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Study on the Suitability of Composite Materials for Enhancement of Automotive Fuel Economy (자동차 연비향상을 위한 복합재료 적용 타당성에 관한 연구)

  • Ju, Yeon Jin;Kwon, Young-Chul;Choi, Heung Soap
    • Composites Research
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.284-289
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    • 2019
  • In the present paper, the dynamic force-moment equilibrium equations, driving power and energy equations are analyzed to formulate the equation for fuel economy(km/liter) equivalent to the driving distance (km) divided by the fuel volume (liter) of the vehicle, a selected model of gasoline powered KIA K3 (1.6v). In addition, the effects of the dynamic parameters such as speed of vehicle (V), vehicle total weight(M), rolling resistance ($C_r$) between tires and road surface, inclined angle of road (${\theta}$), as well as the aerodynamic parameters such as drag coefficient ($C_d$) of vehicle, air density(${\rho}$), cross-sectional area (A) of vehicle, wind speed ($V_w$) have been analyzed. And the possibility of alternative materials such as lightweight metal alloys, fiber reinforced plastic composite materials to replace the conventional steel and casting iron materials and to reduce the weight of the vehicle has been investigated by Ashby's material index method. Through studies, the following results were obtained. The most influencing parameters on the fuel economy at high speed zone (100 km/h) were V, the aerodynamic parameters such as $C_d$, A, ${\rho}$, and $C_r$ and M. While at low speed zone (60 km/h), they are, in magnitude order, dynamic parameters such as V, M, $C_r$ and aerodynamic ones such as $C_d$, A, and ${\rho}$, respectively.

Effect of Various Mixing Ratio of Non-glutinous and Glutinous Rice on Physical and Rheological Properties of Extrudate (멥쌀과 찹쌀의 혼합비율별 압출성형물의 물리적 성질 및 유동특성)

  • Kum, Jun-Seok;Kwon, Sang-Oh;Lee, Hyun-Yu;Lee, Sang-Hyo;Jung, Jin-Hyub;Kim, Jun-Pyong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.442-447
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    • 1994
  • Effect of different mixing ratio of non-glutinous and glutinous rice on physical and rheological properties of extrudate prepared in a single screw extruder were examined. The extrusion conditions in term of screw speeds, moisture content and die temperature were 258 rpm, 18% and $120^{\circ}C$, respectively. The resisdence time distribution of the most of materials were within 30 second and small portion of them went up to 80 second. The expansion ratio was the highest value (2.93) for 70% of glutinous rice in the mixture, while the lowest value for 100% of non-glutinous rice. Breaking strength was in the range between 1,051g and 1,117g for $10{\sim}20%$ of glutinous rice in the mixture, while the lowest value (737g) for 80%r of glutinous rice. As the amount of glutinous rice increased, L and a values were increased and b value was decreased. The uncooked cold paste viscosity had 400 B.U. for 100% non-glutinous rice , while no peak for the 100% glutinous rice. As the amount of glutinous rice increased up to 100%, the water absorption index (WAI) was decreased, while water solubility index (WSI) was increased. The rheological properties of extrudate were accounted by the law of Oswald. The flow behavior index of extrudate was less than 1.0, which showed pseudoplastic behavior. Yield stress was the highest value for 20% of glutinous rice in the mixture and the lowest value for $80{\sim}100%$ of glutinous; rice. Number of air cell was between 128 and 159 for $80{\sim}100%$ of glutinous rice in the mixture, while $81{\sim}84%$ for $0{\sim}20%$ of glutinous rice. The degree of shapefact was increased more when the mixtures of glutinous and non-glutinous rice was used than when glutinous or non-glutinous rice was only used.

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Nanomechanical Properties of Lithiated Silicon Nanowires Probed with Atomic Force Microscopy (원자힘 현미경으로 측정된 리튬화 실리콘 나노선의 나노기계적 성질)

