which the main ingredient is epoxy resin and its reflow solderability, flux residue corrosivity and solder joint mechanical properties was investigated with comparison to the commercial rosin type solder paste. The fillet shape of the cured product around the reflowed solder joint revealed that the curing reaction occurred following the fluxing reaction and solder joint formation. The copper plate solderability test result also revealed that the wettability of the epoxy curable solder paste was comparable to those of the commercial rosin type solder pastes. In the highly accelerated temperature and humidity test, the cured product residue of the curable solder paste showed no corrosion of copper plate. From FT-IR analysis, it was considered to be resulted from the formation of tight bond through epoxy curing reaction. Ball shear, ball pull and die shear tests revealed that the adhesive bonding was formed with the solder surface and the increase of die shear strength of about 15~40% was achieved. It was considered that the epoxy curable solder paste could contribute to the improvement of the package reliability as well as the removal of the flux residue cleaning process.

The Fluctuation of Marine Aerosol Number Concentrations Related with Vertical Winds (연직풍에 따른 해양성 에어러솔 수 농도 변동에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Sung-Hwa;Jang, Sang-Min;Jung, Woon-Seon;Jeong, Jong-Hoon;Lee, Dong-In
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.259-268
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    • 2012
  • To investigate the fluctuation of marine aerosol number concentration at each different size with vertical winds in ocean area, aerosol particles and vertical wind components were measured in the Ieodo Ocean Research Station, which is located to 419 km southwest of Marado, the southernmost island of Korea, from 8 to 22 June 2009. The Laser Particle Counter (LPC) and ultrasonic anemometer were used to measure the number of aerosol particles and vertical wind speed. Surface weather chart, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and sounding data were used to analyze the synoptic condition. The distribution of aerosol number concentration had a large fluctuation of bigger particles more than 1.0 ${\mu}m$ in diameter by vertical wind speed during precipitation. The aerosol particles larger than 1.0 ${\mu}m$ in diameter increased as the wind changed from downward to upward during precipitation. The aerosol number concentration of bigger size than 1.0 ${\mu}m$ in diameter increased about 5 times when vertical velocity was about 0.4 $ms^{-1}$. In addition, the accumulation and coarse mode aerosol number concentration decreased about 45% and 92%, respectively compared to concentrations during precipitation period. It is considered that vertical wind plays an important role for the increasing of coarse mode aerosol number concentration compared to the large aerosol particles sufficiently removed by the scavenging effect of horizontal winds. Therefore, the upward vertical winds highly contribute to the formation and increase in aerosol number concentration below oceanic boundary layer.

An Effective Block of Radioactive Gases for the Storage During the Synthesis of Radiopharmaceutical (방사성의약품 합성에서 발생하는 방사성기체의 효율적 차단)

  • Chi, Yong Gi;Kim, Dong Il;Kim, Si Hwal;Won, Moon Hee;Choe, Seong-Uk;Choi, Choon Ki;Seok, Jae Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.126-130
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : Methode an effective block was investigated to deal with volatile radioactive gas, short lived radioactive waste generated as a result of the routinely produced radiopharmaceuticals FDG (2-deoxy-2-[$^{18}F$]fluoro-D-glucose) and compound with $^{11}C$. Materials and Methods : All components of the radiation stack monitoring and data management system for continuous radioactive gas detection in the air extract system purchase from fixed noble gas monitor of Berthold company. TEDLAR gas sampling bags purchase from the Dongbanghitech company. TEDLAR gas sampling bags (volume: 10 L) connected via paraflex or PTFE tubing and Teflon 3 way stopcock. When installing TEDLAR gas sampling bags in Hot cell on the inside and not radioactive gas concentrations were compared. According to whether the Hot cell inside a activated carbon filter installed, compare the difference in concentration of the radioactive gas $^{18}F$. Comparison of radiation emission concentration difference of module a FASTlab and TRACElab. Results : Activated carbon filter are installed in the Hot cell, a measure of the concentration of radioactive gas was 8 $Bq/m^3$. Without activated carbone filter in the hot cell was 300 $Bq/m^3$. Tedlar bag prior to installation of the radioactive gases a measure of the concentration was 3,500 $Bq/m^3$, $^{11}C$ synthesis of the measured concentration was 27,000 $Bq/m^3$. After installed a Tedlar bag and a measure concentration of the radioactive gases was 300 $Bq/m^3$ and $^{11}C$ synthesis was 1,000$Bq/m^3$. Conclusion : $^{11}C$ radioactive gas that was ejected out of the Hot cell, with the use of a Tedlar gas sampling bag stored inside. A compound of 11C is not absorbed onto activated carbon filter. But can block the release out by storing in a Tedlar gas sampling bag. We was able to reduce the radiation exposure of the worker by efficient radiation protection.

