• Title, Summary, Keyword: 활동제한

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Identifying Antecedents of Service Innovation: Based on Service-Dominant Logic and Resource-Advantage Theory (서비스 혁신의 선행요인에 관한 연구: 서비스 지배적 논리와 자원 우위 이론을 중심으로)

  • Ryu, Hyun-Sun;Han, Jin Young
    • Information Systems Review
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.79-106
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    • 2016
  • Service innovation is one means of gaining an advantage in a highly competitive environment. Although numerous studies have stressed the importance of service innovation, traditional good-dominant logic is still used in service innovation literature. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted on the link between service innovation and its antecedents in terms of service-oriented approach. To fill the gap, this article theoretically and empirically examines service innovation and its antecedents and consequences. Based on service-dominant logic and resource advantage theory, the current study aims to understand the effect of antecedents on service innovation as well as to identify the effect of service innovation on firm performance (i.e., non-financial and financial performance). Three service innovation activities, namely service creation-focused innovation, service delivery-focused innovation, and customer interaction-focused innovation, and four antecedents of service innovation, including human resource management capability, collaboration capability, marketing capability, and information technology capability, are identified based on Den Hertog (2000)'s service innovation framework. By using the empirical data collected from 189 service firms in Korea, this study explores the causal relationship among antecedents, service innovation and firm performance. Findings indicate that human resource management and marketing capabilities influence the three types of service innovation, whereas collaboration and information technology capabilities have a significant effect on both service creation-focused innovation and service delivery-focused innovation. In particular, human resource management capability is strongly related to customer interaction-focused innovation. The three types of service innovation have a positive influence on non-financial performance, whereas service delivery-focused innovation and customer interaction-focused innovation positively influence financial performance. These results support the crucial effects of antecedents, such as human resource management, collaboration, marketing and information technology capabilities, on service innovation.

Elementary Teachers' Perception in Using Smart-Technology in STEAM Class : Focus on Application Type, Difficulties and Support Required (STEAM 수업에서 스마트테크놀로지 적용에 대한 초등교사의 인식 -적용 유형과 어려움 및 지원을 중심으로-)

  • Han, Areum;Na, Jiyeon
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.777-790
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the experience of teachers who apply Smart-technology in elementary school STEAM class and the reasons, difficulties when applying the technology and required support. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six elementary school teachers with specialized knowledge in STEAM education who have experienced STEAM lessons several times before. The research findings are as follows: First, research participants utilized a variety of Smart-technology in STEAM class, most of which were experiential or interactive technology. Among the STEAM learning criteria, the Smart-technology in 'Creative Design' course was most often applied. Second, they adopted Smart Technology in STEAM class to encourage students to feel interested, actively participate in the class, enjoy indirect experience, and nurture interest in state-of-the-art technology. They used it to prepare for future societies and organize classes that are suitable for STEAM learning criteria. They also used Smart-technology because it was easy to use. Third, they found it difficult to find, secure, and use suitable Smart-technology when applying Smart-technology in the STEAM class. They also had trouble restructuring the curriculum. In addition, there were difficulties in using Smart-technology in the class such as lack of class hours, increased level of activity, insufficient physical environment and unexpected malfunction of Smart-technology, thus interrupted the class. After the class, it was hard to manage Smart-technology and also, there were difficulties in assessment, record, and negative awareness of surrounding people. Fourth, they mentioned that's suggesting education guidelines, develop, and distribute educational materials are required to enable 'Creative Design,' reduce educational content, provide training, secure Smart-technology equipment and provide Wi-Fi, support teacher's club and communities and create an atmosphere to emotionally support teachers in order to activate using Smart-technology in STEAM class.

