• Title, Summary, Keyword: 활성탄소섬유

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Influence of Oxidation Inhibitor on Carbon-Carbon Composites: 5. Studies on Anti-oxidation Properties of the Composites (산화억제제 첨가에 의한 탄소/탄소 복합재료의 물성에 관한 연구: 5. 탄소/탄소 복합재료의 내산화성 연구)

  • 박수진;서민강;조민석;이재락
    • Polymer Korea
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2000
  • Phenolic resin used as a precursor of carbonized matrix for carbon-carbon composites was modified by addition of molybdenum disilicide (MoSi$_2$) in various concentrations of 0, 4, 12 and 20% by weight to improve the anti-oxidation properties of the composites. The green body was manufactured by a prepreg method and was submitted to carbonization up to 110$0^{\circ}C$. In this work, the oxidation behavior of carbon-carbon composites with MoSi$_2$ as an oxidation inhibitor was investigated at the temperature range of 600-100$0^{\circ}C$ in an air environment. The carbon-carbon composites with MoSi$_2$ showed a significantly improved oxidation resistance due to both the reduction of the porosity formation and the formation of mobile diffusion barrier for oxygen when compared to those without MoSi$_2$. Carbon active sites should be blocked, decreasing the oxidation rate of carbon. This is probably due to the effect of the inherent MoSi$_2$ properties, resulted from a formation of the protective layer against oxygen attack in the composites studied.

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Electricity Generation and Microbial Community variation in Microbial Fuel Cell with various Electrode Combinations. (다양한 탄소전극조합에 따른 미생물 연료전지의 전기발생량 및 미생물 군집변화)

  • Kwon, Jae-Hyeong;Choi, Soo-Jung;Cha, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Hyo-Soo;Kim, Ye-Jin;Yu, Jae-Cheul;Kim, Chan-Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 2010
  • The electrode material is one of the factors affecting the power production of microbial fuel cell. In this study, effects of carbon electrode material, thickness and configuration on the power density, biofilm formation and microbial community diversity of microbial fuel cell were investigated. To optimize the anode-cathode electrode assembly, seven lab-scale reactors which had various carbon electrode constructions were operated in continuous mode. Under the steady state condition, the electrode combination of graphite felt (6 mm) with hole showed the highest cell voltage of 238 mV and the coulombic efficiency of 37%. As a result of SEM analysis, the bacteria growing on surface of knitted type of carbon cloth and graphite felt electrode ncreased significantly. The change of dominant species between seeding sludge and biofilm on the surface of anode electrode, microbial analysis with PCR-DGGE showed that the dominant species of seeding sludge are quite different from those of biofilm on the surface of each anode electrode. Especially Geobacter sp., a well known electrochemical bacteria, was found as the dominant species of the electrode combination with graphite felt.

The Optimum Stabilization Conditions of TiO2-containing Pitch Fiber (TiO2 함유 피치섬유의 최적 안정화 조건)

  • Eom, Sang Yong;Lee, Chang Ho;Park, Kwan Ho;Ryu, Seung Kon
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2007
  • $TiO_2$-containing pitch fibers were prepared and various stabilization variables were investigated by characterizations of the fibers and behaviors of $TiO_2$ particles in the optimum stabilization conditions. When pitch fiber was stabilized by air at the optimum condition, the fiber weight increased as an increase of the stabilization temperature and a decrease of $TiO_2$ concentration. The carbonization yield was 71~82 wt.%, showing a decrease of the yield with the $TiO_2$ increase caused by the catalytic activity of $TiO_2$ to combustion. During the stabilization, newly developed carbonyl and carboxyl groups were introduced on the fiber surface and cross-linking reactions were progressed resulting the thermosetting property, which was verified by the replacement of hydrogen with oxygen. Pore size of the activated carbon fiber was increased by an increase in $TiO_2$ concentration. In the considerations of the aggregation behaviors of the $TiO_2$ particles, the optimum stabilization conditions of 0.5 wt.% $TiO_2$ containing petroleum-based pitch fiber were suggested as $280^{\circ}C$, 3 hr.

