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Structural Characteristics and Physical Properties of Wild Silk Fibres; Antheraea pernyi and Antheraea yamamai (야잠사의 구조특성 및 물리적 성질)

  • 권해용;박영환
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.138-146
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    • 1994
  • The structural characteristics of Antheraea yamamai and Antheraea pernyi silk were investigated by using x-ray diffraction method, IR spectroscopy and polarizing microscopy. The amino acid composition, fiber density, thermal decomposition temperature and glass transition temperature were also measured for relating these physical properties to the structure in comparison with those of Bombyx mori silk fiber. There was no significant structural difference between A. yamamai and A. pernyi silk fiber on an examination of x-ray diffraction curve and IR spectrum. Both of these wild silk fibers showed double diffraction peaks at the Bragg angle 2Θ16.7˚ and 20.5˚by x-ray diffraction analysis as well as IR absorption peaks for the bending vibration of specific groups related to ala-ala amino acid sequence. On the other hand, the x-ray diffraction curve and IR spectrum of Bombyx mori silk fiber are different from those of wild silk fibers, indicating different crystal structure as well as amino acid sequences. It showed under the polarizing microscope examination that the birefringence and optical orientation factor of wild silk fibers are much lower than those of B. mori silk. Also, the surface of degummed wild silk fibers was characterized by the longitudinal stripes of microfibrils in the direction of fiber axies. The amino acid composition, which is strongly related to the fine structure and properties, was not significantly different between these two wild silk fibers. However, the alanine content was somewhat less and polar amino acid content more for A. yamamai. As a result of fiber density measurement, the specific gravities of B. mori, A. pernyi and A. yamamai were 1.355~1.356, 1.308~1.311, 1.265~1.301g/㎤ in the order, respectively. The calculated crystallinity(%) was 64% for B. mori and 51~52% for wild silk fibers, which showed same trend by IR method in spite of somewhat higher value. The thermal decomposition behaviour was examined by DSC and TGA, showing that the degradation temperature was in the order of B mori, A. prernyi and A. yamamai at around 350$^{\circ}C$. It was also observed by TGA that the decomposition seems to proceed step by step according to their specific regions in the fiber structure, resulting the difference in their thermal stabilities. The glass transition temperature was turned out to be 220$^{\circ}C$ for B. mori, 240$^{\circ}C$ A. yamamai and 255$^{\circ}C$ A. pernyi by the dynamic mechanical analysis. It is expected that the chemical properties are affected by the dynamic mechanical behavior in accordance with their structural characters.

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Characteristics of Antibacterial Chlorhexidine-Containing Hydroxyapatite Coated on Titanium (타이타늄 상에 코팅된 클로르헥시딘 항균제를 함유한 수산화인회석의 특성)

  • Kim, Min-Hee;Hwang, Moon-Jin;Lee, Woon-Young;Park, Yeong-Joon;Song, Ho-Jun
    • Korean Journal of Dental Materials
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.263-272
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    • 2017
  • In this study, antibacterial chlorhexidine (CHX)-containing hydroxyapatite (HAp) was coated on titanium and investigated its characteristics. Ti-mSBF-CHX group was prepared by soaking titanium disks in the modified simulated body fluid (mSBF) mixed with CHX. Ti-mSBF group was coated using mSBF without CHX. Ti-mSBF-adCHX group was prepared by soaking Ti-mSBF specimen in CHX-containing solution. The crystallines clusters composed with nano-shaped crystallites were coated on the surface of the Ti-mSBF specimen. The ribbon-shaped crystallites were observed with the crystalline clusters on the Ti-mSBF-CHX specimen. The content of CHX chemical compositions was high in ribbon-shaped crystallites. HAp crystalline structure was dominant for all prepared specimens, and ${\beta}-TCP$ (tricalcium phosphate) and OCP (octacalcium phosphate) crystalline structures were observed in the Ti-mSBF-CHX specimen. FT-IR spectra showed the strong peaks of CHX in Ti-mSBF-adCHX and Ti-mSBF-CHX groups. However, after immersing in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS), CHX was rapidly released in Ti-mSBF-adCHX group, while it was slowly released in Ti-mSBF-CHX. We expect that the coating method of Ti-mSBF-CHX group could be used for protecting inflammation of titanium implant by incorporating antibacterial agent CHX into HAp layer.