Exploratory Study on the Effect of the Entrepreneurial Infrastructure Institution on the Regional Employment: Focusing on the Partner Square of N Company (창업 인프라 기관의 지역 고용효과에 관한 탐색적 연구: N사 파트너스퀘어를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Jong Sung;Shim, Jae Hun;Kim, Do Hyeon
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.223-231
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    • 2020
  • Governments and private companies have established various local entrepreneurial infrastructure institutions in most regions in order to reduce youth unemployment, and boost youth entrepreneurship and regional employment. However, previous studies has been limited to explore the impact of the entrepreneurial infrastructure institutions on the willingness of start-up entrepreneurs. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to fill in the gaps of the research, identify the effect of the entrepreneurial infrastructure institutions on regional employment focusing on the Partner Squares which are entrepreneurial infrastructure institutions in several regions and established by N company, and set a foundation for further research regarding the effectiveness of the entrepreneurial infrastructure institutions. In order to verify the effectiveness of the Partner Squares on the local employment, we use the raw data of the Economically Active Population Survey (Statistics Korea) and analyze the effectiveness by using the Difference-in-Differences model. The main findings are as follows. While the Partner Square Seoul has not statistically influenced on the employment of local youth workers, the Partner Square Busan has increased about 3% of the average number of employees (575 thousand) from May 2017 to July 2019, increasing the number of local youth workers by 17,000. Also, after the establishment of the Partner Square Gwangju, the institution has increased 4,500 local employees, which is about 1.7% of the average number of employees (267,000) from September 2018 to July 2019. This implies that the Partner Squares provide a variety of effective start-up education programs and networks for pre-starters and founders in the region, thereby helping them to grow and boosting the local employment. An important implication is that by using government statistical data, we find roles of entrepreneurial infrastructure institutions to revitalize local economy and employment. In future studies, studies need to be conducted considering various exogenous variables that can affect local employment, such as the government industrial policies and entrepreneurial infrastructure institutions other than the Partner Squares.

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Gender Consciousness and its Meaning shown in Women's Epistolary Literature Published in Modern Study Materials for Writing Letters in Chinese in 1920~30s (1920~30년대 근대 척독집 소재 여성 서간에 나타난 젠더 의식과 그 의미)

  • Hong, In Sook
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.56
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    • pp.267-295
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this paper was to introduce the material status of women's epistolary literature published in modern study materials for writing letters in Chinese in 1920~30s and analyze gender consciousness shown in them. To this end, five kinds of representative modern study materials for writing letters in Chinese in 1920~30s were selected and 55 women's letters published in them were summarized. Through this, it was pointed out that the subjects of women's epistolary literature are mainly 'males' of families and the form of 'reply.' This implies that the authors of modern study materials for writing letters in Chinese recognized women's Chinese letters as a secondary means to prepare for inevitable communication with men rather than the leading medium of communication. The first aspect of gender consciousness shown in women's epistolary in modern study materials for writing letters in Chinese is to reaffirm the traditional gender order by calling and resetting women as the position and role in the family. The second aspect of gender consciousness is that female education materials which seemed to reflect the modern gender order are actually mentioned under the very skeptical view. The third characteristic aspect of gender consciousness is that the motif of 'discipline about economic activity' is only noticeable in women's epistolary published in modern study materials for writing letters. This setting was regarded as a means that the authors of modern study materials for writing letters in Chinese transferred the responsibilities of maintaining livelihood and managing household to women. Women's epistolary in modern study materials for writing letters in Chinese is the material which is noticeable in terms of showing the possibility of female Chinese Writing in modern times but according to the analysis of this paper, it is the text showing female form and women's writing judged within thoroughly male-centered imagination. That is, women's epistle text has a significance that allows us to read conservative reentry of modern study materials for writing letters in Chinese more clearly.

