• Title, Summary, Keyword: 핵종농도법

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고순도게르마늄(HPGe) 검출기를 이용한 방사성폐기물 드럼의 핵종농도 평가

  • 박경록;강덕원
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.583-589
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    • 1996
  • 원자력발전소에서 발생되는 방사성폐기물들은 폐기물형태 및 방사능 농도가 다양하며 영구처분장으로 이송전까지는 발전소내의 임시 저장고에 안전하게 보관, 관리하고 있다. 생성된 폐기물드럼내에는 감마방출핵종을 비롯하여 알파 및 베타방출 핵종들이 균질 또는 비균질하게 존재하고 있으며 방사능의 세기나 폐기물의 특성에 따라 안정화시키거나 압축처리하여 드럼에 담겨져 있기 때문에 일반적인 파괴분석에 의한 화학분석법으로는 작업자의 피폭, 시료의 대표성 선정 및 장시간의 화학처리 시간소요 등으로 핵종분석이 곤란하다. 따라서 본 논문은 일반적으로 감마핵종분석시 흔히 사용하고 있는 고순도게르마늄(HPGe) 검출기를 이용하여 드럼의 감마핵종농도를 분석하는 방법과 장치의 개발에 대해 언급하였으며 알파나 베타핵종과 같이 직접 분석이 곤란한 핵종들은 각 폐기물드럼내에 존재하는 Co-60이나 Cs-137과의 상관관계를 미리 예측한 척도인자 (scaling factor)를 이용하여 간접적으로 구하는 방법을 사용하고 있으나 본 논문에서는 드럼으로부터 감마핵종만을 분석하는 방법에 대해서만 언급하였다. 또한 핵종분석시스템의 최적 운전조건을 도출하기 위해 드럼회전테이블의 속도결정 및 모의드럼을 이용한 방사능측정 등을 통해 핵종 농도 분석시의 오차를 30% 이내로 유지할 수 있었다.

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The Determination of Radon Progeny Concentration in Controlled Radon Environment (라돈을 제어하는 환경에서 라돈 자핵종의 농도 결정)

  • Seo, Kyung-Won;Lee, Byung-Kee
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.37-51
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    • 1993
  • A standard radon chamber and a radon generator adjusted by ventilation system which had used in this research were assumed to calculate theoretically the concentration of radon progeny using Jacobi model theory. On the one hand, the filter sampled from the radon standard chamber and the radon generator was measured and analysed by the alpha spectrometry method. It is clear that measured result shows a good agreement with theoretical result. Therefore, it is observed that this research can made a great contribution to more accurate internal dose assessment by alpha emission of radon progeny in indoor radon environment, and fast individual measurement and determination of concentration for radon progeny.

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A Study on the Determination of Radionuclide Concentrations in Animal Feedstuffs for Use Following a Nuclear Emergency (원자력 비상시 가축의 사료로 이용을 위한 사료내 방사성 핵종농도 결정에 대한 연구)

  • Hwang, Won-Tae;Kim, Eun-Han;Suh, Kyung-Suk;Choi, Young-Gil;Han, Moon-Hee
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 2001
  • The optimized derived intervention levels for animal products were evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis. From these results, the radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use were derived. It was shown that radionuclide concentrations in animal feedstuffs for use depend strongly on animal products, radionuclides and feeding period (period from the starting time to be led with contaminated feedstuffs to production time of animal products). In case of feedstuffs contaminated with long-lived radionuclides ($^{l37}Cs,\;^{90}Sr$), the feedstuffs with lower contamination should be supplied to animals with increase of feeding period due to the bioaccumulation of radionuclides. While, in case of feedstuffs contaminated with short-lived radionuclides ($^{131}I$), the feeding of higher contaminated feedstuffs was possible with increase of feeding period due to radionuclide decay. It was shown that $^{137}Cs$ concentration in animal feedstuffs lot use was lower than $^{90}Sr$ concentration. It is primarily, due to the higher feed-animal product transfer factor of $^{137}Cs$.

