• Title, Summary, Keyword: 환원주의

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인과성과 합리성

  • Lee, Jwa-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.25-43
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    • 2009
  • 이 논문은 유형 유물론의 인과적 논변과 양립할 수 있는 합리적 인과성, 곧 주관적 인과성의 한 존재론을 주장한다. 의욕들과 결심들 같은 의지적 마음은 능동적이다. 반면에, 욕망들과 믿음들 같은 정서적 인지적 마음은 수동적이다. 의지는 욕망과 믿음의 단순한 법칙적 결과가 아니다. 행위자가 개입한 합리적 결과이다. 따라서 의지 상태는 인과적 유형화를 갖지 못하므로 물리적으로 환원될 길이 없어 보인다. 구조적인 기초원자들이 연합해 움직이는 어떤 원자 모임을 행위자로 본다면, 행위자 원인은 하향적 인과를 함축하지 않는다. 그리고 유형 유물론 논변은 환원주의를 함축하지 않는다. 환원주의는 개념적 정의를 추가로 요구하기 때문이다. 따라서 인과의 주관적 개념, 행위자 개념이 유형 유물론을 배제하지 않는다.

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The Paradox of Grant Allen's Physiological Reductionism (그랜트 알렌의 생리학적 환원주의의 역설)

  • Lee, Sungbum
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.44
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    • pp.411-430
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    • 2016
  • One of central issues in the Literature and Science discourses during the Victorian era is the relation of physiology to psychology. Many thinkers tackle the question of whether or not psychic phenomena can be reducible to their physiological bases. For instance, Victorian physiologist William Benjamin Carpenter claims that there should be a boundary between physiological and psychological qualities. Yet, his contemporary writer Grant Allen contends for the reduction of psychology into physiology. In the essay, I discuss Grant Allen's work Physiological Aesthetics (1877) so as to eventually problematize his physiological reductionism. I especially highlight the paradox of his physiological aesthetics. In order to clarify my argument, I introduce two concepts: evolutionary aesthetics and physiological reductionism. On the one hand, Allen argues for the development of aesthetic appreciation. The gradual evolution from gaudy to serene colors, for instance, reflects the fine differentiation of sensory organs. He believes that the existence of varied aesthetic pleasures corresponds to the evolution of sensory nerve structures. Nonetheless, Allen ironically gives more weight to the commonality of aesthetic experiences than to this teleological ordering of aesthetic experiences. He argues that there is no fundamental difference among humans in terms of their aesthetic assessments. Furthermore, there is even no essential distinction among plants, animals, and humans in light of their aesthetic appraisals, he states firmly. Although he asserts the gradual advance of aesthetic feelings caused by the intricacy of nervous systems, he simultaneously trivializes the evolution of aesthetic appraisal. In the essay, I highlight this paradox in Allen's physiological aesthetics. It should be underscored, lamentably enough, that Allen seeks biological purity by erasing fine lines among physiology, psychology, and sociality. He estranges aesthetic experiences from subjective variations and their socio-cultural contexts. He makes great efforts to eliminate individual differences and socio-cultural specificities in order to extremely biologize aesthetic experiences. Hence, Allen's physiological aesthetics is marked as the politics of physiological purification.

Deflationism and Nonreductionism (수축주의와 비환원주의)

  • Lee, Jong-Wang
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.105
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    • pp.75-94
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    • 2008
  • In philosophy of mind, both reductionism and deflationism claim that the problem of mental causation is overstated, but the reason why they claim that way is quite different. On the one hand, for deflationism, since the problem of mental causation is bogus problem we need to focus on epistemology or scientific explanation rather than metaphysics. On the other hand, although the proponents of nonreductionism seem to think of the principles of causal closure of the physical and causal exclusion proposed by Jaegwon Kim as tenable, they do not go with the reductive approach to the problem of mental causation. Instead they stay with the concept of supervenience to overcome mental causation problem that, reductionists think, leads us to the dilemma situation. Of course, deflationists do not think that supervenience is plausible not as much as supervenience physicalists think that it is. If so, in what way and how do deflationists regard the problem of mental causation as a bogus problem? In this paper, I shall examine the most plausible response to mental causation problem, the contemporary version of mind-body problem by critically discussing and clarifying matters concerning the problem.

생물정보학과 환원주의 - 생물정보학은 Computational Molecular Biology와 동의어인가?

  • Eom, Yung-Eui
    • Bioinformatics and Biosystems
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2006
  • 현대 생물학은 온통 정보의 홍수에 넘쳐나고 있다. 이렇게 쏟아져 나오는 정보들을 체계적으로 정리하고 이해하고 파악하는 것은 매우 중요하다고 하겠다. 생물정보학은 이렇게 쏟아져 나오는 정보들을 수학, 전산학, 정보학 등의 방법론을 사용하여 체계화시키려는 새로운 학문이고 미래 지향적 융합 분야이다.

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Quality Assessment of Traditional wine and viable cell count by Lumitester (민속주의 품질평가와 Lumitester를 이용한 생균수 측정)

  • 류충호;김태완
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.363-368
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    • 2002
  • To evaluate the quality of korean traditional wine, 31 different type of wine were selected and examined for the following properties; ethanol contents, pH, acidity, total sugar contents, reducing sugar contents. In addition ATP contents of traditional wines were measured using lumitester and the result were compared with these obtained by viable cell counts. The physical and chemical properties of traditional wines are summarized as follow.; pH were in the range of 3.59~4.76, Total acidities were in the range of 4.23~16.21, Total sugar and reducing sugar contents were in the range of 0.04~1.13 g/100 mL and 0.006~0.999g/100 mL, respectively, ATP contents were in the range of 10$^1$~ 10$^{6}$ RLU(Relative light unit).

