• Title, Summary, Keyword: 항해

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An Integrated VR Platform for 3D and Image based Models: A Step toward Interactivity with Photo Realism (상호작용 및 사실감을 위한 3D/IBR 기반의 통합 VR환경)

  • Yoon, Jayoung;Kim, Gerard Jounghyun
    • Journal of the Korea Computer Graphics Society
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2000
  • Traditionally, three dimension model s have been used for building virtual worlds, and a data structure called the "scene graph" is often employed to organize these 3D objects in the virtual space. On the other hand, image-based rendering has recently been suggested as a probable alternative VR platform for its photo-realism, however, due to limited interactivity. it has only been used for simple navigation systems. To combine the merits of these two approaches to object/scene representations, this paper proposes for a scene graph structure in which both 3D models and various image-based scenes/objects can be defined. traversed, and rendered together. In fact, as suggested by Shade et al. [1]. these different representations can be used as different LOD's for a given object. For in stance, an object might be rendered using a 3D model at close range, a billboard at an intermediate range. and as part of an environment map at far range. The ultimate objective of this mixed platform is to breath more interactivity into the image based rendered VE's by employing 3D models as well. There are several technical challenges in devising such a platform : designing scene graph nodes for various types of image based techniques, establishing criteria for LOD/representation selection. handling their transition s. implementing appropriate interaction schemes. and correctly rendering the overall scene. Currently, we have extended the scene graph structure of the Sense8's WorldToolKit. to accommodate new node types for environment maps. billboards, moving textures and sprites, "Tour-into-the-Picture" structure, and view interpolated objects. As for choosing the right LOD level, the usual viewing distance and image space criteria are used, however, the switching between the image and 3D model occurs at a distance from the user where the user starts to perceive the object's internal depth. Also. during interaction, regardless of the viewing distance. a 3D representation would be used, if it exists. Finally. we carried out experiments to verify the theoretical derivation of the switching rule and obtained positive results.

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A Study on the Sailing Speed of Ancient Ships - especially on the average speed and the effect of the wind, the tide, and the man-power at the oar - (고대 선박의 항해속도 연구 - $\ll$고려도경$\gg$을 중심으로-)

  • Yoon, Il-Young
    • The Journal of Military Studies
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    • pp.155-231
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    • 2009
  • Xu-Jing(徐競) an official of the Song(宋), a medieval Kingdom of China, wrote a book titled $\ll$Koryo Tu Jing(高麗圖經)$\gg$ which explains his travel to the Koryo as a member of diplomatic mission in 1123. $\ll$Koryo Tu Jing$\gg$ is the record of his personal experience in Koryo with many explanatory illustrations and especially contains 5 months' voyage record of his diplomatic fleet. His fleet set sail at a port located in the Ding Hai Xian(定海縣), Ming Zhou(明州) via a few islands of Koryo [Hyup Kye San(俠界山) , the Kun San Do(群山島) , the Ja Yon Do(紫燕島) , the Keup Su Mun(急水門) in Kang Hwa Gun(江華郡) and the Hap Gul(蛤窟) ] and finally arrived the Port Ye Song Hang(禮成港) . According to the Xu-Jing's record his fleet sailed the sea with the help of the favorable seaward winds and tides as the usual way of ancient sailing. The Xu- Jing's Fleet sailed the sea between the Mei Cen(梅岑), Ming Zhou(明州) of China and the Hyup Kye San(俠界山) of Koryo from about 5:00 a.m., May 24th(of the lunar calendar) to about 5:00 p.m., June 2nd. At this section, the average speed of the seaward winds was 19.45km/h and the average speed of the fleet which sailed only by the power of the winds was 6.29km/h. This means that 32.3% of the favorable seaward winds' speed was equal to the speed of the ancient fleet which sailed only by the power of the favorable seaward winds. The fleet sailed the sea between the Ja Yon Do(紫燕島) and the Keup Su Mun(急水門) from about 9:00 a.m., June 10th to about 1:00 p.m., the same day. At this section the fleet sailed by the power of tides in addition to the favorable seaward winds without oaring. The average speed of the winds was not different from that of former section and the average speed of the tides was 1.937km/h. And at this section the average speed of the fleet increased by 0.41km/h than that of the former section. This means that 21.1% of the speed of the tides was equal to the increased speed of the ancient fleet by virtue of the tides. The fleet sailed the sea between Keup Su Mun(急水門) and the Hap Gul(蛤窟) from about 1:00 p.m., June 10th to about 3:00 p.m., the same day. At this section, there were no seaward winds and the fleet sailed only by the powers of tides and oaring. And at this section, the tide increased the average speed of the fleet by 0.3114km/h and the fleet could sail at the speed of 4.3km/h. So we can conclude that the average speed of ancient fleet without any influences of the seaward winds and tides was 3.98 km/h. We can make use of the various sailing speeds of ancient fleets when judging their maritime activities. If we make use of the various sailing speeds of the ancient fleets as calculated in this article, we will be able to get various important informations about the certain ancient fleet's maritime maneuver. For example, we can infer the sailing routs of a certain fleet and the time when the fleet passed a certain spot by making use of the various sailing speeds of the ancient fleet. In this article I did not take account of the shapes of ships that consist of the ancient fleets and the sizes of the various ships and fleets. It was because that such factors would not change the foresaid conclusions seriously.