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Measuring the Economic Impact of Item Descriptions on Sales Performance (온라인 상품 판매 성과에 영향을 미치는 상품 소개글 효과 측정 기법)

  • Lee, Dongwon;Park, Sung-Hyuk;Moon, Songchun
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2012
  • Personalized smart devices such as smartphones and smart pads are widely used. Unlike traditional feature phones, theses smart devices allow users to choose a variety of functions, which support not only daily experiences but also business operations. Actually, there exist a huge number of applications accessible by smart device users in online and mobile application markets. Users can choose apps that fit their own tastes and needs, which is impossible for conventional phone users. With the increase in app demand, the tastes and needs of app users are becoming more diverse. To meet these requirements, numerous apps with diverse functions are being released on the market, which leads to fierce competition. Unlike offline markets, online markets have a limitation in that purchasing decisions should be made without experiencing the items. Therefore, online customers rely more on item-related information that can be seen on the item page in which online markets commonly provide details about each item. Customers can feel confident about the quality of an item through the online information and decide whether to purchase it. The same is true of online app markets. To win the sales competition against other apps that perform similar functions, app developers need to focus on writing app descriptions to attract the attention of customers. If we can measure the effect of app descriptions on sales without regard to the app's price and quality, app descriptions that facilitate the sale of apps can be identified. This study intends to provide such a quantitative result for app developers who want to promote the sales of their apps. For this purpose, we collected app details including the descriptions written in Korean from one of the largest app markets in Korea, and then extracted keywords from the descriptions. Next, the impact of the keywords on sales performance was measured through our econometric model. Through this analysis, we were able to analyze the impact of each keyword itself, apart from that of the design or quality. The keywords, comprised of the attribute and evaluation of each app, are extracted by a morpheme analyzer. Our model with the keywords as its input variables was established to analyze their impact on sales performance. A regression analysis was conducted for each category in which apps are included. This analysis was required because we found the keywords, which are emphasized in app descriptions, different category-by-category. The analysis conducted not only for free apps but also for paid apps showed which keywords have more impact on sales performance for each type of app. In the analysis of paid apps in the education category, keywords such as 'search+easy' and 'words+abundant' showed higher effectiveness. In the same category, free apps whose keywords emphasize the quality of apps showed higher sales performance. One interesting fact is that keywords describing not only the app but also the need for the app have asignificant impact. Language learning apps, regardless of whether they are sold free or paid, showed higher sales performance by including the keywords 'foreign language study+important'. This result shows that motivation for the purchase affected sales. While item reviews are widely researched in online markets, item descriptions are not very actively studied. In the case of the mobile app markets, newly introduced apps may not have many item reviews because of the low quantity sold. In such cases, item descriptions can be regarded more important when customers make a decision about purchasing items. This study is the first trial to quantitatively analyze the relationship between an item description and its impact on sales performance. The results show that our research framework successfully provides a list of the most effective sales key terms with the estimates of their effectiveness. Although this study is performed for a specified type of item (i.e., mobile apps), our model can be applied to almost all of the items traded in online markets.