  • Lee, Hyun-Soo;Shin, Weon-Ho;Kwon, Sang-Ku;Choi, Jang-Wook;Park, Jeong-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.395-402
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    • 2011
  • The nanomechanical properties of fully lithiated and unlithiated silicon nanowire deposited on silicon substrate have been studied with atomic force microscopy. Silicon nanowires were synthesized using the vapor-liquid-solid process on stainless steel substrates using Au catalyst. Fully lithiated silicon nanowires were obtained by using the electrochemical method, followed by drop-casting on the silicon substrate. The roughness, derived from a line profile of the surface measured in contact mode atomic force microscopy, has a smaller value ($0.65{\pm}0.05$ nm) for lithiated silicon nanowire and a higher value ($1.72{\pm}0.16$ nm) for unlithiated silicon nanowire. Force spectroscopy was utilitzed to study the influence of lithiation on the tip-surface adhesion force. Lithiated silicon nanowire revealed a smaller value (~15 nN) than that of the Si nanowire substrate (~60 nN) by a factor of two, while the adhesion force of the silicon nanowire is similar to that of the silicon substrate. The elastic local spring constants obtained from the force-distance curve, also shows that the unlithiated silicon nanowire has a relatively smaller value (16.98 N/m) than lithiated silicon nanowire (66.30 N/m) due to the elastically soft amorphous structures. The frictional forces of lithiated and unlithiated silicon nanowire were obtained within the range of 0.5-4.0 Hz and 0.01-200 nN for velocity and load dependency, respectively. We explain the trend of adhesion and modulus in light of the materials properties of silicon and lithiated silicon. The results suggest a useful method for chemical identification of the lithiated region during the charging and discharging process.

A Dynamic Behavior Evaluation of the Curved Rail according to Lateral Spring Stiffness of Track System (궤도시스템의 횡탄성에 따른 곡선부 레일의 동적거동평가)

  • Kim, Bag-Jin;Choi, Jung-Youl;Chun, Dae-Sung;Eom, Mac;Kang, Yun-Suk;Park, Yong-Gul
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • 2007.11a
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    • pp.517-528
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    • 2007
  • Domestic or international existing researches regarding rail damage factors are focused on laying, vehicle conditions, driving speed and driving habits and overlook characteristics of track structure (elasticity, maintenance etc). Also in ballast track, as there is no special lateral spring stiffness of track also called as ballast lateral resistance in concrete track, generally, existing study shows concrete track has 2 time shorter life cycle for rail replacement than ballast track due to abrasion. As a result of domestic concrete track design and operation performance review, concrete track elasticity is lower than track elasticity of ballast track resulting higher damage on rail and tracks. Generally, concrete track has advantage in track elasticity adjustment than ballast track and in case of Europe, in concrete track design, it is recommended to have same or higher performance range of vertical elastic stiffness of ballast track but domestically or internationally review on lateral spring stiffness of track is very minimal. Therefore, through analysis of service line track on site measurement and analysis on performance of maintenance, in this research, dynamic characteristic behaviors of commonly used ballast and concrete track are studied to infer elasticity of service line track and experimentally prove effects of track lateral spring stiffness that influence curved rail damage as well as correlation between track elasticity by track system and rail damage to propose importance of appropriate elastic stiffness level for concrete and ballast track.

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AN ORBIT PROPAGATION SOFTWARE FOR MARS ORBITING SPACECRAFT (화성 근접 탐사를 위한 우주선의 궤도전파 소프트웨어)

  • Song, Young-Joo;Park, Eun-Seo;Yoo, Sung-Moon;Park, Sang-Young;Choi, Kyu-Hong;Yoon, Jae-Cheol;Yim, Jo-Ryeong;Kim, Han-Dol;Choi, Jun-Min;Kim, Hak-Jung;Kim, Byung-Kyo
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.351-360
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    • 2004
  • An orbit propagation software for the Mars orbiting spacecraft has been developed and verified in preparations for the future Korean Mars missions. Dynamic model for Mars orbiting spacecraft has been studied, and Mars centered coordinate systems are utilized to express spacecraft state vectors. Coordinate corrections to the Mars centered coordinate system have been made to adjust the effects caused by Mars precession and nutation. After spacecraft enters Sphere of Influence (SOI) of the Mars, the spacecraft experiences various perturbation effects as it approaches to Mars. Every possible perturbation effect is considered during integrations of spacecraft state vectors. The Mars50c gravity field model and the Mars-GRAM 2001 model are used to compute perturbation effects due to Mars gravity field and Mars atmospheric drag, respectively. To compute exact locations of other planets, JPL's DE405 ephemerides are used. Phobos and Deimos's ephemeris are computed using analytical method because their informations are not released with DE405. Mars Global Surveyor's mapping orbital data are used to verify the developed propagator performances. After one Martian day propagation (12 orbital periods), the results show about maximum ${\pm}5$ meter errors, in every position state components(radial, cross-track and along-track), when compared to these from the Astrogator propagation in the Satellite Tool Kit. This result shows high reliability of the developed software which can be used to design near Mars missions for Korea, in future.

