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Current Status and Success Strategies of Crowdfunding for Start-up in Korea (국내 창업분야 크라우드펀딩(Crowdfunding) 현황과 성공전략)

  • Yoo, Younggeul;Jang, Ikhoon;Choe, Youngchan
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2014
  • It is essential factor for business operation to raise funds effectively. However, in Korea, many start-ups and small businesses have difficulties in fund-raising. In recent years, crowdfunding, a new method for funding a project of individuals or organizations by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people, has been growing up simultaneously with diffusion of social media. Crowdfunding is on early stage in Korea, and the majority of projects are focused on cultural or art categories. There is high proportion of projects that have social value in start-up sector. Crowdfunding in Korea has great potential because success rate of it is much higher than its of advanced countries, although market size is much smaller than them. The purpose of this paper is to propose success strategies of crowdfunding for start-up through case study. 5 crowdfunding platforms of Korea and Kickstarter, the platform of United States were investigated. Then we checked the figures related to the operation of the whole Korean projects on start-up. Finally, we made comparison between the cases of success and failure by analyzing 8 project characteristics. The study shows that it were the differences in trustworthiness and activeness of project creator, value of reward and efforts for interactivity that have great effects on success of the project. Whereas there was no significant influence of societal contribution and sponsor engagement. The thesis provides success strategies of crowdfunding for start-up as follows. Firstly, creator of the project should make support base by enthusiastic activites before launching funding project. Secondly, there should be contents that can easily show the process of business development in the project information. Thirdly, there must be appropriate design of rewards for each amounts of support money. Finally, efforts for interactivity, such as frequent updates, response for comments and SNS posting, should be followed after the launch of the project.

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Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Pattern Condensing Techniques used in Representative Pattern Mining (대표 패턴 마이닝에 활용되는 패턴 압축 기법들에 대한 분석 및 성능 평가)

  • Lee, Gang-In;Yun, Un-Il
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2015
  • Frequent pattern mining, which is one of the major areas actively studied in data mining, is a method for extracting useful pattern information hidden from large data sets or databases. Moreover, frequent pattern mining approaches have been actively employed in a variety of application fields because the results obtained from them can allow us to analyze various, important characteristics within databases more easily and automatically. However, traditional frequent pattern mining methods, which simply extract all of the possible frequent patterns such that each of their support values is not smaller than a user-given minimum support threshold, have the following problems. First, traditional approaches have to generate a numerous number of patterns according to the features of a given database and the degree of threshold settings, and the number can also increase in geometrical progression. In addition, such works also cause waste of runtime and memory resources. Furthermore, the pattern results excessively generated from the methods also lead to troubles of pattern analysis for the mining results. In order to solve such issues of previous traditional frequent pattern mining approaches, the concept of representative pattern mining and its various related works have been proposed. In contrast to the traditional ones that find all the possible frequent patterns from databases, representative pattern mining approaches selectively extract a smaller number of patterns that represent general frequent patterns. In this paper, we describe details and characteristics of pattern condensing techniques that consider the maximality or closure property of generated frequent patterns, and conduct comparison and analysis for the techniques. Given a frequent pattern, satisfying the maximality for the pattern signifies that all of the possible super sets of the pattern must have smaller support values than a user-specific minimum support threshold; meanwhile, satisfying the closure property for the pattern means that there is no superset of which the support is equal to that of the pattern with respect to all the possible super sets. By mining maximal frequent patterns or closed frequent ones, we can achieve effective pattern compression and also perform mining operations with much smaller time and space resources. In addition, compressed patterns can be converted into the original frequent pattern forms again if necessary; especially, the closed frequent pattern notation has the ability to convert representative patterns into the original ones again without any information loss. That is, we can obtain a complete set of original frequent patterns from closed frequent ones. Although the maximal frequent pattern notation does not guarantee a complete recovery rate in the process of pattern conversion, it has an advantage that can extract a smaller number of representative patterns more quickly compared to the closed frequent pattern notation. In this paper, we show the performance results and characteristics of the aforementioned techniques in terms of pattern generation, runtime, and memory usage by conducting performance evaluation with respect to various real data sets collected from the real world. For more exact comparison, we also employ the algorithms implementing these techniques on the same platform and Implementation level.

