• Title/Summary/Keyword: 화재진압

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A Study on the Effects of Droplets Characteristics of Water Mist on the Spray Density on the Floor (미분무 액적특성이 살수밀도에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Hoon;Park, Won-Hee;Kim, Woon-Hyung;Myoung, Sang-Yup
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.120-127
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    • 2021
  • Purpose: In this study, the effect of changes in the variables related to water droplets on the spray density on the floor in the analysis of the water mist fire protection system using FDS was analyzed. Method: When the spray of the water mist nozzle was analyzed in FDS, Particles Per Seconds, Particle Velocity, Size Distribution, and Spray Pattern Shape that can be set in relation to droplets were input to review the analyzed results. Result: In the analysis results, when the number of particles per second was set above a certain value, the spray density of the floor was similar. In the case of Particle Velocity, as the velocity decreases, the spray density of the central portion increases but decreases at a distance of 0.15m or more. From the analysis of the change in the size distribution function, it was found that an increase in the 𝛾 value increases the spray density of the central part, but the value at a remote location decreases. Compared to the result of applying the Gaussian distribution, the median value decreases dramatically when the uniform distribution is applied, but the value at the adjacent position increases. Conclusion: Variables related to the droplet properties of the FDS affect the spray density of the floor. Therefore, in order to increase the reliability of results before performing analyses such as fire suppression or cooling, a sufficient review of input variables is required.

A Study for Performance Improvement of Fire Detector and Sprinkler Head in Apartment Houses (공동주택 화재감지 및 소화성능개선에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Chae-Won;Son, Bong-Sei
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.38-44
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    • 2015
  • This study suggested the problems and their improvement measures for the operation of fire detectors and sprinkler heads installed at apartment houses. According to a census on population and housing in 2010, apartment houses account for 71.6% of the total housing facilities. And by fire statistics data of the National Emergency Management Agency, approximately 25.0% of fire accidents and 46.4% of casualties occur at apartment houses every year. Therefore, this study conducted for identifying the causes and characteristics of fire to establish the fire safety improvement measures for apartment houses. And this study was carried out virtual fire simulation at domestic apartment houses. The scenario of the simulation contains a comparative analysis on the operation time of standard sprinkler heads and residential sprinkler heads, heat detectors and smoke detectors. As a result of simulation, it was found that standard sprinkler heads and heat detectors installed at the existing apartment houses should be replaced with residential sprinkler heads and smoke detectors for rapid fire suppression. In addition, sprinkler systems should be considered to be installed for excluded floor at apartment houses. Especially, it is necessary to construct remote inspect systems like advanced countries for efficiency of apartment houses safety management.

Classification of Fire Causes in Warehouses Using the TRIZ Technique and Analysis of Preventive Measures Accordingto 4M (TRIZ기법에 의한 물류창고의 화재원인 및 4M에 따른 예방대책 분석)

  • Han, Sang-Hun;Kong, Ha-Sung
    • The Journal of the Convergence on Culture Technology
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.401-412
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed the causes of warehouse fires using a creative problem-solving technique called TRIZ. It identified preventive measures by applying 4M. The results are as follows. First, this study examined the inconsistency among the causes of warehouse fires using TRIZ. Second, it analyzed human factors and fire prevention measures in warehouses such as safety standards for managers, and methods for the promotion of safety consciousness among workers, and for the reinforcement of construction technology for sandwich panel workers. Third, it identified the mechanical and facility factors and fire prevention measures in warehouses such as safety facilities, the expanded installation of safety devices, the adoption and development of fire suppression equipment, and the deployment of methods to improve the fire resistance of sandwich panels. Fourth, it presented working and environmental factors and fire prevention measures in warehouses such as the tightening of safety precautions and the supervision of working methods, and setting fire partitions both in loading places and based on performance-based design. Finally, it proposed managerial factors and fire prevention measures in warehouses such as specific targeting for firefighting with low fire hazards, reviewing the material quality regulations of non-combustible or higher for sandwich panels in the specific target of firefighting that cannot apply fire safety standards, installing sprinklers in cold storage, and mandating the installation of automated facilities with retroactive application regardless of the floor area in the warehouse with a sandwich panel structure.