CO2 Sequestration and Utilization of Calcium-extracted Slag Using Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag and Convert Slag (괴재 및 전로슬래그를 이용한 CO2 저감 및 칼슘 추출 후 슬래그 활용)

  • Yoo, Yeongsuk;Choi, Hongbeom;Bang, Jun-Hwan;Chae, Soochun;Kim, Ji-Whan;Kim, Jin-Man;Lee, Seung-Woo
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.101-111
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    • 2017
  • Mineral carbonation is a technology in which carbonates are synthesized from minerals including serpentine and olivine, and industrial wastes such as slag and cement, of which all contain calcium or magnesium when reacted with carbon dioxide. This study aims to develop the mineral carbonation technology for commercialization, which can reduce environmental burden and process cost through the reduction of carbon dioxide using steel slag and the slag reuse after calcium extraction. Calcium extraction was conducted using NH4Cl solution for air-cooled slag and convert slag, and ${\geq}98%$ purity calcium carbonate was synthesized by reaction with calcium-extracted solution and carbon dioxide. And we conducted experimentally to minimize the quantity of by-product, the slag residue after calcium extraction, which has occupied large amount of weight ratio (about 80-90%) at the point of mineral carbonation process using slag. The slag residue was used to replace silica sand in the manufacture of cement panel, and physical properties including compressive strength and flexible strength of panel using the slag residue and normal cement panel, respectively, were analyzed. The calcium concentration in extraction solution was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) was also used to identify the surface morphology of calcium carbonate, and XRD was used to analyze the crystallinity and the quantitative analysis of calcium carbonate. In addition, the cement panel evaluation was carried out according to KS L ISO 679, and the compressive strength and flexural strength of the panels were measured.

Research on Shumi-sen, Built by Baekjae Nohjagong - Excavation of Japanese Stone God Ruins, Centered on Mt. Sumeru Stone - (백제 노자공이 조성한 수미산에 대한 연구 - 일본 석신유적에서 발굴된 수미산석을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Kyu-Wan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 2010
  • Shumi-sen(須彌山), built by Nohjagong(路子工) in the southern garden of the Palace Garden during the Asuka Period, is understood as being Sumeru based on an Indian perspective of the theory of the origin of universe. It is also viewed as Mt. Myogoh from a Chinese Buddhist worldview. It is thought to be a type of assembled stone structure with Poong-ryoon (風輪)-Su-ryoon(水輪)-Geum-ryoon(金輪)-Ji-ryoon(地輪) carved into each of the 4 stone pieces. These building shapes are thought to have been utilized as stone for exterior construction as opposed to those structures built during the Shilla Period of China and Korea. Aside from Nohjagong's record of Shumi-sen, most of the records from Japan's period of the time suggest that Shumi-sen was an important element that played a role in the scenery of the seasonal outdoor gardens. It is also thought, from the sentences and expressions surrounding the records, that a combination of the seasonal sceneries was utilized centered on Shumi-sen, and that they were all used during festival events. From a perspective of analysis and interpretation dependent on the limited literature and on observation, it cannot be verified whether the Mt. Sumeru Stone(須彌山石) excavated from the Stone God Ruins is the same Shumi-sen that Nohjagong built along with Okyo(吳橋), but it is thought that the 'Shumi-sen type stone structure' that was later built repeatedly as part of the palace garden facilities is identical to the Shumi-sen built at the Imperial Palace's southern garden, or at least a re-built structure based on the Shumi-sen that Nohjagong built with stones and ponds used to create the foundation. Thus, Shumi-sen that Nohjagong supposedly built along with Okyo is suspected to be a figurative rock arrangement and, at the same time, a miniaturized scenic rock arrangement(縮景樹石) that maximized the shape of Buddhism's Shumi-sen. On the other hand, the surface pattern on Mt. Sumeru Stone is very similar to the multi -layers of mountainous pattern icons expressed in the patterns of the Great Golden Incense Burner(百濟金銅大香爐) or Mountain-Water Scenery Sculptural Brick(山水山景紋?) that were built during the Baekjae pcriod aod the rear side of Hwalsuk-jebul Basal Byungipsang(滑石諸佛菩薩竝立像); it is suspected that similar patterns would have been used if patterns were made on Shumi-sen that Nohjagong built. Also in consideration of the physical theory of MI. Sumeru Stone, the Siphon theory of using a pressure difference in water level was applied to the fountain facilities of Mt. Sumeru Stone that seemed to have been built from the practical rock arrangement perspective for the purpose of feasts, etc.