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Facial Expression Control of 3D Avatar using Motion Data (모션 데이터를 이용한 3차원 아바타 얼굴 표정 제어)

  • Kim Sung-Ho;Jung Moon-Ryul
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartA
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    • v.11A no.5
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    • pp.383-390
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    • 2004
  • This paper propose a method that controls facial expression of 3D avatar by having the user select a sequence of facial expressions in the space of facial expressions. And we setup its system. The space of expression is created from about 2400 frames consist of motion captured data of facial expressions. To represent the state of each expression, we use the distance matrix that represents the distances between pairs of feature points on the face. The set of distance matrices is used as the space of expressions. But this space is not such a space where one state can go to another state via the straight trajectory between them. We derive trajectories between two states from the captured set of expressions in an approximate manner. First, two states are regarded adjacent if the distance between their distance matrices is below a given threshold. Any two states are considered to have a trajectory between them If there is a sequence of adjacent states between them. It is assumed . that one states goes to another state via the shortest trajectory between them. The shortest trajectories are found by dynamic programming. The space of facial expressions, as the set of distance matrices, is multidimensional. Facial expression of 3D avatar Is controled in real time as the user navigates the space. To help this process, we visualized the space of expressions in 2D space by using the multidimensional scaling(MDS). To see how effective this system is, we had users control facial expressions of 3D avatar by using the system. As a result of that, users estimate that system is very useful to control facial expression of 3D avatar in real-time.

The Present State of Marine Oil Spills and the Enhancement Plans of National Oil Spill Response Capability in Vietnam - Through the Comparison of Statistics and OSR System between Vietnam and Republic of Korea - (베트남의 해양기름유출 현황과 국가대응역량 증강 방안 - 통계자료와 유출유 방제시스템에 대한 베트남과 한국 간의 비교를 통하여 -)

  • Phan, Van Hung;Kim, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.690-698
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    • 2017
  • Vietnam is a marine nation with more than 3,444 km of shorelines, thousands of islands, and 2,360 rivers and canals of over 42,000 km long. As the frequency and the volume of oil transportation by ships increase, the possibility of oil spill incidents becomes higher than ever. Fuel oil and cargo oil spills at sea have widespread impact and long-term consequences on marine ecosystems, coastal resources and human health as well as socio-economy. This study is to show not only the present state of marine oil spills in Vietnam such as the number and the volume of oil spills for two decades, and an overall about Vietnamese national response system like national framework for Oil Spill Response (OSR), etc. but also to present the recommendations for enhancing national capability in response to oil spill incidents in Vietnam, especially, with a comparison of national OSR systems between Vietnam and South Korea. As the result, the number and the volume of marine oil spills in Vietnam showed an upward trend as opposed to a downward trend in South Korea. This means that Vietnam has the possibility of oil spills in coastal waters. Therefore, three main recommendations for the enhancement of national OSR capability in Vietnam are proposed as follows: (1) the development of alternative plan for reenforcing national OSR system involving legal system for preparedness and response to oil spill pollution such as the acceptance and implementation of OPRC Convention as well as the establishment of national fund compensating for the damage and loss caused by oil pollution; (2) the enhancement of a consistent reporting, alerting and monitoring system; and (3) the development of training and exercise programs with standard contents of educational courses.