Brewing and Functional Characteristics of Hongkuk Ju Prepared with Various Hongkuks (홍국주의 제조와 기능성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, In-Bae;Park, Bae-Sun;Jung, Soon-Teck
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.943-950
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    • 2003
  • To identify the functional properties of Hongkuk ju and to improve its brewing process, Hongkuk ju was brewed using different hongkuks (Monascus red koji) made by Monascus purpureus, Monascus anka, Monascus aruneosus, and nuruk. Hongkuk using M. purpureus showed the highest enzyme activity. Hongkuk ju prepared with the M. purpureus hongkuk was fermented most efficiently, and showed the highest Hunter value. Hongkuk ju showed significant levels of phenolic compounds, electron donating ability, nitrate-scavenging activity, and ACE inhibition activity. In particular, Hongkuk ju made with M. purpureus showed the highest value among the wines of this study.

A Study on Characteristics of Eclectic Expression in contemporary Architecture (현대건축의 절충적 표현특성에 관한 연구)

  • 배준현;전명현
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • no.17
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 1998
  • Eclecticism had begun at 1820's and ended at the beginning of the 20c quoted historic and contemporary architecture. This trend is considered with architectural quotation and the meaning has the same text of the eclectic trend of Postmodernism, This study focuse on eclectic characteristics and have purposes of theoretical approaching to and formal analyzing to Contemporary Architecture. And it will be necessary to construct contemporary built environment for diversity of form Because expression of Architectural form by ecleticism is a method without experience designers can take architectural language by indirect experience of another worlds' architectural styles. Architectural form of Ecleticism has to be expressed by designer's own analysis when take a normal identity by creative principal of form-composition it will be a methodology of form composition and a prope necessity.

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Constructivist interpretation on the modal logic (양상 논리에 대한 구성주의적 해석)

  • Eun, Eun-suk
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.116
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    • pp.257-280
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    • 2010
  • I try to formalize the system of modal logic and interpret it in view of constructivism through this study. As to the meaning of a sentence, as we saw, Frege endorsed extensions in view of the fact that they are enough to provide for a compositional account for truth, in particular that (1) the assignment of extensions to expressions is compositional ; (2) the assignment of extensions to sentences coincides with the assignment of truth values. But nobody would be willing to admit that a truth value is what a sentence means and that consequently all true sentences are synonymous. So, if what we are after is meaning in the intuitive sense, then extensions would not do. This consideration has later become the point of departure of modal and intensional semantics. So, it is clear that the language of modal logic do not allow for an extensional interpretation. ${\square}$ is syntactically on a par with ${\vdash}$, hence within the extensional framework it would have to denote a unary truth function. This means that if modal logic is to be interpreted, we need a semantics which is not extensional. The first attempt to build a feasible intensional semantics was presented by Saul Kripke. He came to the conclusion that we must let sentences denote not truth values, but rather subsets of a given set. He called elements of the underlying set possible world. Hence each sentence is taken to denote the set of those possible world in which it is true. This lets us explicate necessity as 'truth in every possible world' and possibility as 'truth in at least one possible world'. But it is clear that the system of modal logic is not only an enlargement of propositional logic, as long as the former contains the new symbols, but that it is of an other nature. In fact, the modal logic is intensional, in that the operators do not determine the functions of truth any more. But this new element is not given a priori, but a posteriori from construction by logicist.

Quality Characteristics of Korean Traditional Wines with Puffed Sorghum (팽화수수 분말을 첨가한 발효주의 품질 특성)

  • Eom, Hyun-Ju;Jeong, Yeon Jeong;Lee, A Reum;Noh, Jae-Gwan;Kim, Yee Gi;Choi, Song Yi;Han, Nam Soo;Yoon, Hyang-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.8
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    • pp.1219-1225
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to compare quality characteristics and physiological activities of Korean traditional wines fermented by addition of puffed sorghum powder. Using a two-step brewing process for fermented wines, pH, acidity, ethanol, color, tannin, ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ activities, antioxidant, and reducing sugar levels as well as sensory evaluation were measured during fermentation at 2-day intervals until day 8. The pH levels of fermented wines ranged from 4.07 to 5.53, and acidity ranged from 0.13 to 0.86. On the last day of fermentation, alcohol contents of control, raw sorghum, steamed sorghum, and 25, 50%, and 100% puffed sorghum were 16.8%, 11.7%, 13.4%, 16.5%, 15.2%, and 16.4%, respectively. The reducing sugar and ${\alpha}-glucosidase$ activities of puffed sorghum fermented wines were relatively higher than those of the control group, whereas those of steamed sorghum were lowest. As puffed sorghum powder content increased, antioxidant activity significantly increased. In the results of the sensory evaluation, overall preference of 50% puffed sorghum fermented wines was highest among the samples. The results of this study show that physiological activity and quality characteristics of fermented wines containing puffed sorghum powder contribute to value added improvement of sorghum processing.