A Study on the Temperature fronts observed in the South-West Sea of Korea and the Northern Area of the East China Sea (한국 남$\cdot$서해 및 동중국해 북부해역에 출현하는 수온전선)

  • YANG Young Jin;KIM Sang Hyun;RHO Hong Kil
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.695-706
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    • 1998
  • SST (Sea Surface. Temperature) fronts which were found in the South-West Sea of Korea and the northern area of the East China Sea were examined in order to clarify their positions, shapes, seasonal changes and the formation mechanism, For this study used SST data rearranged from the SST IR image during 1991 to 1996 and oceanographical data obtained by National Fisheries Research and Development Institute. Temperature front in the Cheju Strait was analyzed by the data obtained from a fisheries guidance ship of Cheju Provincial Government, The coastal frontal zone in the South-West Sea of Korea and the offshore frontal zone in the northern area of the East China Sea can be divided into several types (Type of Winter, Summer, Spring, Autumn and late Autumn), Short term variations of SST fronts have a tendency not to move to any Bleat extent for several days. The location of the frontal zone in the southwestern sea of Cheju Island changes on a much large scale than that of the one in the southern coast of Korea, The frontal Tone, formed every year in the southern sea of Korea approaches closer to the coastal area in winter, and moves closer to the south in spring and autumn. The frontal zone of the southwestern sea of Cheju Island moves in a westerly direction from the east, and reaches its most westerly point in the winter and its most easterly point in the summer related to the seasonal change of the Tsushima Current. Additionally, the frontal zone of the southwestern sea of Korea becomes extremely weak in March, April and November. SST fronts are formed every year around the line connecting Cheju Island to Yeoseo Island or to Chungsan Island in the Cheju Strait. A Ring-shaped tidal mixing front appears along the coastal area of Cheju Island throughout the year except during the months from November to January. Especially, in May and October fronts are formed between the coastal waters of Cheju Island and the Tsushima currents connecting the frontal zone of the coastal region in the southern sea of Korea with that of the southwestern sea of Cheju Island.

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A Study for Drying of Sewage Sludge through Immersion Frying Using Used Oil (폐유를 이용한 하수슬러지 유중 건조 연구)

  • Shin, Mi-Soo;Kim, Hey-Suk;Hong, Ji-Eun;Jang, Dong-Soon;Ohm, Tae-In
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.694-699
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    • 2008
  • Considering the severe regulation associated with sludge treatment such as direct landfill and ocean dumping, there is no doubt in that an advanced study for the proper treatment of sludge is urgently needed in near feature. As one of viable method for sludge treatment, fry-drying of sludge by waste oil has been investigated in this study. The fundamental mechanism of this drying method lies in the phenomenon of rapid moisture escape in the sludge pore toward oil media. This is caused by the severe pressure gradient formed by the rapid oil heating between sludge and oil. As part of research effort of fry-drying using waste oil, a series of basic study has been made experimentally to obtain typical drying curves as function of important parameters such as drying temperature, drying time, oil type and geometrical shape of sludge formed. Based on this study, a number of useful conclusion can be drawn as following. The fry-drying method by oil immersion was found quite effective in the removal efficiency of sludge moisture, in general, the moisture content decreases significantly after 10 minutes and the whole moisture content was less than 5% after 14 minutes regardless of the drying temperature. The increase of oil temperature up to 140$^{\circ}C$ favors significantly for the removal of moisture but there was no visible difference above 140$^{\circ}C$. As expected, the decrease of diameter in sludge was efficient in drying due to the increased surface area per unit volume. Further, the effect of oil property by the change of oil type was noted. To be specific, for the case of engine oil the efficiency was found to be remarkably delayed in moisture evaporation compared with that of vegetable oil due to the increased viscosity of engine oil. It produced a result of increasing the evaporation of moisture largely relatively high in the drying temperature over 140$^{\circ}C$ compared with the drying temperature 120$^{\circ}C$ drying temperature as the drying time passed. Accordingly, the drying temperature is considered desirable as keeping over 140$^{\circ}C$ regardless of a sort of used oil.