Interrelationship between the Shipowner's Limitation of Liability and the Coverage of Liability Insurance: Focus on the Judgment of the Supreme Court of Canada in the Realice Case (선주의 책임제한과 책임보험의 보상 간의 상호관계: Realice호 사건에서 캐나다 대법원 판결을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Won-Jeong
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.41-53
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    • 2015
  • In Paracomon Inc. v. Telus Communication, Realice's anchor became entangled with a working fiber-optic submarine cable during its voyage and are presentative of the shipowner(the captain) cut the cable. The owner of the cable brought a claim for the repair cost against the shipowner. The shipowner then advanced a third party claim against a liability insurance underwriter. The Supreme Court of Canada (SCC) held that the shipowner was entitled to limit its liability under the 1976 Convention on the Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims. The SCC also ruled that even though the misdeed of the shipowner was insufficient to break its right to limitation of liability, its wrongdoing constituted willful misconduct under the 1993 Canada Marine Insurance Act, allowing the underwriter to deny coverage for the incident. Thecasewasthefirsttoaddresstheinterrelationship between the shipowner's right to limit liability under the international convention regime and the availability of liability insurance with respect to such limited liability. This study analyzes the reasoning behind the SCC's judgment and evaluates the appropriateness of this court's decision based on the current maritime industry as well as prevailing maritime law. It concludes that the SCC's decision to declare that the shipowner retained the right to limit its liability is appropriate under the Limitation Convention (1976). However, its declaration that the liability insurer was discharged from liability is not correct in due consideration of the common recognition in the maritime industry, the intended purpose of a third party's right against the liability insurer, and the adoption process of the conduct barring limitation. Based on the SCC's decision, this study finally reviews the issue of the shipowner's right to limit and the coverage of the liability insurer in the Sewol case (2014).

Comparison of Response Systems and Education Courses against HNS Spill Incidents between Land and Sea in Korea (국내 HNS 사고 대응체계 및 교육과정에 관한 육상과 해상의 비교)

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo;Gang, Jin Hee;Lee, Moonjin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.662-671
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    • 2015
  • As the type of Hazardous and Noxious Substances(HNS) becomes various and the transport volume of HNS increases, HNS spill incidents occur frequently on land and the sea. In view of various damages to human lives and properties by HNS spills, it is necessary to educate and train professional personnel in preparation for and response to potential HNS spills. This study shows the current state of response systems and education courses against HNS spill incidents on land and the sea to compare those with each other between land and sea in Korea. Incident command system on land are basically similar to that at sea, but leading authority which is responsible for combating HNS spills at sea is changeable depending on the location of HNS spill, as it were, Korea Coast Guard(KCG) is responsible for urgent response to HNS spill at sea, while municipalities are responsible for the response to HNS drifted ashore. Education courses for HNS responders on land are established at National Fire Service Academy(NFSA), National Institute of Chemical Safety(NICS), etc., and are diverse. Education and training courses for HNS responder at sea are established at Korea Coast Guard Academy(KCGA) and Marine Environment Research & Training Institute(MERTI), and are comparatively simple. Education courses for dangerous cargo handlers who work in port where land is linked to the sea are established at Korea Maritime Dangerous Goods Inspection & Research Institute(KOMDI), Korea Port Training Institute(KPTI) and Korea Institute of Maritime and Fisheries Technology(KIMFT). Through the comparison of education courses for HNS responders between land and sea, some recommendations such as extension of education targets, division of an existing integrated HNS course into two courses composed of operational level and manager level with respective refresh course, on-line cyber course and joint inter-educational institute course in cooperation with other relevant institutes are proposed for the improvement in education courses of KCG and KOEM(Korea Marine Environment Management Corporation) to educate and train professionals for combating HNS spills at sea in Korea.