Chemical Cleaning of Iron Stains on Ceramics (화학세척제를 이용한 도자기의 철산화물 제거 특성 연구)

  • Park, Dae-Woo;Jang, Sung-Yoon;Nam, Byeong-Jik;Ham, Chul-Hee;Lim, Seong-Tae
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.345-356
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    • 2011
  • To remove metal stains of the ceramics, chemical cleaning is essential case by case. This study investigated the removal characteristics of iron stains by oxalic acid and citric acid including their application methods of soaking and poultice. The soaking method in cleaning agents showed removal process by color difference and released iron contents from iron stains on ceramics. Iron stains were removed successfully from ceramics, which soaked in oxalic acid for 60 hours. However, it is recommendable to soak in 0.25M oxalic acid for one to three hours because most iron stains were disappeared in 3 hours soaking. Citric acid is less effective than oxalic acid in removing iron stains because of heavy molecular weight and low acidity. Poultices (bentonite, sepiolite, activated carbon fiber and celite) with oxalic acid were applied on contaminated ceramics. After ten hours, iron stains on ceramics were removed successfully by poultice. Among them, bentonite and sepiolite have better application. Therefore, sepiolite with 0.25M oxalic acid was applied on the iron stains of whiteware and celadon from Ma Island, and then stains were removed. However, it is judged that the application methods can be varied according to the form and depth of contaminant. In addition, the residues of poultice on the ceramics will be considered for preventing contamination.

A Study on the PM2.5 Concentration in the Car in Jeonju Downtown (전주시 중심가를 주행중인 승용차내 초미세먼지(PM2.5) 농도 변화에 대한 연구)

  • Moon, Hyung Suk;Kim, Jong Soo;Kim, In Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.717-723
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    • 2013
  • The Korea Ministry of Environment prepares some paticulate matter eliminate measures for national health protection, as the Paticulate Matter ($PM_{2.5}$) exceeds the standard at more than half of the monitoring posts installed in the nation's big cities. At the center of JeonJu, when measuring the ultrafine particles of inner car at the different driving conditions, at the condition of the Actuator of inner recirculation mode and the Blower of 2-speed, the reduction speed of the ultrafine particles is most fast and the concentration stays low. When the windows are opened during driving, outer pollutants enter the car and also inner paticulate matter flies in all direction, and the increase of passengers causes the scattering of the ultrafine paticles. As the filter for air cleaning, the using of polypropylene non-woven fabric (used commonly now) is most excellent, but for the removal of volatile organic substance as well as the paticulate matter, it is thought that the using of activated carbon fiber filter, carbon adsorbent, is even more excellent.

이산화탄소를 이용한 방사능 오염 세척 기술개발

  • Ko, Moon-Sung;Park, Kwang-Heon;Ryu, Jung-Dong;Kim, Yang-Eun;Lee, Bum;Park, Hyun-Taek
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.59-59
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    • 2000
  • 원자력발전소 1차계통과 격납용기 내부에서 사용되는 주요 부품들은 운전중에 발생한 방사 성 물질들의 침투와 홉착에 의해 오염되어 간다. 이 오염된 부품 및 장비, 공구, 방호복, 방호모자, 작업화 등의 세정과 정비를 위해서는 제염이 선행되어야 한다. 현재의 제염법은 2차 방사성 폐기물을 발생하는 문제점이 있다. 따라서I 2차 폐기물의 발생을 근원적으로 줄일 수 있는 새로운 제염방안이 절실히 요구되고 있는 실정이다. 본 논문에서는 이러한 문제점을 해결할 수 있는 제염법을 개발하기 위해 2가지 방법을 적용하였다. 첫째로, 원자력 발전소에 서 나오는 방사능 오염 세탁물 제염을 위한 액체 및 초임계 이산화탄소를 이용한 방사능 오염물 제염기를 개발하였다. 제염기는 반응기(16 liteer), 회수시스템 그리고 저장용기로 구성되어있다. 세정에 사용된 모든 이산화탄소는 회수되어 재사용 되어지므로 2차 폐기물의 발생을 근원적으로 없앨 수 있다. 제염성능실험결과 제염지수가 목표치보다는 낮았다. 이는 제염 기에 계면활성제와 기계적인 힘을 가한다면 높은 제염지수를 얻을 수 있을 것으로 예상된다. 둘째로, 발전소에서 나오는 오염된 공구나 장비의 세척을 위한 가변형 노즐 드라이 아이스 세척 장치를 개발하였다. 표면세정시 얼음층 형성방지를 위하여 열공급장치를 부착하였다. 유라표면에 지문을 묻혀 실험한 결과 쉽게 제거되었다. 실제 발전소에 있는 P Pump-housing의 표면을 실험한 결과 방사능의 약 40-80%가 제거되었다. 이 장치는 검출기, 제어장치, 용액상에서 세척될 수 없는 장치에 적용할 수 있는 효율적인 세척법이다. 이는 프리프레그의 표면처리 가 충과 충간의 접착강도를 증가시키고 또한 탄소섬유와 에폭시 간의 계면력을 증가시킨데 기인하는 것으로 사려된다.되었으며, duty-on 시간의 증가에 따라 $Cr_2N$ 상의 형성이 점점 많아져 80% duty-on 시간 경우에는 거의 CrN과 $Cr_2N$ 상이 공존하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 duty-on 시간이 증가할수록 회절피크의 세기가 증가하여 결정화가 더 많이 진행되어짐을 알 수 있었다. 마찬가지로 바이어스 펄스이 주파수에 다른 결정성의 변화도 펄스의 주파수가 증가할수록 박막이 결정성이 좋아지고 $Cr_2N$ 상이 쉽게 형성되었다. 증착 진공도에 따른 결정성은 상대적으로 질소의 농도가 높은 낮은 진공도에서는 CrN 상이 주로 형성되었으며, 반대로 높은 진공도에서는 $Cr_2N$ 상이 많이 만들어졌다. 즉 $1.3{\times}10^{-2}Torr$의 증착 진공도에서는 CrN 상만이 보이는 반면 $9.0{\tiems}1-^{-2}Torr$ 진공도에서부터 $Cr_2N$ 상이 형성되기 시작하여 $5.0{\tiems}10^{-2}Torr$ 진공도에서는 두개의 상이 혼재되어 있음을 알 수 있었다. 박막의 내마모성을 조사한 결과 CrN 박막의 마찰 계수는 초기에 급격하게 증가한 후 0.5에서 0.6 사이의 값으로 큰 변화를 보이지 않았으며, $Cr_2N$ 박막도 비슷한 거동을 보였다.차 이, 목적의 차이, 그리고