Plans for Teaching and Learning of Learner-centered Activities in Korean Verse Education (시조교육의 현황과 학습자 활동 중심의 교수$\cdot$학습 모형 - 고등학교 국어 교과서 수록 작품 <시조>를 중심으로 -)

  • Kang Myong-Hye
    • Sijohaknonchong
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    • v.20
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    • pp.141-171
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    • 2004
  • Even though only 3 sijo are in high school textbook. through these 3 sijo each type can be understood in that each represents pyung sijo, sasul sijo, and present sijo. To learn with learner-centered activities, which aim for full knowledge acquisition regarding literary works, as the preparing stage, students can learn what theyll learn by teachers. Sijo are, so to speak, formed with three chapters, and stand for the world that is colorless, scentless, and flavorless. So, the theme can be found with ease. Compared with other genres, sijo can be formed creating background with ease. Moreover, sijo are not too long, so learners can paraphrase it. Sijo that express private experiences with the everyday language can be related to other genres or everyday language. So, sijo are last to present. In the teaching phase, on the gradation of concretion and gradation, writing or presentation activities are presented. After classroom, learners keep a reaction journal. In the phase of concretion and gradation, learners can apprehend that typical differences of the emotions of poetic speakers is from typical differences, even though emotions of poetic speakers of (1)$\cdot$(2)$\cdot$(3) that is each stand for pyung sijo, sasul sijo, and present sijo are roughly summarized loneliness, desolateness, and gloominess. Moreover, these typical differences are from social, political. and cultural settings, namely, the differences of contexts. In this teaching model. learners should prepare for content regarding context and text before the class. Teachers should act as an assistant to help learners pre-understand their subjective experiences and imaginations.

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Development of the Trichomes in Floating Leaves of Salvinia Species (생이가래속(Salvinia) 부유엽 모용의 분화발달)

  • Seo, Ae-Ri;Kim, In-Sun
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.117-124
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    • 2008
  • Salvinia is an aquatic plant forming dimorphic leaves that have been modified into floating and submerged leaves. A air of floating leaves plays an important role for the floating and photosynthesis while the submerged leaves, which are lim and long, have the form and function of root. Many aquatic plants develop trichomes in the epidermis but in Salvinia, richomes grow densely in the epidermis of the dimorphic leaves. The present study examined the differentiation pattern of trichomes developing in the floating leaves of S. natans and S. molesta by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Trichomes developing in the floating leaves of Salvinia showed very different patterns. In S. natans, they were arranged in a V-shape form, having 20${\sim}$25 rows at $18{\sim}25^{\circ}$ on both sides of the lamina divided by the midrib in the floating leaf. In each row, 8${\sim}$10 oval-shaped cells, $200{\sim}290{\mu}m$ in length, were arranged in a spiral fashion. Four trichomes of this form made a trichome unit, but their apical parts were separated from one another and developed into the so-called 'knuckle-crane' type. On the other hand, in S. molesta, trichomes differentiated in a unique pattern quite different from those of S. natans. At the early stage of differentiation, trichomes protruded from the epidermis and then 4${\sim}$6 cylindrical cells grew $400{\sim}600{\mu}m$ long and the four trichomes formed as an unit. The four grouped trichomes were interconnected through their apex and developed in the 'egg-beater' type. Then $300{\sim}600{\mu}m$ long multi-cellular stalk cells grew and protruded out of the epidermal surface from the basal part of the trichomes. Such a structural characteristic of trichomes is considered to play a very important role along with the aerenchyma tissue in the leaf mesophyll tissue for the floating of Salvinia on the water surface.

Physico-chemical effects of cerium oxide on catalytic activity of CeO2-TiO2 prepared by sol-gel method for NH3-SCR (CeO2가 졸겔법으로 합성한 CeO2-TiO2계 SCR용 촉매의 활성에 미치는 물리화학적 영향)

  • Kim, Buyoung;Shin, Byeongkil;Lee, Heesoo;Chun, Ho Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.320-324
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    • 2013
  • The effects of $CeO_2$ on catalytic activity of $CeO_2-TiO_2$ for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of $NO_x$ were investigated in terms of structural, morphological, and physico-chemical analyseis. $CeO_2-TiO_2$ catalysts were synthesized with three different additions, 10, 20, and 30 wt% of $CeO_2$, by the sol-gel method. The XRD peaks of all specimens were assigned to a $TiO_2$ phase (anatase) and the peaks became broader with the addition of $CeO_2$ because it was dispersed as an amorphous phase on the surface of $TiO_2$ particles. The specific surface area of $TiO_2$ increased with the addition of $CeO_2$ from $60.6306m^2/g$ to $116.2791m^2/g$ due to suppression of $TiO_2$ grain growth by $CeO_2$. The 30 wt% $CeO_2-TiO_2$ catalyst, having the strongest catalytic acid sites ($Br{\Phi}nsted$ and Lewis), showed the highest $NO_x$ conversion efficiency of 98 % at $300^{\circ}C$ among the specimens. It was considered that $CeO_2$ contributes to the improvement of the $NO_x$ conversion of $CeO_2-TiO_2$ catalyst by increasing specific surface area and catalytic acid sites.