Narrative Composition and Visual Representation of Alternative History in FPS Game Trailer -By focusing on (FPS 게임 트레일러 속 대체 역사적 서사구성과 시각적 재현 - <울펜슈타인: 더 뉴 오더>를 중심으로)

  • Choi, Do-Won;Lee, Hyun-Seok
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.253-277
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    • 2015
  • When was launched in 2014, it was immediately ranked 2nd in English gross sales record in the first half of 2014, attracting huge attention from avid game users. Colin Moriarty(2014) states that the worldwide popular game, , lies on the alternative history assumption, 'what if Nazi Germany won the second world war? In regard to this, this research addresses how the characteristics of alternative history was adopted and visually represented in FPS game trailer. In terms of research method, firstly, literatures will be reviewed about definition of alternative history and some of the previous examples where alternative history was applied in novels, films and games. Secondly, narrative composition of alternative history is categorized as three sequential phases, (1) borrowing real history material, (2) connection between real and fictional history and (3) reconstruction of history through reinterpretation. Thirdly, the live-action game trailer will be analysed by three sequential phases of narrative composition, and CG game character and background will be analysed by spatial background, characters and props. The phase of 'borrowing' has used the historic images related to the World War II, and the phase of "connection' has composited by "connection through circumstantial events". The phase of 'reconstruction' has unfolded its fictional narrative in the form of "limited fictional history" In addition to this, has constructed dystopia world through composing of historic images and CG characters by SF design. In the light of this, the narrative composition of alternative history successfully extends to game area.

Features of Korean Webtoons through the Statistical Analysis (웹툰 통계 분석을 통한 한국 웹툰의 특징)

  • Yoon, Ki-Heon;Jung, Kiu-Ha;Choi, In-Soo;Choi, Hae-Sol
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.177-194
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    • 2015
  • This study that had been conducted two months by a research team of Pusan National University at the request of Korea Manwha Contents Agency in Dec. 2013 is about the statistical analysis on 'Korean Webtoon DB and its Flow Report' which resulted from the complete survey of Korean webtoons which had been published with payment in official media from early 2000 to 2013. Webtoon which means the cartoons published on web has become a typical type of Korean cartoons and has developed into a main industry since 2000s when traditional published cartoons had declined and social environments had changed. Today, it represents cultural contents in Korea. This study collected the webtoons officially published in media with payment, among Korean webtoons having been published from the early 2000s to Jan. Based on the collected data, it analyzed the general characteristics of webtoons, including cartoonists, the number of cartoons, distribution chart of each media, genre, and publication cycle. According to the data analysis and statistics, a great deal of Korean webtoons are still published in main portal websites, but their platform is being diversified and a webtoon's publication cycle tends to be shortened. In terms of genre, traditional popular genres, such as drama, comic, fantasy, and action, are still popular, and the genres of history, sports, and food are on the rise along with a social trend. Regarding webtoon application, such events as relay webtoon and brand webtoon, and a new type of webtoon featuring PPL commercialism appear. Such phenomena can realize the common profits of cartoonists, media, and ordering bodies, and are various trials to test the possibility of webtoons. In addition, what needs to pay attention on in the expansion of webtoons is increasing webtoons for adults. The study subjects are the webtoons published with payment, excluding free webtoons. However, this study failed to collect the webtoons published on the online websites already closed, and the lost information on cartoonists and their lost webtoons, and it is necessary to conduct a complete survey on all webtoons including free ones. Despite the limitations, this study is meaningful in the points that it categorized and analyzed Korean webtoons accoridng to official media, webtoons, cartoonists, and genres and that it provided a fundamental material to understand the current conditions of webtoons. It is expected that this study will be able to contribute to activating more research on webtoons and producing more supplementary data which will be used for the Korean cartoon industry and academia.