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Analysis on the Microbial Community Structure of Red Granule in the Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor (혐기성 암모늄 산화 반응기 내 붉은색 입상슬러지의 미생물 군집구조 분석)

  • Bae, Hyo-Kwan;Park, Kyung-Soon;Chung, Yun-Chul;Jung, Jin-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.28 no.10
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    • pp.1055-1064
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    • 2006
  • Extremely slow growing anammox(anaerobic ammonium oxidation) bacteria were cultivated using a combination of UASB(Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor seeded with anaerobic granular sludge and carbon-fiber cultivating reactor. After 180 days of continuous cultivation, average nitrogen removal rate showed 0.54 kg $N/m^3-day$ when 0.6 kg $N/m^3-day$ of nitrogen loading was applied. The black granule was changed to brown and red granule as continuous operation, and the red granule was highly dependant on the high anammox activity. Microbial community structure of red granule in the UASB reactor was analyzed by molecular methods such as gene cloning, phylogenetic tree analysis, and FISH(Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) method. As a result of gene cloning and phylogenetic tree analysis, 5 kinds of phylum were found to be Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chlorobi and Chloroflexi. 13 clones were matched to anammox bacteria among 51 clones in the red anammox granule. In-silico test which used cloning information and FISH probe of the AMX368 was conducted to detect the presence of anammox bacteria in the red anammox granule. As a result of in-silico test only one clone was exactly matched to AMX368 but 11 clones was mutated one base among 18 bases representing all 12 clones are anammox bacteria. A filamentous Chloroflexi might be related to the granulation of anammox bacteria. As a result of FISH analysis, anammox bacteria was abundant in the red anammox granule.

Electricity Production by Metallic and Carbon Anodes Immersed in an Estuarine Sediment (퇴적토에 담지된 금속 및 탄소전극에 의한 전기 생산 특성)

  • Song, Hyung-Jin;Rhee, In-Hyoung;Kwon, Sung-Hyun;Cho, Dae-Chul
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.10 no.12
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    • pp.3731-3739
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    • 2009
  • One-chambered sediment cells with a variety of anodic electrodes were tested for generation of electricity. Material used for anodes was iron, brass, zinc/iron, copper and graphite felt which was used for a common cathode. The estuarine sediment served as supplier of oxidants or electron-producing microbial habitat which evoked electrons via fast metal corrosion reactions or a complicated microbial electron transfer mechanism, respectively. Maximum power density and current density were found to be $6.90\;W/m^2$ (iron/zinc) and $7.76\;A/m^2$ (iron), respectively. Interestingly, copper wrapped with carbon cloth produced better electric performance than copper only, by 60%, possibly because the cloth not only prevented rapid corrosion on the copper surface by some degrees, but also helped growing some electron-emitting microbes on its surface. At anodes oxidation reduction potential(ORP) was kept to be stationary over time except at the very initial period. The pH reduction in the copper and copper/carbon electrodes could be a sign of organic acid production due to a chemical change in the sediment. The simple estimation of interfacial, electrical resistances of electrodes and electrolyte in the sediment cell that a key to the electricity generation should be in how to control corrosion rate or microbial electron transfer activity.