Assessment of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Effects of Ripened Medicinal Herb Extracts to Select an Optimum Dietary Natural Antibiotic for Chickens (한약재 추출 숙성물의 항균 및 항산화 효과 검증을 통한 가금 사료 내 항생제 대체 천연물질의 선발)

  • Shin, Daekeun;Kim, Ki-Woong;Jin, Min-Jeong;Ryu, Kyeong Seon
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.25-29
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of ripened medicinal herb extracts from wood vinegar. The wood vinegar was collected from heated oaks. The Allium sativum (AS), Atractylodes ovate (AO), Cin-namomum zeylanicum (CZ), Coptidis rhizome (CR), Houttuynia cordata (HC), Phellodendron chinense (PC) and Syzygium aromaticum (SA) extracts were collected using wood vinegar, and they were ripened under room temperature for 50 days. All ripened medicinal herb extracts were used to test the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. For the Lactobacillus, clear zone of 6 different medicinal herb except for CR ranged from 1.28 to 1.63 mm. 3.30 and 3.48 mm of clear zone were determined when CZ and SA were applied to Salmonella and E. coli, respectively (p<0.05), and they showed the largest clear zone as compared to other herbs. The clear zones of CR for Salmonella and E. coli were 2.21 and 3.34 mm, and each clear zone of CR was smaller than that of CZ (p<0.05) but was similar to that of SA (p>0.05). The amount of polyphenol and flavonoid was the highest in SA and CR, and they were 4.28 and 0.38 mg/mL, respectively (p<0.05). The CR shown 0.38 mg/mL flavonoid, had the highest DPPH, and it was 0.41 mM. The DPPH of HZ was significantly lowered in accordance with high amount of polyphenol and flavonoid, 2.56 and 0.20 mg/mL (p<0.05). In conclusion, CZ, SA, and CR showed high antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials, and therefore, may be used as alternatives to antibiotics for poultry diets.

Responses of Tree Growth and Fruit Production of Persimmon after Lowering Height by Heavy Pruning to Fertilization Rates (강전정에 의한 저수고 감나무의 시비량 조절에 따른 수체 생장 및 과실 생장 반응)

  • Choi, Seong-Tae;Park, Doo-Sang;An, Gwang-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Chul;Choi, Tae-Min;Rho, Chi-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.136-141
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    • 2013
  • Lowering tree height has been a key practice for efficient management of persimmon orchards. This experiment was conducted to assess whether fertilization rates could be reduced after lowering the tree height by heavy pruning. Twelve-year-old 'Uenishiwase' persimmon trees were lowered to 2 m from over 3 m by severe dormant pruning, and then conventional fertilization rate was applied to some trees in April (N 224 g, $P_2O_5$ 172 g, and $K_2O$ 172 g per tree), June (N 112 g and $K_2O$ 99 g per tree), and October (N 112 g and $K_2O$ 99 g per tree). At the same time, 1/3 or 2/3 of the conventional rate and none were applied to other trees, respectively. Non-application decreased shoot length and reduced number of unnecessary secondary shoots by 39% compared with the conventional rate, not affecting yield and weight, color, firmness, and soluble solids of fruits. No significant difference was also found in the yield and the fruit characteristics among the trees fertilized with different rates. Concentrations of soluble sugars, starch, N, and K of dormant shoots in March of the following year were not significantly changed by the different treatments of the previous year. There was no significant difference of shoot growth and yield among the treatments the following year when the same fertilization rate was supplied to all the trees. Results indicated that fertilization rate could be reduced to less than 1/3 of conventional rate to save the cost and stabilize shoot vigor when tree height is lowered by severe pruning.