A study on the change effect of emission regulation mode on vehicle emission gas (배기가스 규제 모드 변화가 차량 배기가스에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Lee, Min-Ho;Kim, Ki-Ho;Lee, Joung-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.1108-1119
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    • 2018
  • As the interest on the air pollution is gradually rising at home and abroad, automotive and fuel researchers have been studied on the exhaust and greenhouse gas emission reduction from vehicles through a lot of approaches, which consist of new engine design, innovative after-treatment systems, using clean (eco-friendly alternative) fuels and fuel quality improvement. This research has brought forward two main issues : exhaust emissions (regulated and non-regulated emissions, PM particle matter) and greenhouse gases of vehicle. Exhaust emissions and greenhouse gases of automotive had many problem such as the cause of ambient pollution, health effects. In order to reduce these emissions, many countries are regulating new exhaust gas test modes. Worldwide harmonized light-duty vehicle test procedure (WLTP) for emission certification has been developed in WP.29 forum in UNECE since 2007. This test procedure was applied to domestic light duty diesel vehicles at the same time as Europe. The air pollutant emissions from light-duty vehicles are regulated by the weight per distance, which the driving cycles can affect the results. Exhaust emissions of vehicle varies substantially based on climate conditions, and driving habits. Extreme outside temperatures tend to increasing the emissions, because more fuel must be used to heat or cool the cabin. Also, high driving speeds increases the emissions because of the energy required to overcome increased drag. Compared with gradual vehicle acceleration, rapid vehicle acceleration increases the emissions. Additional devices (air-conditioner and heater) and road inclines also increases the emissions. In this study, three light-duty vehicles were tested with WLTP, NEDC, and FTP-75, which are used to regulate the emissions of light-duty vehicles, and how much emissions can be affected by different driving cycles. The emissions gas have not shown statistically meaningful difference. The maximum emission gas have been found in low speed phase of WLTP which is mainly caused by cooled engine conditions. The amount of emission gas in cooled engine condition is much different as test vehicles. It means different technical solution requires in this aspect to cope with WLTP driving cycle.

The hydrodynamic characteristics of the canvas kite - 2. The characteristics of the triangular canvas kite - (캔버스 카이트의 유체역학적 특성에 관한 연구 - 2. 삼각형 캔버스 카이트의 특성 -)

  • Bae, Bong-Seong;Bae, Jae-Hyun;An, Heui-Chun;Lee, Ju-Hee;Shin, Jung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.206-213
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    • 2004
  • As far as an opening device of fishing gears is concerned, applications of a kite are under development around the world. The typical examples are found in the opening device of the stow net on anchor and the buoyancy material of the trawl. While the stow net on anchor has proved its capability for the past 20 years, the trawl has not been wildly used since it has been first introduced for the commercial use only without sufficient studies and thus has revealed many drawbacks. Therefore, the fundamental hydrodynamics of the kite itself need to ne studied further. Models of plate and canvas kite were deployed in the circulating water tank for the mechanical test. For this situation lift and drag tests were performed considering a change in the shape of objects, which resulted in a different aspect ratio of rectangle and trapezoid. The results obtained from the above approaches are summarized as follows, where aspect ratio, attack angle, lift coefficient and maximum lift coefficient are denoted as A, B, $C_L$ and $C_{Lmax}$ respectively : 1. Given the triangular plate, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.26${\sim}$1.32 with A${\leq}$1 and 38$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$42$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 20$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$, $C_L$ was around 0.85. Given the inverted triangular plate, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.46${\sim}$1.56 with A${\leq}$1 and 36$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$38$^{\circ}$. And When A${\geq}$1.5 and 22$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$26$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.05${\sim}$1.21. Given the triangular kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.67${\sim}$1.77 with A${\leq}$1 and 46$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$48$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 20$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$, $C_L$ was around 1.10. Given the inverted triangular kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.44${\sim}$1.68 with A${\leq}$1 and 28$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$32$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 18$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$24$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.03${\sim}$1.18. 2. For a model with A=1/2, an increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Then there was a tendency of a very gradual decrease or no change in the value of $C_L$. For a model with A=2/3, the tendency of $C_L$ was similar to the case of a model with A=1/2. For a model with A=1, an increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. And the tendency of $C_L$ didn't change dramatically. For a model with A=1.5, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was changed very small as 0.75${\sim}$1.22 with 20$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$. For a model with A=2, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was almost the same in the triangular model. There was no considerable change in the models with 20$^{\circ}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$. 3. The inverted model's $C_L$ as a function of increase of B reached the maximum rapidly, then decreased gradually compared to the non-inverted models. Others were decreased dramatically. 4. The action point of dynamic pressure in accordance with the attack angle was close to the rear area of the model with small attack angle, and with large attack angle, the action point was close to the front part of the model. 5. There was camber vertex in the position in which the fluid pressure was generated, and the triangular canvas had large value of camber vertex when the aspect ratio was high, while the inverted triangular canvas was versa. 6. All canvas kite had larger camber ratio when the aspect ratio was high, and the triangular canvas had larger one when the attack angle was high, while the inverted triangluar canvas was versa.