A Study on Repetition and Multiplicite of Superhero Comics (슈퍼히어로 코믹의 반복과 다양체적 형식에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Seh-Hyuck
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.27-53
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    • 2012
  • American superhero comics are being produced in numerous different forms for multiple, and cross-platform media. In cinema, films based on superhero comics top the list of all time box office records. The same phenomenon of the 'Invasion of Superhero' is duplicated in Korean box office 2012, however, the korean fans are not familiar with the superheroes from the publication which provides the original source of characters and stories for other superhero related media products. Based on observing the multiple and vastness of world building characteristics of superhero comic, this paper attempts to associate the continuous creative nature and the infinite repetition of superheroes and comic texts with the identity of superhero on ontological level. First, chapter 2 examines how one superhero exists in multiple and different worlds individually by utilizing the concept of 'multi-universe' or 'multiverse' in comic texts. Initially, duplicating a superhero on multiple settings and series destroyed continuity and allowed contradiction and paradox confused narrative as a whole, but it also gave chances for comics to be more vibrant and experimental with their stories and characters. Chapter 3 analyzes the superhero comic texts in the light of repetition, concept developed by french philosopher Gilles Deleuze, and make the argument that the superheroes and texts are not repeated to generate surplus of source for economic utilitarian purposes, but it is, first and foremost, a repetition of creativeness and capability. Many concepts introduced by Deleuze in his early masterpiece, $\acute{e}$rence et R$\acute{e}$p$\acute{e}$tition> are taken to support this argument. Mainly, his critical views on generality of the identity and his effort to replace the Plato's system of representation with vibrant creative, and renewal energy of r$\acute{e}$p$\acute{e}$tition. According to Deleuze, repetition is similar concept, if not identical, to what Nietzsche called the 'eternal return' which allows the return of the Overhuman or the Superhuman, and he extends his idea that the returning Overhuman is the singular simulacre which opposes the generalization of identity, in the likes of Plato's Idea. Thus, the superhero's identity is ever changing, ever returning, and ever renewing Overhuman. The superhero must be repeated to fully actualize his/her existence. Also, based on Deleuze's reading of Bergson's texts on the Virtual, the superhero, for example Superman, is actualization of his/her multiplisit$\acute{e}$, the internally multiple, and differentiated variations from itself. These every Supermans' multiplisit$\acute{e}$ shares common memory, past, and duration, thus the Virtual of Superman. Superman becomes himself only by actualizing the movement and differentiation from these multiplisit$\acute{e}$ in his virtual on the surface of reality. On chapter 4, a popular Korean comic book character Oh, Hae-Sung's r$\acute{e}$p$\acute{e}$tition and multiplist$\acute{e}$ are analyzed, and makes comparison to that of Superman to distinguish the repetition from r$\acute{e}$p$\acute{e}$tition, and multiplicit$\acute{e}$ from diversity.

A Case Study on Implementation of Mobile Information Security (모바일 정보보안을 위한 실시간 모바일 기기 제어 및 관리 시스템 설계.구현 사례연구)

  • Kang, Yong-Sik;Kwon, Sun-Dong;Lee, Kang-Hyun
    • Information Systems Review
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2013
  • Smart working sparked by iPhone3 opens a revolution in smart ways of working at any time, regardless of location and environment. Also, It provide real-time information processing and analysis, rapid decision-making and the productivity of businesses, including through the timely response and the opportunity to increase the efficiency. As a result, every company are developing mobile information systems. But company data is accessed from the outside, it has problems to solve like security, hacking and information leakage. Also, Mobile devices such as smart phones belonging to the privately-owned asset can't be always controlled to archive company security policy. In the meantime, public smart phones owned by company was always applied security policy. But it can't not apply to privately-owned smart phones. Thus, this paper is focused to archive company security policy, but also enable the individual's free to use of smart phones when we use mobile information systems. So, when we use smart phone as individual purpose, the normal operation of all smart phone functions. But, when we use smart phone as company purpose like mobile information systems, the smart phone functions are blocked like screen capture, Wi-Fi, camera to protect company data. In this study, we suggest the design and implementation of real time control and management of mobile device using MDM(Mobile Device Management) solution. As a result, we can archive company security policy and individual using of smart phone and it is the optimal solution in the BYOD(Bring Your Own Device) era.