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활성탄 검출기를 이용한 실내 라돈농도 측정

  • 조찬희;신상운;손중권
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.589-593
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    • 1998
  • 활성탄 검출기를 이용하여 실내 라돈농도를 측정하였다. 라돈농도 측정을 위한 활성탄 검출기의 노출기간은 4일, 5.8일, 5일이었다. 측정결과 사무실내 라돈농도는 각각 1.63 pCi/$\ell$, 1.23 pCi/$\ell$, 1.76 pCi/$\ell$였으며, 측정기간 동안 평균 1.54 pCi/$\ell$였다. 이 결과는 미국 환경보호청에서 제시한 조치준위의 최저치인 4 pCi/$\ell$ 이하였다. 같은 장소에서 WL Meter를 이용하여 라돈 딸핵종의 농도를 축정한 결과, 각각 5. 64 mWL, 4.88 mWL, 6.43 mWL이었다. 라돈과 라돈 딸핵종 농도로부터 라돈평형인자 값을 산출한 결과 각각 0.34, 0.39, 0.36으로, 이 결과는 다른 방법에 의해 타 연구자가 측정한 기존의 사무실내 라돈농도 및 라돈평형인자 산출결과와 비교적 유사했다. 따라서 활성탄 검출기를 이용한 라돈농도 측정법은 매우 유용한 방법임을 확인할 수 있었다.

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선택성 이온교환수지에 의한 Cs 함유 토양 제염폐액 정화

  • 원휘준;김계남;오원진;정종헌
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.131-132
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    • 2004
  • 원자력연구소에 보관 중인 오염 토양폐기물을 토양 세척법으로 제염하여 비 방사성폐기물화 한다면 그 부피를 10% 이하로 저감시킬 수 있으며 연구소의 고체 방사성폐기물 저장 용량을 크게 늘릴 수 있다. 1988년 발견 당시 오염 토양 폐기물의 주요 방사성 핵종은 Co-60 이었는데 시간경과에 따라 Cs-134, 137 이 주요 방사성 핵종이 되었다. 오염토양 폐기물의 60 % 이상은 방사능 농도가 극히 낮아 물리적으로 입도를 분리하거나 수 세척에 의해 비 방사성폐기물화 할 수 있음을 파악하였다.(중략)

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Method development for quantitative analysis of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides in building materials (실내 건축자재 중 천연방사성핵종의 정량분석법 연구)

  • Lim, Jong-Myoung;Lee, Hoon;Kim, Chang-Jong;Jang, Mee;Park, Ji-Young;Chung, Kun Ho
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.252-261
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    • 2017
  • Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) increase radiation exposure to the public as these materials are concentrated through artificial manufacturing processes by human activities. This study focuses on the development of a method for the quantitative analysis of $^{232}Th$, $^{235}U$, and $^{238}U$ in building materials. The accuracy and precision of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of digestion processes was evaluated for certified reference materials (CRMs) digested using various mixed acid (e.g., aqua regia, hydrofluoric acid, and perchloric acid) digestions and a $LiBO_2$ fusion method. The method validation results reveal that a $LiBO_2$ fusion and $Fe(OH)_3$ co-precipitation should be applied as the optimal sample digestion process for the quantitative analysis of radionuclides in building materials. The radioactivity of $^{232}Th$, $^{235}U$, and $^{238}U$ in a total of 51 building material (e.g., board, brick, cement, paint, tile, and wall paper) samples was quantitatively analyzed using an established process. Finally, the values of $^{238}U$ and $^{232}Th$ radioactivity were comprehensively compared with those from the indirect method using ${\gamma}$-spectrometry.

Studies on the Sorption Characteristics of $^{137}Cs$ onto Granite and Tuff ($^{137}Cs$의 화강암 및 응회암에 대한 흡착특성에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Young-Hwan;Hahn, Pil-Soo;Park, Sang-Won
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 1995
  • Batch sorption experiments were conducted to investigate the sorption characteristics of $^{137}$ Cs, known for the primary target of safety assessment in low-level radwaste disposal, onto domestic rocks such as Granite and Tuff. A response surface analysis method was applied to quantify the effect of 3 independent variables ([Cs], [Vol/Wt], [pH]) on the sorption. Ac a result, initial Cs concentration appeared to be the most important variable within the range of the study. A significant effect of [Vol/Wt] on Kd was observed. The sorption of Cs was pH-insignificant. The sorption extent of nuclides onto tuff was more significant than that onto granite. The pH-insignificant sorption behavior of Cs was discussed in terms of the surface electrical properties and the solution chemistry. The sorption tendency of nuclides onto geomedia studied was interpreted by adopting the water structure modification theory.