A Study on Characteristics of Self-weight Consolidation of Bottom Ash Mixed Soil (Bottom Ash 혼합토의 자중압밀 특성 연구)

  • Yoon, Won-Sub;Shin, Seung-Gu;Chae, Young-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.59-77
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    • 2015
  • In order to meet the new requirements for landfill materials, this study planned a study to apply mixed soil of mixing bottom ash and coastal dredged soil to the dredged ground. Coal ash generated from thermal power plant is divided into fly ash and bottom ash. In the case of fly ash, many studies have been conducted because small particles causes permeability coefficient to be small during recycling so no problem has been raised in the environmental area but the utilization of bottom ash has been limited because environmental problems have been raised during recycling due to its larger particle size and greater permeability coefficient. According to recently published studies, however, the results of the study that conducted the water analysis of leachate generated in the ground improvement section using bottom ash showed that heavy metal contamination levels were found to be within the reference value and no significant environmental problems were found so utilization of bottom ash is evaluated to increase significantly in the future. This bottom ash has the particle size of sand and only transportation costs need to be considered when providing materials because the majority has been disposed and it is judged as the most suitable material in dredging landfill in the economic aspect because most thermal power plants are located in the coast and transportation costs can be reduced by ship. Also, research on mixed soil that can maximize the effect of the construction period and construction cost savings than dredged soil is determined as needed because the demand for coastal dredging reclamation is increasing such as Saemangeum project etc. Therefore, we studied self-weight consolidation characteristics depending on sample processing and mixing method of mixed soil by carrying out interior self-weight consolidation experiments on mixed soil of mixing bottom ash and Kaolinite according to the new development needs of recent coastal reclaimed ground and these result findings are expected to be used as basic data when applying the large coastal dredged ground in the future.

The NCAM Land-Atmosphere Modeling Package (LAMP) Version 1: Implementation and Evaluation (국가농림기상센터 지면대기모델링패키지(NCAM-LAMP) 버전 1: 구축 및 평가)

  • Lee, Seung-Jae;Song, Jiae;Kim, Yu-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.307-319
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    • 2016
  • A Land-Atmosphere Modeling Package (LAMP) for supporting agricultural and forest management was developed at the National Center for AgroMeteorology (NCAM). The package is comprised of two components; one is the Weather Research and Forecasting modeling system (WRF) coupled with Noah-Multiparameterization options (Noah-MP) Land Surface Model (LSM) and the other is an offline one-dimensional LSM. The objective of this paper is to briefly describe the two components of the NCAM-LAMP and to evaluate their initial performance. The coupled WRF/Noah-MP system is configured with a parent domain over East Asia and three nested domains with a finest horizontal grid size of 810 m. The innermost domain covers two Gwangneung deciduous and coniferous KoFlux sites (GDK and GCK). The model is integrated for about 8 days with the initial and boundary conditions taken from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Final Analysis (FNL) data. The verification variables are 2-m air temperature, 10-m wind, 2-m humidity, and surface precipitation for the WRF/Noah-MP coupled system. Skill scores are calculated for each domain and two dynamic vegetation options using the difference between the observed data from the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the simulated data from the WRF/Noah-MP coupled system. The accuracy of precipitation simulation is examined using a contingency table that is made up of the Probability of Detection (POD) and the Equitable Threat Score (ETS). The standalone LSM simulation is conducted for one year with the original settings and is compared with the KoFlux site observation for net radiation, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and soil moisture variables. According to results, the innermost domain (810 m resolution) among all domains showed the minimum root mean square error for 2-m air temperature, 10-m wind, and 2-m humidity. Turning on the dynamic vegetation had a tendency of reducing 10-m wind simulation errors in all domains. The first nested domain (7,290 m resolution) showed the highest precipitation score, but showed little advantage compared with using the dynamic vegetation. On the other hand, the offline one-dimensional Noah-MP LSM simulation captured the site observed pattern and magnitude of radiative fluxes and soil moisture, and it left room for further improvement through supplementing the model input of leaf area index and finding a proper combination of model physics.