Development of Caregiver Guideline for Participation in Activities of Daily Living for the Elderly with Early Dementia: Focusing on the Delphi Survey (초기 치매 노인의 일상생활 참여 촉진을 위한 보호자 지침의 개발: 델파이 조사를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Seo-Eun;Koo, Seul-Gi;Park, Sang-M;Kim, Jung-Ran
    • 한국노년학
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.461-474
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to develop the caregiver guideline for participation in activities daily living for the elderly with early dementia in home including easily adaptable and professional strategies as early intervetion. The process of this study was 3 stage. First stage, the development of preliminary caregiver guideline as the first stage of this study was to translate to Korean and reclassify the items about caregiver guideline for participation from reports of foreign association or government related dementia, and it consisted of 3 areas, 128 statements for questionnaire for Delphi investigation. Second stage, the guideline was to conduct the content validity, and delete, reclassify, integrate, revise inappropriate items through 2 rounds and 16 Delphi panels. Third stage, the establishment of the final version of caregiver guideline. It consisted of 8 areas: home modification and assistive device, home activities of daily living, health management, communication, psycho-emotional support, leisure activities, social participation, general strategies. All 68 items was arranged in important order. The content validity, stability, agreement index in this study were 0.81, 0.15, 0.79 respectively. When content validity, stability was above 0.49, below 0.5 in Delphi survey with 15 panels, it was not required additional survey. The result of this study meaned that it was not required to additional Delphi survey, and the result was stable and agreeable. This developed guideline was useful and practical to maintain the elderly's with dementia independent and healthy life as education materials for their caregivers, so it will expect to decrease caregiver's burden. Lastly, it stated limitation and suggestion for further study.

Circulating Cytokine Levels and Changes During the Treatment in Patients with Active Tuberculosis in Korea (결핵 환자의 치료경과 중 혈청 내 Cytokine 분비와 변화)

  • Ryu, Yon-Ju;Kim, Yun-Jung;Kwon, Jung-Mi;Na, Youn-Ju;Jung, Yu-Jin;Seoh, Ju Young;Cheon, Seon Hee
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.140-153
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    • 2003
  • Background : The cell-mediated immune reaction to tuberculosis infection involves a complex network of cytokines. The extent of inflammation, tissue damage and severity of the disease suggested to be determined by the balance between extent and duration of the proinflammatory cytokine response versus those of the suppressive cytokines. The systemic cytokine response in pathogenesis of tuberculosis can be assessed by measuring serum cytokine levels. Method : Serum interleukin-1 beta(IL-$1{\beta}$), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p40), tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-${\alpha}$), interferon-gamma(IFN-${\gamma}$) and transforming growth factor-beta(TGF-${\beta}$) levels were measured in 83 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 10 patients with endobronchial tuberculosis before treatment and 20 healthy subjects by using a sandwich ELISA. In patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, they were divided into mild, moderate and far advanced group according to the severity by ATS guidelines. To compare with those of pretreatment levels, we measured serum IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p40), TNF-${\alpha}$, IFN-${\gamma}$ and TGF-${\beta}$ levels in 45 of 83 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis after 2 and 6 months of treatment. Results : 1) In sera of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis(n=83), IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6(p<0.05), TNF-${\alpha}$, and IFN-${\gamma}$ were elevated and TGF-${\beta}$ was decreased comparing to control. IL-2, Il-12(p40), IL-4 and IL-10 were similar between the patients with tuberculosis and control. 2) In endobronchial tuberculosis, IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ were elevated and TGF-${\beta}$ was decreased comparing to control. IL-12(p40) seemed to be elevated comparing to pulmonary tuberculosis. 3) Far advanced tuberculosis showed markedly elevated IL-6 and IFN-${\gamma}$ level(p<0.05). 4) The significant correlations were noted between IL-1, IL-6 AND TNF-${\alpha}$ and between IL-12, Il-2 and IL-4(p<0.01). 5) After 2 and 6 months of standard treatment, the level of IL-6 and IFN-${\gamma}$ was significantly decreased(p<0.05). Conclusion : These results showed that an altered balance between cytokines is likely to be involved in the extent of inflammation, tissue damage and severity of the disease tuberculosis. But, it should be considered diversities of cytokine response according to type of tuberculosis and immunity in clinical application and interpreting future studies.