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Study on Radioactive Material Management Plan and Environmental Analysis of Water (I) Study of Radioactive Substances in Water Management and Analysis to Eat of the US Environmental Protection Agency (Envirionmental Protection Agency) (물 환경의 방사성 물질 관리 방안과 분석법에 관한 연구 (I) 미국환경보호청(Envirionmental Protection Agency)의 먹는 물 방사성물질 관리와 분석법에 관한 고찰)

  • Her, Jae;Kim, Jung-Min;Min, Hye-Lim;Han, Seong-Gyu;Lim, Hyun-Jong;Jo, Han-Byeol;Noh, Young-Hoon;Lee, Ho-Sun;Park, Min-Suk
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.163-170
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    • 2015
  • The interest of the people in the radioactive contamination of the water has increased significantly and the study about analysis and management of radioactive materials are being actively conducted. And monitoring spots have been expanded to the range of public water as well as drinking water by publishing the rule of drinking water quality standards and examination in the Environmental Enforcement Ordinance No. 553 of Korea. In this study, US EPA was investigated as the foreign advanced cases and the way that is appropriate for the Korea was sought by analyzing investigate radionuclide, interval and management. As a result, in the selection part of investigate radionuclide, geological survey, status of nuclear power plants and the presence of the use of artificial radionuclides of the Korea should be investigated and additionally after the selection of a few radionuclides, the systems should be extended to cover all possible radionuclides by considering radioactive pollution levels in humans may be exposed due to the annual drinking water. In the part of the investigate interval, the concept(MCL, DL) should be set up for preventing concentration detection of above MCL and it needs to the maintenance and management. For example, when the concentration is more than MCL, it should be investigated on a quarterly and when the concentration is lower than MCL, it should be investigated to each different interval and management. And the US EPA divided the management area and make the roadmap for managing drinking water. The each classified area has been organized to match the state budget and labor force and the individual data have been managed effectively by HPGe, the NaI, TLD and so on.

Radioactivity Analysis of Soils Stored in KAERI for Regulatory Clearance (연구소 내 저장 중인 토양의 규제해제를 위한 방사능 분석)

  • Hong D.S.;Kim T.K.;Kang I.S.;Cho H.S.;Shon J.S.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.161-166
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    • 2005
  • In KAERI, about 3,100 drums containing soil have been stored. The soils were generated from the decommissioning process of Seoul office in 1988. Those soils occupy about $27\%$ of the capacity of the radioactive waste storage facility and make it difficult to maintain the storage facility. The major radioactive nuclides contained in the soils were expected to be Co-60 and Cs-137. As 16 years have passed, the radioactivity of those nuclides have decayed a lot. In this study, as a basis of regulatory clearance, radionuclides and radioactivity concentration of soils were analyzed. As a result, there are only Co-60 and Cs-137 in soils as ${\gamma}-emitters$. The total concentration of ${\gamma}-emitters$ in soil is analyzed as about $0.01\;{\sim}\;0.12$ Bq/g. As the soils are expected to be regulatory cleared in 2009, those concentrations will decay to be less than 0.1 Bq/g. This concentration can be meet the regulatory criteria suggested by IAEA. The regulatory clearance will be proceeded based on not only the assessment results of environmental influence but also related regulations.

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Improvement on the Method of Estimating Radionuclide Concentrations in Agricultural Products for the Off-Site Internal Dose Calculation for Operating Nuclear Facilities (가동중 원자력 시설 주변 주민의 내부피폭선량 계산을 위한 농산물내 핵종 농도 평가법 개선)

  • Choi, Y.H.;Lim, K.M.;Hwang, W.T.;Choi, G.S.;Choi, H.J.;Lee, C.W.
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.73-90
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    • 2004
  • The Reg. Guide 1.109 model was reviewed against its applicability to calculating radionuclide concentrations in agricultural products for operating nuclear facilities and an improved method was proposed. The model was so modified that the radionuclides deposited since the start of operation could be considered in assessing the root uptake. Translocation factors were introduced in the equation for calculating the concentrations in edible parts due to direct plant deposition. Values specific to Korea were set up for the input parameters of the modified model. The concentrations of $^{54}Mn,\;^{60}Co,\;^{90}Sr\;and\;^{137}Cs$ in rice seeds, Chinese cabbage and radish root were calculated for various hypothetical deposition histories using the Reg. Guide 1.109 model and the modified model with parameter values in the guide and those specific to Korea put in alternately. Through comparisons among the results, it could be expected that the use of the modified model with the input of parameter values specific to Korea would result In a more resonable and realistic assessment.