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Participation Level in Online Knowledge Sharing: Behavioral Approach on Wikipedia (온라인 지식공유의 참여정도: 위키피디아에 대한 행태적 접근)

  • Park, Hyun Jung;Lee, Hong Joo;Kim, Jong Woo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.97-121
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    • 2013
  • With the growing importance of knowledge for sustainable competitive advantages and innovation in a volatile environment, many researches on knowledge sharing have been conducted. However, previous researches have mostly relied on the questionnaire survey which has inherent perceptive errors of respondents. The current research has drawn the relationship among primary participant behaviors towards the participation level in knowledge sharing, basically from online user behaviors on Wikipedia, a representative community for online knowledge collaboration. Without users' participation in knowledge sharing, knowledge collaboration for creating knowledge cannot be successful. By the way, the editing patterns of Wikipedia users are diverse, resulting in different revisiting periods for the same number of edits, and thus varying results of shared knowledge. Therefore, we illuminated the participation level of knowledge sharing from two different angles of number of edits and revisiting period. The behavioral dimensions affecting the level of participation in knowledge sharing includes the article talk for public discussion and user talk for private messaging, and community registration, which are observable on Wiki platform. Public discussion is being progressed on article talk pages arranged for exchanging ideas about each article topic. An article talk page is often divided into several sections which mainly address specific type of issues raised during the article development procedure. From the diverse opinions about the relatively trivial things such as what text, link, or images should be added or removed and how they should be restructured to the profound professional insights are shared, negotiated, and improved over the course of discussion. Wikipedia also provides personal user talk pages as a private messaging tool. On these pages, diverse personal messages such as casual greetings, stories about activities on Wikipedia, and ordinary affairs of life are exchanged. If anyone wants to communicate with another person, he or she visits the person's user talk page and leaves a message. Wikipedia articles are assessed according to seven quality grades, of which the featured article level is the highest. The dataset includes participants' behavioral data related with 2,978 articles, which have reached the featured article level, with editing histories of articles, their article talk histories, and user talk histories extracted from user talk pages for each article. The time period for analysis is from the initiation of articles until their promotion to the featured article level. The number of edits represents the total number of participation in the editing of an article, and the revisiting period is the time difference between the first and last edits. At first, the participation levels of each user category classified according to behavioral dimensions have been analyzed and compared. And then, robust regressions have been conducted on the relationships among independent variables reflecting the degree of behavioral characteristics and the dependent variable representing the participation level. Especially, through adopting a motivational theory adequate for online environment in setting up research hypotheses, this work suggests a theoretical framework for the participation level of online knowledge sharing. Consequently, this work reached the following practical behavioral results besides some theoretical implications. First, both public discussion and private messaging positively affect the participation level in knowledge sharing. Second, public discussion exerts greater influence than private messaging on the participation level. Third, a synergy effect of public discussion and private messaging on the number of edits was found, whereas a pretty weak negative interaction effect of them on the revisiting period was observed. Fourth, community registration has a significant impact on the revisiting period, whereas being insignificant on the number of edits. Fifth, when it comes to the relation generated from private messaging, the frequency or depth of relation is shown to be more critical than the scope of relation for the participation level.

Screening and Identification of a Cesium-tolerant Strain of Bacteria for Cesium Biosorption (환경유래의 세슘 저항성 균주 선별 및 세슘 흡착제거 연구)

  • Kim, Gi Yong;Jang, Sung-Chan;Song, Young Ho;Lee, Chang-Soo;Huh, Yun Suk;Roh, Changhyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.304-313
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    • 2016
  • One of the issues currently facing nuclear power plants is how to store spent nuclear waste materials which are contaminated with radionuclides such as $^{134}Cs$, $^{135}Cs$, and $^{137}Cs$. Bioremediation processes may offer a potent method of cleaning up radioactive cesium. However, there have only been limited reports on $Cs^+$ tolerant bacteria. In this study, we report the isolation and identification of $Cs^+$ tolerant bacteria in environmental soil and sediment. The resistant $Cs^+$ isolates were screened from enrichment cultures in R2A medium supplemented with 100 mM CsCl for 72 h, followed by microbial community analysis based on sequencing analysis from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries(NCBI's BlastN). The dominant Bacillus anthracis Roh-1 and B. cereus Roh-2 were successfully isolated from the cesium enrichment culture. Importantly, B. cereus Roh-2 is resistant to 30% more $Cs^+$ than is B. anthracis Roh-1 when treated with 50 mM CsCl. Growth experiments clearly demonstrated that the isolate had a higher tolerance to $Cs^+$. In addition, we investigated the adsorption of $0.2mg\;L^{-1}$ $Cs^+$ using B. anthracis Roh-1. The maximum $Cs^+$ biosorption capacity of B. anthracis Roh-1 was $2.01mg\;g^{-1}$ at pH 10. Thus, we show that $Cs^+$ tolerant bacterial isolates could be used for bioremediation of contaminated environments.