Perceptions of Married Women on Childbirth and Sex Preference and Related Factors in Gyeongju, Korea (도농복합지역 기혼여성들의 출산과 성 선호에 대한 인식 및 관련요인)

  • Youm, Seog-Heon;Kang, Pock-Soo;Kim, Chang-Yoon;Lee, Kyeong-Soo;Hwang, Tae-Yoon;Hwang, In-Sob
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.260-273
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of married Korean women regarding marriage and childbirth, and their awareness of childbirth-related issues such as low birth rates, sex preferences and sex imbalances in Korea. Methods: A total of 453 married women aged 20 or older were randomly selected from four urban districts and five rural districts out of 25 districts in Gyeongju, a consolidated city located in Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, South Korea. The survey was conducted from December 2005 to February 2006. A total of 392 out of 453 questionnaires(86.5% response rate) were collected, and 44 incomplete questionnaires were excluded, leaving 348 completed questionnaires to be used for data analysis. Age was divided into three groups as below 49, 50-69, 70 or older. Results: Women's perceptions of marriage were associated with age(p<0.01). Perceptions about childbirth were also significantly related to age(p<0.01), type of residential area (p<0.01) and education level(p<0.05). Sex preferences were significantly related to age(p<0.05) and occupation(p<0.01). Of the respondents aged 49 or younger, 34.8% indicated that the ideal number of children is two, while 25.5% of respondents aged 50 to 69 and 15.3% of respondents aged 70 and 33.7% of respondents aged 70 or older considered four children to be the ideal number. Perceptions of sex imbalance were significantly related to socioeconomic status(p<0.01) and occupation(p<0.01). The largest number of respondents cited "economic burden" as the main reason for low birth rates. Multiple logistic regressions were performed for all three age groups using male sex preference as the dependent variable under the assumption that respondents can have only a single child. Socioeconomic status (p<0.01) and residential area (p<0.05) were significant variables for those aged 49 or below. Education level(p<0.05) and residential area (p<0.01) were statistically significant variables on preferring son in case of having only one child for respondents aged 50 to 69. We did not detect any significant independent variables in respondents who were 70 or older. Conclusions: Our results highlight the necessity of developing policies and public education programs to explain the consequences of low birth rates and sex imbalances in Korea. As increasing numbers of women work outside the home, it is important for the government and employers to provide social and working environments where women do not consider marriage and childbirth to be obstacles to social and business activities.

The Ability of Anti-tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha(TNF-${\alpha}$) Antibodies Produced in Sheep Colostrums

  • Yun, Sung-Seob
    • 한국유가공학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.49-58
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    • 2007
  • Inflammatory process leads to the well-known mucosal damage and therefore a further disturbance of the epithelial barrier function, resulting abnormal intestinal wall function, even further accelerating the inflammatory process[1]. Despite of the records, etiology and pathogenesis of IBD remain rather unclear. There are many studies over the past couple of years have led to great advanced in understanding the inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and their underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. From the current understanding, it is likely that chronic inflammation in IBD is due to aggressive cellular immune responses including increased serum concentrations of different cytokines. Therefore, targeted molecules can be specifically eliminated in their expression directly on the transcriptional level. Interesting therapeutic trials are expected against adhesion molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-${\alpha}$. The future development of immune therapies in IBD therefore holds great promises for better treatment modalities of IBD but will also open important new insights into a further understanding of inflammation pathophysiology. Treatment of cytokine inhibitors such as Immunex(Enbrel) and J&J/Centocor(Remicade) which are mouse-derived monoclonal antibodies have been shown in several studies to modulate the symptoms of patients, however, theses TNF inhibitors also have an adverse effect immune-related problems and also are costly and must be administered by injection. Because of the eventual development of unwanted side effects, these two products are used in only a select patient population. The present study was performed to elucidate the ability of TNF-${\alpha}$ antibodies produced in sheep colostrums to neutralize TNF-${\alpha}$ action in a cell-based bioassay and in a small animal model of intestinal inflammation. In vitro study, inhibitory effect of anti-TNF-${\alpha}$ antibody from the sheep was determined by cell bioassay. The antibody from the sheep at 1 in 10,000 dilution was able to completely inhibit TNF-${\alpha}$ activity in the cell bioassay. The antibodies from the same sheep, but different milkings, exhibited some variability in inhibition of TNF-${\alpha}$ activity, but were all greater than the control sample. In vivo study, the degree of inflammation was severe to experiment, despite of the initial pilot trial, main trial 1 was unable to figure out of any effect of antibody to reduce the impact of PAF and LPS. Main rat trial 2 resulted no significant symptoms like characteristic acute diarrhea and weight loss of colitis. This study suggested that colostrums from sheep immunized against TNF-${\alpha}$ significantly inhibited TNF-${\alpha}$ bioactivity in the cell based assay. And the higher than anticipated variability in the two animal models precluded assessment of the ability of antibody to prevent TNF-${\alpha}$ induced intestinal damage in the intact animal. Further study will require to find out an alternative animal model, which is more acceptable to test anti-TNF-${\alpha}$ IgA therapy for reducing the impact of inflammation on gut dysfunction. And subsequent pre-clinical and clinical testing also need generation of more antibody as current supplies are low.