A Study on the Fire Safety of the several Oils for the Vehicles (차량용 오일의 화재안전성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hae Pyeong;Park, Young Ju;Lee, Seung Chul;Kim, Hae Rim
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.194-194
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    • 2011
  • 현대 사회에서 차량을 비롯한 선박, 항공기와 같은 각종 수송수단들은 그 용도와 형태도 다양하고 널리 보급되어있을 뿐만 아니라 각 분야에서 없어서는 안 될 필수품이 되어 있다. 그러나 수송수단의 수와 활용빈도수가 증가함에 따라 그로 인한 차량화재, 선박화재 그리고 항공기화재 등과 같은 특수화재의 발생에 따른 재산 및 인명피해의 문제점들도 함께 늘어나고 있는 실정이다. 2009년 기준, 1년 동안의 전체 화재발생건수 47,071건 가운데 차량화재의 발생건수가 5,958건으로서 전체의 12.6% 정도를 차지하였다. 그뿐만 아니라 차량 내장재의 주 재질은 가연성을 지닌 열가소성 합성수지들로서 화재가 발생하였을 경우, 다량의 가연성 가스 및 독성가스를 방출하기 때문에 인명 및 재산 피해를 증가시키는 문제점을 갖고 있다. 하지만 아직까지도 이와 같은 수송수단에 대한 화재를 예방하거나 피해를 최소화할 수 있는 화재진압대책 등에 관한 연구는 미흡한 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 이러한 문제점을 해결하고 과학적이며 체계적인 대응방안을 수립하기 위한 기초 자료를 확보하고 이를 통한 수송수단의 화재안전성을 분석하고자 각종 수송수단에서 사용되는 오일을 대상으로 연소특성 분석 및 화재하중에 관한 연구를 수행하였다. 분석 대상 오일은 연료용과 부속용 오일로 크게 분류되며, 연료용 오일로는 차량용 경유와 휘발유 그리고 군용차량용 경유, 항공기용 백등유와 제트유, 선박용 고유황경유 등을 선정하였다. 부속용 오일로는 브레이크오일, 파워오일, 엔진오일, 자동변속기오일, 수동변속기오일을 대상으로 각각 일반용과 고급형 2가지씩 시료를 선정하여 분석을 수행하였다. 분석방법은 대상오일들의 기초물성을 고찰하기 위해서 비중계를 이용하여 각 시료들의 비중을 측정하였으며, 문헌으로부터 끓는점, 어는점 및 점도 등을 조사하였다. 또한, 대상오일들의 착화특성을 살펴보고자 콘칼로리미터와 인화점 측정기 및 발화점 측정기 등을 이용하여 발열량, 착화시간, 발연량, 발화점, 인화점 등을 측정하였다. 대상오일들의 물성 및 착화특성에 대한 측정결과를 살펴보면, 비중은 $725.8{\sim}1072.0kg/m^3$ 정도의 값을 나타냈고, 인화점은 영하의 인화점을 갖는 휘발유의 경우, 장비의 특성상 분석이 곤란하여 측정하지 못하였으며, 다른 시료들은 $45.3{\sim}266.6^{\circ}C$정도의 값을 나타냈다. 발화점은 $325.7{\sim}600.6^{\circ}C$정도의 값을 갖는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 이와 같은 결과들을 활용하면 차량, 선박, 항공기 등에 대한 화재발생과 관련된 화재안전성을 분석하고 이를 통한 수송시스템의 화재에 대한 예방 및 대응 방안의 효율성을 높일 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.

