• Title, Summary, Keyword: 항공자유화

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A Study on the Effects of Airline Deregulation on Airport Economics (미국의 항공운송산업 규제완화법(Airline Deregulation Act of 1978)이 미국의 공항경제에 미친 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Se-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.2
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    • pp.101-118
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    • 1994
  • 미국의 항공운송산업 규제완화법(Airline Deregulation Act of 1978)에 의한 미국의 항공운송산업 자유화 정책은 미국의 국내 항공운송 시장의 환경을 철저한 경쟁의 원리가 적용되는 자유경쟁 시장으로 변화시켰으며, 국제 항공운송 시장에도 자유경쟁의 원리가 점진적으로 도입되는 계기를 마련하였다. 항공운송산업 자유화 정책은 항공사의 운송 시장 환경뿐만 아니라 그들이 이용하는 공항의 경제 환경에도 많은 변화를 가져왔다. 자유화가 공항의 경제에 미친 영향을 연구하기 위하여, 자유화 이후 공항에서 시장 합리화 (Market Rationalization)의 원리가 적용 되었는 가를 조사하였다. 이를 위해 (1) 자유화 이후, 공항료(Airport Rates and Charges)와 공항에서의 활동량 (the Volume of Activity) 간에 유의한 상관 관계가 존재하는 가의 여부 (2) 자유화 이전과 이후를 비교할 때, 각 Hub Class별 공항료의 수준에 있어 유의한 변화가 있는 가의 여부에 대한 통계 분석을 실시하였다. 상관분석의 결과, 자유화 이후, 공항료와 공항에서의 활동량 간에 유의한 상관 관계가 존재한다는 결론을 채택하는 데 실패하였으며 또한 일원 분산 분석의 결과, 자유화 이전과 이후를 비교할 때, 각 Hub Class별 공항료의 수준에 있어 유의한 변화가 있다는 결론을 제시할 수 없었다. 미국의 항공운송산업 자유화 정책이 미국 공항 경제에 미친 영향에 대한 본 연구는 현재 경제규제완화를 실험하고 있는 우리의 경제 정책에 좋은 참고자료가 되기를 기대한다.

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The Economic Impact of the Open Skies Agreement Between Singapore and U.S.A. (미국과 싱가포르의 항공자유화 협정으로 인한 경제적 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, S.K.;Lee, S.C.;Lee, K.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.69-82
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    • 2002
  • Recently, it appears that the major change in open skies agreement established the bilateral agreement and sub-regional multi-lateral agreement system with U.S.A. as the central figure. Specifically sub-regional multi-lateral air transportation cooperation is based on the bilateral agreement systems among the like minded countries. To develop the air transportation industry, Each country tries to come true free air transportation in bloc and deregulation in terms of market approach and traffic right. The purpose of this study is to look into the background of sub-regional air transportation cooperation and to expect the economic impact of the open skies agreement. We selected the Singapore in Asia-Pacific region as the subject of investigation. Even though Singapore is a small country in Asia-Pacific region. They have global competition power which is airport field as well as to airlines and tourism industry. Under this condition, we analyzed the economic impact of the open skies policy through the Input/Output analysis.

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The Outcome of the 6th ICAO Worldwide Air Transport Conference and Fair Competition Policy in International Air Transport (국제항공운송의 최근 동향과 항공운송의 공정경쟁정책 -ICAO 제6차 세계항공운송회의 결과를 중심으로-)

  • Shin, Dong-Chun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.97-114
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    • 2013
  • The 6th Worldwide Air Transport Conference was held in Montreal in March 2013 under the auspices of ICAO. This conference, which has been held every ten years, is dealing with virtually every issue of international air transport, and aiming at updating ICAO policy in order to ensure long-term growth of international civil aviation. Last conference which took place in 2003 focused on the liberalization of air transport, and the 6th conference shifted its focus from whether to push for liberalization, to how to implement it. The main agenda items for the 6th conference was liberalization, safeguards, ownership, fair competition, airports and air navigation facilities, charges, and ICAO policy. The liberalization, and in particular progressive liberalization has been a main theme over the past decades. In the process leading to liberalization, there needs to be the expansion of market access, easing regulation on ownership and control of airlines. Furthermore, the provision of enough infrastructure such as airport and air navigation facilities may be contributing factor to remove impediments to liberalization. However, out of concern as for undermining interests of consumer and the weak, when liberalization is proceeding in a sudden and radical manner, there should be safeguards so as to ensure market participation by developing countries, consumer protection, and economical and transparent decision on taxes and charges. Fair competition which differs from promoting competition in the market, is a policy in order to protect the weak players and consumers from monopoly and oligopoly. The Korean delegation submitted 3 WPs (WP/85, 86 and 87) and 1 IP, and presented WPs, at the conference, which were a lot compared with previous occasions. A paradigm shift was emphasized to expedite the process of liberalization at the 6th conference. The reality is that with many previous recommendations to stress the importance of liberalization, and to urge States to change their attitudes, the pace of the liberalization has been very slow and staggering. The liberalization of air transport will contribute to the growth of air transport and related industry, to create new employment, promoting tourism and regional development, and further to facilitating mutual understanding and exchange, which will also lead to making a barrier-free world. In this context, it is expected that the next conference will also evaluate the on-going process of liberalization.