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Purchasing Status and Supplier Performance Evaluation of School Foodservice in Chanwon, Korea (창원시 학교급식 식재료 구매 실태 및 공급업체 수행도 평가)

  • Jung, Hoi-Jung;Kim, Hyun-Ah
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.861-869
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the purchasing status and to compare supplier performance evaluations between competitive bidding and negotiated contracts in school foodservice in Changwon, Korea. A total of 190 questionnaires were distributed and 167 (return rate 87.9%) were collected from June 29 to September 28, 2010, and then a total of 151 (analysis rate 79.5%) were used for the final analysis. First, 91.4% of food product purchases for school meals were contracted through competitive bidding, especially limited competitive bidding. It mainly consisted of agricultural products, processed food, and eco-friendly agricultural products (fruit). Second, 78.8% of schools purchased food products by negotiated contracts, while single negotiation accounted for 59.7%. Food products by negotiated contract consisted of meat, kimchi, and fish. Third, the purchase status of competitive bidding and negotiated contracts showed a significant difference in agricultural products (p<0.001), fish (p<0.001), meats (p<0.001), poultry (p<0.001), antibiotic-free poultry (p<0.001), eco-friendly grain (p<0.001), eco-friendly agricultural products (fruit) (p<0.001), eco-friendly processed food (p<0.001), processed products (p<0.001), milk (p<0.001) and general grain (p<0.001) except for kimchi. Fourth, comparative analysis of supplier performance evaluation (on a 5-point Likert scale) of school foodservice showed that price of product of competitive bidding (3.73) was significantly higher than that of negotiated contract (2.95) (p<0.001), and the overall performance level of the negotiated contract (3.85) was significantly higher than that of competitive bidding (3.61) (p<0.01). The supplier performance evaluation levels of product packaging (p<0.01), product quality at the time of delivery (p<0.001), hygiene of products (p<0.001), consistency to specification (p<0.001), swiftness of return and exchange (p<0.001), emergency delivery (p<0.001), service of delivery staff (p<0.05), and handling of complaints (p<0.001) of negotiated contracts were significantly higher than those of competitive bidding of school foodservice. In conclusion, school foodservice selected food suppliers both by adopting competitive bidding and negotiated contracts. And there was a significant difference of school foodservice supplier performance between competitive bidding and negotiated contracts in Changwon, Korea.

Parents' Opinions on Foodservices in Daycare Centers of Korea's Compensation and Welfare Service Institute (근로복지공단 보육시설의 급식 운영현황과 학부모대상 품질 만족도)

  • Kim, Ji Hyeon;Lee, Young Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.102-113
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to examine parental perceptions on the importance, performance level, and satisfaction with foodservice quality at daycare centers in the Compensation and Welfare Service institute. The questionnaire was developed to measure thirty-two attributes of foodservice operations are administered to 598 parents and 23 foodservice supervisors from June 22, 2009 to July 10, 2009. The parents placed a high importance on the need for foodservices, earning 4.70 points out of 5 points. Their perceptions of foodservice quality menu, foodservice ingredients and effects, facilities, sanitation, and service scored even higher than performance. The overall satisfaction level for foodservice compared to performance was 4.33 and 4.03 points out of 5 points, respectively. Multiple regression analysis indicated that 98.6% of the variance in parents' overall satisfaction scores was explained by six dimensions.