• Title, Summary, Keyword: 확률변경 생산함수

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Job Mismatch in Korean Regional labor Market: Matching Efficiency Analysis using Stochastic Production Frontier Approach (한국 지역노동시장에서의 일자리 미스매치에 관한 연구 - 확률변경생산함수를 이용한 결합 효율성 분석 -)

  • Yang, Jun Seok;Jeon, Yongil
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.752-765
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    • 2012
  • We analyze the relation empirically between regional labor market characteristics and job matching efficiency with the adaption of stochastic frontier production function. Our empirical results suggest that, as both the ratio of 50 years-old-job seekers and the level of spatial density increase, job matching efficiencies also rise. In contrast, an increase in the ratio of firms which offer permanent contracts lowers job matching efficiencies. And the job matching efficiency is relatively higher in metropolitan areas. Finally, We find a negative relation between total industrial production and job matching efficiency, which implies that job seekers tend to accept uncongenial jobs in the recessions.

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Empirical Analysis on the Estimation of Total Factor Productivity and its Determinants in the Korean Manufacturing and Service Industries (한국의 총요소생산성 추정과 생산성 결정요인에 관한 실증연구)

  • Zhu, Yan Hua
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.19-35
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    • 2018
  • This paper is to estimate the total factor productivity(TFP) in the Korean manufacturing and service industries during the period 1975:1-2016:4 using the stochastic frontier analysis model. In order to analyze the determinants for the total factor productivity the paper estimates the industry-specific determinant elasticities of TFP using the autoregressive distributed model. The industry-specific determinants, which reflect the industrial structure and properties include markup, the ratio of capital to labor(KL), and the ratio of foreign intermediate goods (FIG) to industrial output. The average value for total factor productivity growth was estimated to be 0.0199 in manufacturing and 0.0063 in the service industry. The markup and KL elasticities of TFP were estimated to be 2.481 and 0.651 in manufacturing respectively and -1.403 and 0.042 in the service industry respectively. The empirical results suggest that the industrial markup and the ratio of capital to labor have had decisive effects on the changes in the total factor productivity in the Korean manufacturing and service industries during the period 1975:1-2016:4.

The Analysis of Efficiency and Productivity in the Korean and Japanese Railways: A Stochastic Cost Frontier Approach (확률적 비용변경 접근법을 이용한 한국과 일본 철도산업의 효율성과 생산성 분석)

  • Park, Jin-Gyeong;Kim, Seong-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.141-157
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    • 2007
  • This paper evaluates the effects of privatization and deregulation on the firm-specific efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the Korean and Japanese railways. Using a stochastic frontier approach and a generalized translog functional form, the paper specifies the equation system consisting of a multiproduct variable cost function and input share equations which is estimated with Zellner's iterative seemingly unrelated regression and the corrected least squares method. The Korean and Japanese railway firms are assumed to produce three outputs (Shinkansen passenger-kilometers, incumbent railway passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers of freight) using three input factors (labor, fuel, maintenance and rolling stock). A monetary value of the ways and fixed installations held by the railroad firm is also included as a quasi-fixed input. The empirical results indicate that the average estimate of cost inefficiency is 2.57% for the total sample and on the average, JNR and JR Kyushu are found to be worst efficient while the most efficient railway firm in the sample is JR West. Also the cost efficiency levels of seven JRs have been improved after the reform and privatization of JNR. The findings also indicate that TFP growth of the privately-owned JRs are higher than those of the government-owned KNR and JNR. Three-island JRs and JR Freight have slightly higher TFP growth than Honshu JRs as well. Thus, the results suggest that managerial autonomy and increased competition via deregulation have improved efficiency and TFP growth.

Measurement of Energy Efficiency For the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases (온실가스 감축에 대비한 에너지 효율의 계측)

  • Kang, Sang-Mok
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.75-97
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of the paper is to estimate the functions of the energy input efficiency and the energy intensity efficiency, and measure their energy efficiencies for the reduction of greenhouse gases focusing on OECD countries. The efficiency of the traditional energy intensity was rarely connected with the energy efficiencies of the stochastic frontier function. It seems that the energy efficiency by the function of energy input efficiency sensitively responds to the order of GDP, capital stock, labor, and energy input quantity as explanatory variables. In the future, we need to reduce energy quantities by the optimal mix of inputs, and pursuit low-carbon economic growth through the production of the goods consuming small energy.