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A Study on Characteristics of Chinese Civil Aviation Market (중국 항공운송시장특성에 관한 연구)

  • Sun, Zhanfang
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.397-406
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    • 2014
  • Recently, China has expanded enormously its economic trade exchange bilaterally with other nations and developed as the second largest aviation market in the world. While open skies bilateral agreements were signed between China and other countries, the agreement processes influenced the aviation market structure and market sharing heavily. This paper analyzed the Chinese aviation market by such three angles as market scale, competitive situation, and market concentration. It is concluded that the Chinese aviation market is the oligopolistic market structure tested by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. Finally, suggestions are given to the airlines operating in China such as joining the air alliance, paying attention to a different frequent flyer program (FFP) etc.

Intra-regional Cooperation and Air Cargo Liberalization Policy in Korea, China and Japan (한.중.일의 역내 항공화물운송 자유화정책과 협력중진방안)

  • Lee, Yeong-Heok
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.135-154
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    • 2007
  • The 3 Northeast Asian countries of Korea, Japan and China have been stricter to each other than to other countries of out-region in air liberalization. The prominent reason of this intra-regional protective policy in air transportation seems to be the difference in competitive strength of their national flag carriers. As the 3 countries realize the importance of their mutual cooperation in the region, since China grows to be one of the leading economies in the world and the intra-regional trade and visitors increase tremendously, they are now taking the policy of intra-regional air liberalization more vigorously than before. Especially air cargo liberalization is easier than air passenger liberalization because they realize that the development of open economy is based on free flow of logistics regardless of the competitiveness of their national flag carriers. As Korea is the leading country in the region to promote air liberalization, this paper reviews the importance and growing trend of air cargo, analyzes current air liberalization policy between Korea, Japan and China and the initial effects of open sky in the routes of Shandung-Korea, and suggests the new policies of air liberalization to promote free flow of air logistics.

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Multilateral Approach to forming Air Logistics Hub on North East Asia Region (동북아 항공물류허브을 구축하기 위한 다자적 접근방안)

  • Hong, Seock-Jin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.97-136
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    • 2004
  • The Northeast Asian air cargo market has expanded tremendously as a result of the opening up of the Chinese market. The importance of the Asia-Pacific region in the global air transport has also increased. The exchange of human and material resources, services, and information in Northeast Asia, which is expected to increase in the near future, requires that the airlines operating within this region adopt a more liberalized approach. This paper introduced alternatives which can be applied to the Northeast Asian airlines industry so as to bring about the integration of regional air transport: First, this paper found a need for individual Northeast Asian nations to alter their policies towards the airlines industry. Second, each country should further liberalize their respective domestic air transport. Third, there is a need for freer air service agreements to be signed between the nations of Northeast Asia. Fourth, the strategic alliances between the airlines operating in Northeast Asia should be further strengthened. Fifth, this liberalization process should be carried out in an incremental manner, beginning with more competitive airports and routes, or with less-in-demand routes. Sixth, there is a need for a shuttle system to be put into place between the main airports in China, Korea, and Japan. Seventh, these three nations jointly develop aviation safety and security systems that are in accordance with international standards. Eighth, the liberalization process of the aviation industry should be undertaken in conjunction with other related fields. Ninth, organizations linking together civil aviation organization in the Asia-Pacific area should be formed, as should each government linking together. By doing so, these countries will be able to establish regular venues through which to exchange opinions on the integration and liberalization of the air cargo market so as to induce the gradual liberalization of the actual market. The liberalization of the air transport in Northeast Asia will prove to be a daunting task in the short term. However, if the Chinese airlines continue to exhibit continuous growth and Japanese airlines are able to complete their move towards a low-cost structure, this process could be completed earlier than expected. Over the last twenty five years the air transport has undergone tremendous changes. The most important factor behind these changes has been the increased liberalization of the market. As a result, rates have decreased while demand has increased. This has resulted in turning the air transport industry, which was long perceived as an industry in decline, into a high-growth industry. The only method of increasing regional exchanges in the air transport is to pursue further liberalization. The country which implements this liberalization process at the earliest date may very well emerge as a leading force within the air transport industry.