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A Analytical Study on Seismic Performance of Stainless Water Tank using Lead Rubber Bearing (납고무받침을 이용한 스테인리스 물탱크 내진성능에 관한 해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Hu-Seung;Oh, Ju;Jung, Hie-Young
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.230-236
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    • 2018
  • Earthquakes over 5.0 on the Richter scale have recently occurred in Korea, which has led to interest in the seismic safety of structures. If a water storage facility is damaged by an earthquake, the water could leak, and the insufficient water would make fire suppression difficult. Therefore, a water storage facility should satisfy safety requirements for earthquakes. In this study, the seismic performance of a water tank was improved by installing a lead rubber bearing between the foundation and the tank. It designed the lead rubber bearing available to the existed concrete foundation. ANSYS was used for modeling to consider the interaction between the fluid and structure of the tank and the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure using four seismic waves. In the case of hydrostatic pressure at 2.5 water level, full level, the same stress appeared irrespective of whether the seismic isolation was installed. When hydrostatic pressure and hydrodynamic pressures are applied at the same time, the seismic-isolated water tank showed less seismic force, and the damping ratio was lower than that of general seismic isolation. This occurred because the weight of the water tank is much smaller than the stiffness of the seismic isolation. The result is expected to be used for further research on seismic capacity evaluation for water tanks.

Development of Fire Engine Travel Time Estimation Model for Securing Golden Time (골든타임 확보를 위한 소방차 통행시간 예측모형 개발)

  • Jang, Ki-hun;Cho, Seong-Beom;Cho, Yong-Sung;Son, Seung-neo
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2020
  • In the event of fire, it is necessary to put out the fire within a golden time to minimize personal and property damages. To this end, it is necessary for fire engines to arrive at the site quickly. This study established a fire engine travel time estimation model to secure the golden time by identifying road and environmental factors that influence fire engine travel time in the case of fire by examining data on fire occurrence with GIS DB. The study model for the estimation of fire engine travel time (model 1) covers variables by applying correlation analysis and regression analysis with dummy variables and predicts travel time for different types of places where fire may occur (models 2, 3, 4). Analysis results showed that 17 siginificant independent variables are derived in model 1 and the fire engine travel time differs depending on the types of places where fire occurs. Key variables(travel distance, number of lane, type of road) that are included commonly in the 4 models were identified. Variables identified in this study can be utilized as indicators for research related to travel time of emergency vehicles and contribute to securing the golden time for emergency vehicles.

Protocol Design for Fire Receiver­based Fire Detection Robots (화재수신기 기반의 화재감시로봇을 위한 프로토콜 설계)

  • Lim, Jong-Cheon;Lee, Jae-Min
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.452-459
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    • 2018
  • Conventional fire fighting robots are controlled by a remote control to monitor the fire scene or to suppress the fire. However, this method has a problem that it takes a long time to prepare robot and input it to fire place in the golden time after the fire, so that it can not sufficiently serve as a fire fighting robot. Using the autonomous driving fire monitoring robot, when a fire signal is generated, in conjunction with a fire receiver a moving robot takes a video of the fire scene and delivers the image to the fire department, so that the fire fighter can decide if it is real fire or not. Thereby it is possible to prevent a sudden spread of an accident by providing a quick judgment opportunity and at the same time suppressing the fire early. In this paper, we propose an architecture of the autonomous mobile fire monitoring robot and the communication protocol required for the robot to work with the fire receiver. A communication protocol is designed to control multiple fire monitoring robots in real time, and a communication with a fire receiver is designed as a hierarchical network to serve as an interface of an Ethernet network using wireless Wi-Fi. The fire monitoring robot and the wireless communication of the fire receiving period are implemented and the effectiveness of the operation is confirmed through the field test.