Structural Safety Assessment of a Sunken Ship Considering Hull Corrosion and Damaged Members - Focus on the Sunken Ship 'No. 7 HaeSung' - (선체 부식 및 손상 부재를 고려한 침몰선박의 구조 안전성 평가에 관한 연구 - 제7 해성호를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Seung Hyun;Kim, Won Don;Suh, Jae-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.332-340
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    • 2016
  • Sunken ships cause damage to the environment due to the dispersal of fuel oil and harmful cargo goods in the hull. Since the sunken ship is mostly flooded by the seabed, it tends to be in a relatively stable condition. However, the heavy body, together with the load of remaining goods in the cargo hold, the constant contact with the seabed, and ocean currents and tidal waves, can affect dispersal of residual fuel oils out of the sunken ship. Corrosion of the sunken ship starts upon sinking, decreasing the thickness of the hull structure and sub-materials. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the structural stability against the potential breakdown of the sunken ship. Whilst evaluating the danger of the sunken ship, this result should be reflected in 'the possible discharge'. This study was undertaken to suggest a procedure for a step by step evaluation to assess the structural stability a sunken ship. The structural stability assessment to estimate the collapsibility of the hull was structure targeted at the sunken ship 'No. 7 HaeSung', which was classified as the prime example for the intensive management of sunken ships. This study was undertaken to suggest a procedure for a step by step evaluation to assess the structural stability a sunken ship and to propose a method to conduct a structural safety assessment that estimates the collapsibility of the hull by targeting the sunken ship 'No. 7 HaeSung',which was classified as the prime example for the intensive management of sunken ships. The collapsibility of the hull structure was estimated Based on the damage size of the hull structure, and the corrosion rate of the hull structure and sub-materials due to the seawater after sinking. It was confirmed that there was a low possibility of the total destruction of the hull structure at the current time. However, there is a high possibility in the potential failure of the hull structure due to increased rate of corrosion thereafter. Therefore, we believe continuous study on influence of corrosion and marine environment change to sunken ship's structural safety is necessary.

Estimation of the Lowest and Highest Astronomical Tides along the west and south coast of Korea from 1999 to 2017 (서해안과 남해안에서 1999년부터 2017년까지 최저와 최고 천문조위 계산)

  • BYUN, DO-SEONG;CHOI, BYOUNG-JU;KIM, HYOWON
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.495-508
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    • 2019
  • Tidal datums are key and basic information used in fields of navigation, coastal structures' design, maritime boundary delimitation and inundation warning. In Korea, the Approximate Lowest Low Water (ALLW) and the Approximate Highest High Water (AHHW) have been used as levels of tidal datums for depth, coastline and vertical clearances in hydrography and coastal engineering fields. However, recently the major maritime countries including USA, Australia and UK have adopted the Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) and the Highest Astronomical Tide (HAT) as the tidal datums. In this study, 1-hr interval 19-year sea level records (1999-2017) observed at 9 tidal observation stations along the west and south coasts of Korea were used to calculate LAT and HAT for each station using 1-minute interval 19-year tidal prediction data yielded through three tidal harmonic methods: 19 year vector average of tidal harmonic constants (Vector Average Method, VA), tidal harmonic analysis on 19 years of continuous data (19-year Method, 19Y) and tidal harmonic analysis on one year of data (1-year Method, 1Y). The calculated LAT and HAT values were quantitatively compared with the ALLW and AHHW values, respectively. The main causes of the difference between them were explored. In this study, we used the UTide, which is capable of conducting 19-year record tidal harmonic analysis and 19 year tidal prediction. Application of the three harmonic methods showed that there were relatively small differences (mostly less than ±1 cm) of the values of LAT and HAT calculated from the VA and 19Y methods, revealing that each method can be mutually and effectively used. In contrast, the standard deviations between LATs and HATs calculated from the 1Y and 19Y methods were 3~7 cm. The LAT (HAT) differences between the 1Y and 19Y methods range from -16.4 to 10.7 cm (-8.2 to 14.3 cm), which are relatively large compared to the LAT and HAT differences between the VA and 19Y methods. The LAT (HAT) values are, on average, 33.6 (46.2) cm lower (higher) than those of ALLW (AHHW) along the west and south coast of Korea. It was found that the Sa and N2 tides significantly contribute to these differences. In the shallow water constituents dominated area, the M4 and MS4 tides also remarkably contribute to them. Differences between the LAT and the ALLW are larger than those between the HAT and the AHHW. The asymmetry occurs because the LAT and HAT are calculated from the amplitudes and phase-lags of 67 harmonic constituents whereas the ALLW and AHHW are based only on the amplitudes of the 4 major harmonic constituents.