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21세기 국제항공정책 방향

  • 정일영
    • Proceedings of the KOR-KST Conference
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    • pp.452-452
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    • 1998
  • 1. 세계 항공시장의 동향 ○ 항공운송산업의 규제완화 및 항공자유화 추세의 확산 -78년 미국의 규제완화 이후 유럽, 대양주, 아시아 등으로 파급 ○ 미국의 항공자유의 정책(Open skies Policy)은 EU의 역대 완전자유화와 함께 세계항공시장의 자유화 촉진 ○ 항공사간 전략적 제휴의 확산 -British Connection, Star Alliance, Southern Comfort, Dutch Treat 등 4대 범세계적 제휴가 결성 또는 추진 중. 2. 우리나라 항공운송산업의 현황 ○ 세계 10위권 항공운송국가로 성장 -화물 세계5위, 여객 11위(97 ICAO통계) -김포공항은 97년 중 36.5백만명 처리로 세계9위 차지 ○ IMF체계의 영향과 경영수지 변화 추이 -98년 내국인 출국자는 감소하였으나, 외국인 관광객은 증가(10.8%) * 98. 1∼8전년대비 수송수요 국제선 17%, 국내선 26% 감소 -97년 양 항공사 적자규모 약 4,000억원으로 대폭 증가, 98상반기 회복추세. 3. 21세기 국제항공정책 방향 ○ 적극적인 항공시장 개방정책 추진과 역내 주요도시간 셔틀화 ○ 세계 주요 항공사와의 전략적 제휴를 지원하여 세계항공시장에서의 경쟁력 제고 * KAL-이, AAR-AA -인천국제공항의 HUB화 추진(민간 경영기법 도입, 항공개방정책 등) ○ 항공사가 최적의 노선망과 경제성을 갖도록 하는 적정 성장방안 강구 ○ 선진국 수준의 획기적 항공안정 체계 확립

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An Approach to Regionalism on the Creation of a European Single Aviation Market: From the Viewpoint of the EU's Strategic Response against the US (유럽 단일항공시장 형성에 관한 지역주의적 접근 - EU의 미국에 대한 전략적 대응 관점에서 -)

  • Suh Jeongwook
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.955-970
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    • 2004
  • With the flow of globalization, world aviation markets are showing growing trends toward liberalization, deregulation, and privatization. At the same time, also apparent is a strong trend toward regionalism on aviation markets to realize open skies at the regional level. This research examines the recent trend of regionalism in the world aviation market from a political economic perspective, taking a single European aviation market as an example. The results show that the creation of a single European aviation market is the EU's strategic response against the US to enhance the European aviation industry's competitiveness. More specifically, the results show that the European countries are creating a single European aviation market in order to stand against the US' so-called 'divide and nile policy' and 'encirclement strategy' and to make their airliners to have competitive advantages over the US airliners on the lucrative North-Atlantic air routes. Recently, the single European aviation market is expanding by including the Mediterranean and Balkan states to pursue Pan European aviation cooperation and to develop European Common Aviation Area so that it can continuously enhance its negotiating leverage against external markets. The results imply that it is urgent for the Northeast Asian countries to create their own regional aviation bloc to develop their aviation industry and to increase their negotiating power against external countries.

New pattern of air market according to liberalization air transport between Korea and China (한 ${\cdot}$ 중 항공자유화에 따른 항공시장의 변화와 대응)

  • Moon, Woo-Choon;Lee, Sang-Wook;Choi, Youn-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2007
  • Air Transportation industry becomes more competitive that the restriction on new access to market were eased and relaxed. Liberalization of international air transport will continue, via bilateral and multilateral process. Korea, Japan, and China have expanded enormously the economic trade and cultural exchange bilaterally in the Northeast Asia, they are acknowledging the importance and necessity of improved connection, it order to face effectively other regional blocks of US-Canada, NAFTA, ASEAN, CLMV. In particular, nobody denies that it is urgent to liberalize bilaterally the air transport in Northeast Asia for promoting reciprocal benefits and prosperity. Recently while open skies bilateral agreements was signed between Korea-China in June, 2006. The agreements processes are too heavily influenced by flag carriers; leading to capacity/market sharing between the bilateral carriers in most markets, against the interest of consumers and overall economic interest of the nation. For successful operation of Northeast Air Market, it is need to set up development strategy paradigm by creating cross-border sub-regional (Northeast Asian) open skies bloc as well as preparing and creating of LCCs operations.

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