An Origin-Centric Communication Scheme to Support Sink Mobility for Continuous Object Detection in IWSNs (산업용 무선 센서망을 이용한 연속개체 탐지에서 이동 싱크 지원을 위한 발원점 중심의 통신방안)

  • Kim, Myung-Eun;Kim, Cheonyong;Yim, Yongbin;Kim, Sang-Ha;Son, Young-Sung
    • KIPS Transactions on Computer and Communication Systems
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    • v.7 no.12
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    • pp.301-312
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    • 2018
  • In industrial wireless sensor networks, the continuous object detection such as fire or toxic gas detection is one of major applications. A continuous object occurs at a specific point and then diffuses over a wide area. Therefore, many studies have focused on accurately detecting a continuous object and delivering data to a static sink with an energy-efficient way. Recently, some applications such as fire suppression require mobile sinks to provide real-time response. However, the sink mobility support in continuous object detection brings challenging issues. The existing approaches supporting sink mobility are designed for individual object detection, so they establish one-to-one communication between a source and a mobile sink for location update. But these approaches are not appropriate for a continuous object detection since a mobile sink should establish one-to-many communication with all sources. The one-to-many communication increases energy consumption and thus shortens the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose the origin-centric communication scheme to support sink mobility in a continuous object detection. Simulation results verify that the proposed scheme surpasses all the other work in terms of energy consumption.

Case study on design and construction for cross-connection tunnel using large steel pipe thrust method in soil twin shield tunnels underneath airport (공항하부 토사 병설 쉴드터널에서 대구경 강관추진에 의한 횡갱 설계/시공사례 연구)

  • Ahn, Chang-Yoon;Park, Duhee
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.325-337
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    • 2021
  • On the road and rail tunnels, the evacuation pathway and facilities such as smoke-control and fire suppression system are essential in tunnel fire. In the long twin tunnels, the cross-connection tunnel is usually designed to evacuate from the tunnel where the fire broke out to the other tunnel. In twin shield tunnels, the segment lining has to be demolished to construct the cross-connection tunnel. Considering the modern shield TBM is mostly the closed chamber type, the exposure of underground soil induced by removal of steel segment lining is the most danger construction step in the shield tunnel construction. This case study introduces the excavation method using the thrust of large steel pipe and reviews the measured data after the construction. The large steel pipe thrust method for the cross-connection tunnel can stabilize the excavated face with the two mechanisms. Firstly, the soil in front of excavated face is cylindrically pre-supported by the large steel pipe. Secondly, the excavated face is supported by the plugging effect caused by the soil pressed into the steel pipe. It was reviewed that the large steel pipe thrust method in the cross-connection tunnel is enough to secure the construct ability and stability in soil from the measurement results about the deformation and stress of steel pipe.

A study on the location of fire fighting appliances in cargo ships (화물선 소화설비 비치에 대한 연구)

  • Ha, Weon-Jae
    • Journal of Advanced Marine Engineering and Technology
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.852-858
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    • 2016
  • To safeguard the accommodation spaces on cargo ships from fire, structural fire protection provisions introduced by SOLAS and these measures retard the propagation of flames and smoke. SOLAS also specifies provisions for fire fighting drills. These provisions are a combination of regulations regarding structure and equipment and those dealing with the human element for the fire protection and effective responses in the event of fire. Requirements related to the human element play a supporting role to the requirements for structure and equipment because the present accommodation structure and equipment are insufficient for extinguishing a fire, therefore, fire-extinguishing activity performed by crew members is essential. To reduce human error and ensure effective fire fighting, it is necessary to install a fire-fighting system and improve the fire fighting process. The fundamental concept of fire fighting exercises is to commence fire fighting before the fire grows too big to extinguish. It is essential to relocate the storage place of fire fighting equipment to expedite the fire-fighting exercise. This study was carried out to reduce human risk for this purpose, the fire control station was relocated to a site that could be accessed from the open deck. Further, two sets of a fire fighter's outfit were stored at the same site. This relocation eliminated the risk of the crew reentering to operate the fire fighting system in the fire control station and allowed the crew to pick up the fire fighters' outfits quickly in the event of a fire. In addition, it was proposed that the IIC method be made mandatory. This method is combination of automatic fire detection system and sprinkler system which can reduce the risk of the fire fighting exercises for the crew and to suppress fire in the initial stage. This study was carried out to provide a foundation to the possible amendment of the relevant SOLAS regulations and national legislation.