The hydrodynamic characteristics of the canvas kite - 1. The characteristics of the rectangular, trapezoid canvas kite - (캔버스 카이트의 유체역학적 특성에 관한 연구 - 1. 사각형 캔버스 카이트의 특성 -)

  • Bae, Bong-Seong;Bae, Jae-Hyun;An, Heui-Chun;Lee, Ju-Hee;Shin, Jung-Wook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.196-205
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    • 2004
  • As far as an opening device of fishing gears is concerned, applications of a kite are under development around the world. The typical examples are found in the opening device of the stow net on anchor and the buoyancy material of the trawl. While the stow net on anchor has proved its capability for the past 20 years, the trawl has not been wildly used since it has been first introduced for the commercial use only without sufficient studies and thus has revealed many drawbacks. Therefore, the fundamental hydrodynamics of the kite itself need to ne studied further. Models of plate and canvas kite were deployed in the circulating water tank for the mechanical test. For this situation lift and drag tests were performed considering a change in the shape of objects, which resulted in a different aspect ratio of rectangle and trapezoid. The results obtained from the above approaches are summarized as follows, where aspect ratio, attack angle, lift coefficient and maximum lift coefficient are denoted as A, B, $C_L$ and $C_{Lmax}$ respectively : 1. Given the rectangular plate, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.46${\sim}$1.54 with A${\leq}$1 and 40$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$42$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 20$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$22$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 10.7${\sim}$1.11. Given the rectangular canvas, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.75${\sim}$1.91 with A${\leq}$1 and 32$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$40$^{\circ}$. And when A${\geq}$1.5 and 18$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$22$^{\circ}$, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.24${\sim}$1.40. Given the trapezoid kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was produced as 1.65${\sim}$1.89 with A${\leq}$1.5 and 34$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$44$^{\circ}$. And when A=2 and B=14${\sim}$48, $C_L$ was around 1. Given the inverted trapezoid kite, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.57${\sim}$1.74 with A${\leq}$1.5 and 24$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$36$^{\circ}$. And when A=2, $C_{Lmax}$ was 1.21 with B=18$^{\circ}$. 2. For a model with A=1/2, an increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Then there was a tendency of a gradual decrease in the value of $C_L$ and in particular, the rectangular kite showed a more rapid decrease. For a model with A=2/3, the tendency of $C_L$ was similar to the case of a model with A=1/2 but the tendency was a more rapid decrease than those of the previous models. For a model with A=1, and increase in B caused an increase in $C_L$ until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Soon after the tendency of $C_L$ decreased dramatically. For a model with A=1.5, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was various. For a model with A=2, the tendency of $C_L$ as a function of B was almost the same in the rectangular and trapezoid model. There was no considerable change in the models with 20$^{\circ}$${\leq}$B${\leq}$50$^{\circ}$. 3. The tendency of kite model's $C_L$ in accordance with increase of B was increased rapidly than plate models until $C_L$ has reached the maximum. Then $C_L$ in the kite model was decreased dramatically but in the plate model was decreased gradually. The value of $C_{Lmax}$ in the kite model was higher than that of the plate model, and the kite model's attack angel at $C_{Lmax}$ was smaller than the plate model's. 4. In the relationship between aspect ratio and lift force, the attack angle which had the maximum lift coefficient was large at the small aspect ratio models, At the large aspect ratio models, the attack angle was small. 5. There was camber vertex in the position in which the fluid pressure was generated, and the rectangular & trapezoid canvas had larger value of camber vertex when the aspect ratio was high, while the inverted trapezoid canvas was versa. 6. All canvas kite had larger camber ratio when the aspect ratio was high, and the rectangular & trapezoid canvas had larger one when the attack angle was high.