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The Cost Structure of the Lines of Urban Railway (도시철도 노선의 비용구조 분석)

  • Kim, Soo Hyun;Jung, Hun Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.1559-1569
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to estimate the degree of cost inefficiency for the urban railway lines of a metropolitan city operated by public institutions in Korea and identify the causes of this inefficiency. To this end, we assume that the urban railway lines produce the output of train-km by putting three production factors of labor, electric power and maintenance and set the variable cost function model with the translog function to make a stochastic cost frontier analysis. Based on estimated result, we conclude that the cost savings for 6 years of all lines are about 6,672 hundred million won and top five lines with high inefficiency are Busan Line1, Daegu Line1, Daejeon Line1, Gwangju Line1, and Daegu Line2. The causes of inefficiency are attributable to labor and maintenance factors. The results of this study can be useful in case of finding the priorities of measures and specific plans for reducing labor and maintenance costs in the urban railway operation.

A performance analysis of R&D in the IT industry sector (IT 기업 R&D 투자의 효율성 분석)

  • 김상태;표경민
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technology Innovation Society Conference
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    • pp.521-532
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    • 2005
  • IT 기업의 기술적 효율성의 정도를 추정하고, 그 결정요인을 알아보기 위해 Coelli(1995)의 확률적프론티어(Stochastic Frontier model) 중 초월대수 변경생산함수(translog stochastic frontier production function)를 설정한다. 분석견과 연구개발투자, 기업의 재무구조, 설비투자효율, 노동소득분배율 등은 기업의 비효율을 감소시키는 역할을 하는 반면, 기업규모, 재고자산증가율, 자기자본증가율 등은 기업의 비효율성을 더 높여주는 것으로 나타났다. 1990년부터 2004년까지 국내 제조업 전체의 생산의 기술적 효율성은 평균 0.5311로 이는 생산효율성이 $53.11\%$임을 의미하고, 비효율성은 $46.89\%$에 달한다고 볼 수 있다. IT 기업의 기술적 효율성은 0.5337회 제조업과 비슷하지만, IT 대기업은 0.61, IT 중소기업은 0.511로 대기업과 중소기업의 격차가 크게 발생하고 있다.

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Total Factor Productivity Growth and the Decomposition Components of Korean Port-Logistics Industry (항만물류산업의 총요소생산성과 그 분해요인분석)

  • Gang, Sang-Mok;Lee, Ju-Byeong
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.47-70
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to estimate total factor productivity(TFP) growth by stochastic frontier function and to grasp contributing factors of its growth rate by decomposing the total factor productivity into efficiency change, technical progress, scale change, and allocation change. Annual growth rate of total factor productivity for 1990-2003 is 0.019 (1.9%), higher than that of overall industry (0.010). The main component of TFP growth is not efficiency change but technical progress. Contributing factors of total factor productivity growth are change of allocation efficiency in port industry, technical progress in sea-transportation industry, and change of scale efficiency in transportation-equipment industry. The change of total factor productivity shows a decreasing trend since late in the 1990s. The annual technical efficiency of port-logistics industry is less than that of overall industry. Capital elasticity for output (0.391) is higher than labor elasticity (0.227), but scale economy of port-logistics industry is 0.618, which is far from optimal scale economy.

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A Brief Efficiency Measurement Way for the Korean Container Terminals Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (확률프론티어분석을 통한 국내컨테이너 터미널의 효율성 측정방법 소고)

  • Park, Ro-Kyung
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.63-87
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of Korean container terminals by using SFA(Stochastic Frontier Analysis). Inputs[Number of Employee, Quay Length, Container Terminal Area, Number of Gantry Crane], and output[TEU] are used for 3 years(2002,2003, and 2004) for 8 Korean container terminals by applying both SFA and DEA models. Empirical main results are as follows: First, Null hypothesis that technical inefficiency is not existed is rejected and in the trasnslog model, the estimate is significant. Second, time-series models show the significant results. Third, average technical efficiency of Korean container terminals are 73.49% in Cobb-Douglas model, and 79.04% in translog model. Fourth, to enhance the technical efficiency, Korean container terminals should increase the handling amount of TEUs. Fifth, both SFA and DEA models have the high Spearman ranking of correlation coefficients(84.45%). The main policy implication based on the findings of this study is that the manager of port investment and management of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs in Korea should introduce the SFA with DEA models for measuring the efficiency of Korean ports and terminals.