A Study on Regulation of Video on Demand Advertisements (주문형서비스(Video on Demand) 광고 규제에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Dae-keun;Kim, Ki-youn
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.145-159
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    • 2016
  • This study points out the problems of absence of the legislation for standard regulation on Video on Demand(VoD) advertisement which grows so fast lately, for this it recommends making legal references, which have the definition of non-linear broadcasting & VoD advertisement and VoD advertisement standard regulation in the merged Broadcasting Act, and adopting co-regulation system. Pay TV operators providing VoD service have the opportunities to make money as subscribers uses it increasingly. In case of linear service, the Broadcasting Act regulates the advertisement strictly, but not the VoD ads. The reason why is that Korean legislation including the Broadcasting Act does not have legal reference to regulate it, instead of that, it rely on the self-regulation system which is operated by pay-tv players who provide the VoD ads. So, there is the limitation to protect the minors such as children and youth from the harmful VoD ads, to be invulnerable for advertisers to influence to advertising agents, and to ensure the regulatory effectiveness under player-centric self-regulatory regime. In this context, this study analyses the how to regulate VoD ads standard with a three-pronged approach. First, it analyses the VoD ads regulation system in overseas countries, UK, Canada, EU and Ireland. Each country has the legal reference to regulate it in the Broadcasting Act or lower statures and adopts the co-regulatory regime the NRA and the 3rd entity operate together. Second, it reviews the objectives and scope of VoD ads standard. This study recommends that the objective of it is users protection and the scope of it is standard regulation not commercial practice. Third, this study researches how to legislate for regulation of VoD ads standard. Considering VoD service's characteristics(non-linear service) and legal position of Ads agency(i.e. pay tv operators), it suggest that legal reference will be in the integrated Broadcasting bill, which is the general law, not individual. If it is available to regulate VoD ads standard with co-regulatory regime, it expects the enhancement of user protection from the harmful VoD ads and make up sustainability of the pay-tv players' self-regulation.

A Study on the Marketplace Models for Korean Animation Content Foreign Sales (국산 애니메이션 콘텐츠 해외 판매를 위한 마켓플레이스 모델 연구)

  • Han, Sang-Gyun
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.333-361
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    • 2016
  • In general, content business companies include animation industry can have benefits, which they have higher incomes when they obtain wider markets. Therefore, they pursue to have diverse windows for content distribution or to reach the foreign markets for dealing their content products with potential customers. It have the greatest value. They can re-invest the incomes to produce their new products, and they can enhance the international competitiveness of their next products. As the results, the companies can have more incomes and wider markets in next business, and it will be the effectiveness of the good cycle of the animation industry. Animation industry has being undergone of its structure changes, more economical chances and viewers' attitudes changes through the all over the industry because of the acceptance of new digital technology. To response the changes or have the new chances from the changes, they should to review the existing system and the law concerned with the animation business as well as having the diverse new plans for supporting the industry like a construction of the online marketplace of Korean animation. It would make the Korean animation companies to meet foreign customers easily by making lower the entrance barrier of the foreign markets. Current Korean government needs to estimate the value of the Korean animation accurately and objectively by concerning its surroundings to support efficiently. However, it is very difficult to estimate the value of the content rightly because of its' intangible and subjective matter. For this, they should analyze the all the data of the information of the Korean animation content by accumulate, open to the public and manage. So if the government makes online marketplace for the Korean animation, which all the Korean animation companies get in, it would be a solution of estimating the value of the Korean animation rightly. In addition, it will be used as the role of archive of the government to lead the industry successfully. As a point of the small size of the Korean animation companies, they are government dependable because of its low budget, so they strongly expect the government to do the right role as the unique knowledge distributor. Therefore, the Korean animation online marketplace would make not only big companies, but also small companies to have the chances to increase the value of their content in the global markets by themselves without economic burdens.