Effects of Modified Installation Methods of Roof Ventilation Devices in the Single-span Plastic Greenhouses on Yield and Fruit Quality of Oriental Melon (단동 비닐하우스의 지붕 환기장치 설치방법 개선이 참외생육 및 과실수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Yeo, Kyung-Hwan;Yu, In-Ho;Choi, Gyeong Lee;Lee, Seong-Chan;Lee, Jae-Han;Park, Kyoungs Sub;Lee, Jung-Sup;Bekhzod, Khoshimkhujaev
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.334-342
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    • 2016
  • In order to evaluate the modified installation methods of roof ventilation devices, derived from the previous experiment ('investigation into the optimum capacity of roof ventilation devices and their deployment'), the conventional and modified (improved) roof ventilation systems were installed in the single-span plastic greenhouse for growing oriental melons. The roof vents ($60{\varphi}$) and roof fans (maximum air capacity of $38m^3/min$) were installed in the spacing of 15m (FT, modified 'side vent+roof fan' ventilation) and 6m (TT, modified 'side vent+roof vent' ventilation) respectively on the roof of greenhouses for the modified roof ventilation treatments, and 20m (FC, conventional 'side vent+roof fan' ventilation) and 8m (TC, conventional 'side vent+roof vent' ventilation) for the conventional ones. The stem diameter, leaf blade lengh, petiole length, and leaf width were lower in the FT and TT treatments than those in the conventional treatments, FC and TC. Although the fruit weight and total yields were slightly lower in the FT and TT treatments, the marketable fruit ratio (%) were higher, as a result of increased fruiting ratio (%) in these treatments, than those of FC and TC. The marketable yields (kg/10a) in the FT and TT treatments were 8,391 kg/10a and 7,283 kg/10a, which were respectively 661 kg/10a and 487 kg/10a higher than those in the treatments of FC and TC. The modified installation methods of roof fan resulted in production of more female flowers and lower fruit drop ratio (%) compared to conventional meathods. In the treatment of the conventional ventilation with roof vent, the fruit weight, fruit length & width, and flesh thickness were higher than in other treatments, but there were no significant differences in the fruit width and flesh thickness among the treatments.

Analysis of Temperature and Humidity Distributions according to Arrangements of Air Circulation Fans in Single-span Tomato Greenhouse (토마토 단동온실에서 공기순환팬 설치 방법에 의한 온실 내 온습도 분포 분석)

  • Lee, Tae Seok;Kang, Geum Choon;Paek, Yee;Moon, Jong Pil;Oh, Sung Sik;Kwon, Jin Kyung
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.277-282
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    • 2016
  • This study was aimed to investigate the effect of air-circulation fans on air temperature and relative humidity in a single-span tomato greenhouse (W: 7m, L: 25m, H: 3.2m). According to standard of fan layout by ASAE (1997), a total of 10 fans were bilaterally arranged in 2 rows in the experimental greenhouse. The distributions of air temperature and relative humidity were measured from 6 pm to 8 am under different conditions, with and without fans. The measurement heights were 0.7m, 1.7m and 2.7m. Under the condition of "fans off", the spatial differences of air temperature and relative humidity between upper and lower sides were $1.7^{\circ}C$ and 10.8%, respectively. The operation of 10 fans showed their differences to $0.1^{\circ}C$ and 3.2%. The number of fans and installation direction were evaluated their performance on reducing the spatial variation of air temperature and relative humidity. The experimental layouts were 5 and fans in 2 rows (bilaterally) and 10 fans in the one (same) direction. Under the condition of "6 fans on" and "5 fans on", the spatial differences of air temperature and relative humidity between upper and lower side were $0.3^{\circ}C$, 3.4% and $0.3^{\circ}C$ and 4.0%. The operation of 10 fans in the one direction reduced their differences to $0.5^{\circ}C$ and 4.9%. The overall findings of this study showed that there was no significant differences under each condition. Therefore, this study suggested that it is more economic and effective to install five fans in 2 rows (bilaterally) in the greenhouse (W: 7m, L: 25m, H: 3.2m).