Impacts of R&D and Smallness of Scale on the Total Factor Productivity by Industry (R&D와 규모의 영세성이 산업별 총요소생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jung-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Ki;Lee, Bu-Hyung;Joo, Won
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.71-102
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    • 2007
  • There were many comprehensive analyses conducted within the existing research activities wherein factors affecting technology progress including investment in R&D vis-${\Box}$-vis their influences act as the determinants of TFP. Note, however, that there were few comprehensive analysis in the industrial research performed regarding the impact of the economy of scale as it affects TFP; most of these research studies dealt with the analysis of the non -parametric Malmquist productivity index or used the stochastic frontier production function models. No comprehensive analysis on the impacts of individual independent variables affecting TFP was performed. Therefore, this study obtained the TFP increase rate of each industry by analyzing the factors of the existing growth accounting equation and comprehensively analyzed the TFP determinants by constructing a comprehensive analysis model considering the investment in R&D and economy of scale (smallness by industry) as the influencers of TFP by industry. First, for the TFP increase rate of the 15 industries as a whole, the annual average increase rate for 1993${\sim}$ 1997 was approximately 3.8% only; during 1999${\sim}$ 2000 following the foreign exchange crisis, however, the annual increase rate rose to approximately 7.8%. By industry, the annual average increase rate of TFP between 1993 and 2000 stood at 11.6%, the highest in the electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing business and IT manufacturing sector. In contrast, a -0.4% increase rate was recorded in the furniture and other product manufacturing sectors. In the case of the service industry, the TFP increase rate was 7.3% in the transportation, warehousing, and communication sectors. This is much higher than the 2.9% posted in the electricity, water, and gas sectors and -3.7% recorded in the wholesale, food, and hotel businesses. The results of the comprehensive analysis conducted on the determinants of TFP showed that the correlations between R&D and TFP in general were positive (+) correlations whose significance has yet to be validated; in the model where the self-employed and unpaid family workers were used as proxy variables indicating the smallness of industry out of the total number of workers, however, significant negative (-) correlations were noted. On the other hand, the estimation factors of variables surrogating the smallness of scale in each industry showed that a consistently high "smallness of scale" in an industry means a decrease in the increase rate of TFP in the same industry.

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Software Reliability Growth Modeling in the Testing Phase with an Outlier Stage (하나의 이상구간을 가지는 테스팅 단계에서의 소프트웨어 신뢰도 성장 모형화)

  • Park, Man-Gon;Jung, Eun-Yi
    • The Transactions of the Korea Information Processing Society
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    • v.5 no.10
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    • pp.2575-2583
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    • 1998
  • The productionof the highly relible softwae systems and theirs performance evaluation hae become important interests in the software industry. The software evaluation has been mainly carried out in ternns of both reliability and performance of software system. Software reliability is the probability that no software error occurs for a fixed time interval during software testing phase. These theoretical software reliability models are sometimes unsuitable for the practical testing phase in which a software error at a certain testing stage occurs by causes of the imperfect debugging, abnornal software correction, and so on. Such a certatin software testing stage needs to be considered as an outlying stage. And we can assume that the software reliability does not improve by means of muisance factor in this outlying testing stage. In this paper, we discuss Bavesian software reliability growth modeling and estimation procedure in the presence of an imidentitied outlying software testing stage by the modification of Jehnski Moranda. Also we derive the Bayes estimaters of the software reliability panmeters by the assumption of prior information under the squared error los function. In addition, we evaluate the proposed software reliability growth model with an unidentified outlying stage in an exchangeable model according to the values of nuisance paramether using the accuracy, bias, trend, noise metries as the quantilative evaluation criteria through the compater simulation.

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