• Title, Summary, Keyword: 포퍼

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포퍼의 확률의 성향 이론

  • Song, Ha-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.31-62
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    • 2006
  • 이 논문은 포퍼의 후기 확률론인 성향적 확률론에 대한 것이다. 포퍼가 확률에 관한 성향이론을 제시한 가장 중요한 동기는 단일 사건에 확률값을 부여하기 위함이었다. 그의 성향이론은 전기와 후기로 나누어지는데, 전기의 이론은 성향을 반복가능한 조건들의 집합으로, 후기의 이론은 성향을 특정 시각에서의 우주의 상태로 설명한다. 이 글은 포퍼의 전기와 후기 성향이론이 성공적이지 않음을 논증한다. 전기 성향이론에 대해서는 가장 좁은 준거집합의 원리의 문제에 부딪혀서 단일 사건에 대하여 객관적인 확률값을 부여할 수 없기 때문이고, 후기 성향이론은 성향을 약한 인과라고 해석하는 문제와 함께 포퍼 자신의 의도와 달리 형이상학적인 이론이 되어버렸기 때문이다.

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논리적 귀결과 논리 상항의 의미

  • Lee, Jong-Gwon
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.65-98
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    • 2007
  • 정인교는 그의 최근 논문에서 논리적 귀결 관계에 의해 논리 상항의 의미를 정의함에 있어 통상적인 도입 규칙과 제거 규칙에 의거하는 포퍼의 접근법과, 도입 규칙에만 의존하는 정당화주의적 접근법, 그리고 제거 규칙에만 의존하는 실용주의적 접근법을 구분한 바 있다. 이 글에서는 연언과 선언의 연결어의 경우에는 그 세 가지가 동등하다는 것을, 그리고 조건과 부정의 연결어의 경우에는 제거 규칙에 의거하는 실용주의적 접근법과 포퍼의 접근법이 대등하다는 것을, 타르스키가 처음 확립한 논리적 귀결에 관한 공리적 체계에 의존하여 보일 것이다.

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확률의 상관 빈도이론과 포퍼

  • Song, Ha-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.23-46
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of the paper Is to discuss and estimate early Popper's theory of probability, which is presented in his book, The Logic of of Scientific Discovery. For this, Von Mises' frequency theory shall be discussed in detail, which is regarded as the most systematic and sophisticated frequency theory among others. Von Mises developed his theory to response to various critical questions such as how finite and empirical collectives can be represented in terms of infinite and mathematical collectives, and how the axiom of randomness can be mathematically formulated. But his theory still has another difficulty, which is concerned with the inconsistency between the axiom of convergence and the axiom of randomness. Defending the objective theory of probability, Popper tries to present his own frequency theory, solving the difficulty. He suggests that the axiom of convergence be given up and that the axiom of randomness be modified to solve Von Mises' problem. That is, Popper introduces the notion of ordinal selection and neighborhood selection to modify the axiom of randomness. He then shows that Bernoulli's theorem is derived from the modified axiom. Consequently, it can be said that Popper solves the problem of inconsistency which is regarded as crucial to Von Mises' theory. However, Popper's suggestion has not drawn much attention. I think it is because his theory seems anti-intuitive in the sense that it gives up the axiom of convergence which is the basis of the frequency theory So for more persuasive frequency theory, it is necessary to formulate the axiom of randomness to be consistent with the axiom of convergence.

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과학과 형이상학 -포퍼와 폴라니의 경우-

  • 강영안
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.2-10
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    • 1994
  • 과학과 형이상학은 포퍼에게서는 분명히 구별된다. 그럼에도 불구하고 전형적인 형이상학적 이론인 실재론, 비결정론, 출현이론은 과학 활동의 전제 조건으로 수용된다 하지만 폴라니에게서는 과학과 형이상학이 서로 다른 차원으로 분리되지 않는다. 형이상학적 믿음은 과학 자체의 구조를 이루고 있다. 과학은 형이상학적 개념이라 할 수 있는 진리, 선, 미, 정의 등의 본질적 가치에 따라 현실의 드러냄을 목적으로 삼는 인간의 통합적 행위이다. 다라서 폴라니에게 형이상학은 두 가지의 차원을 갖는다. 한편으로 형이상학에는 주관적인 차원이 있다. 도덕적 태도, 지적 열정, 이론의 미적 차원에 대한 감각, 종교적 관점 등 주체로서의 인간의 자기 이해와 관련된 차원이 있다. 진리에 대한 열정과 현실의 의미 추구를 자신의 과학적 활동의 본질적 부분으로 볼 수 있는 과학자는 바로 그 자체는 하나의 훌륭한 형이상학자가 되는 것이다.

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A Study of High School Students' Philosophical Views on Science (고등학생의 과학철학적 관점에 대한 연구)

  • Ban, Eun-Key;Lee, Sun-Kyung;Kim, Uh-Hee;Park, Hyun-Ju
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.88-100
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    • 2000
  • This study was to investigate high school students' philosophical views on science and positions of constructivists; Popper, Lakatos, Toulmin, and Kuhn. The results of this study were as follows: First, most students had the eclectic position(69%): similar percentages in sex(male 67%, female 75%), stream(liberal art 72%, science 74%), and of having experience on reading books or magazines related to the philosophy of science(ever 78%, never 64%). Second, in analysis of ANDVA of science philosphical perspectives by experience of reading books, magazines, and matters related to the philosophy of science, significant difference was revealed(p<.01). Students who had ever heard of or read about the philosophy of science were tend to have Empiricism. Third, ANDVA analysis of constructivist philosphical perspectives showed that male students were nearer to Kuhn's position than female(p<.05) and students in science stream were closer to Popper than in liberal art(p<.05). And male students in science party showed a great tendency to consent Popper's perspective(p<.01). This result seems to suggest that male students tended to think social aspects more deeply than female and held Kuhn's position.

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Students' Responses on the Supporting or Conflicting Evidences on Thier Preconception (학생 선개념을 지지하는 증거와 반증하는 증거에 대한 학생의 반응)

  • Park, Jong-Won;Kim, Ik-Gyun;Lee, Moo;Kim, Myung-Whan
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.283-296
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    • 1998
  • This study was to identify middle school and college of education students' preconceptions about dielectric polarization and explore the students' reponses on the supporting or conflictual evidences on their preconceptions by letting them observe the demonstrations using electroscope, charged material, six conductor rods and six insulator rods. Letting students select the demonstrations to be observed by themselves, students' evidence selection types were classified as two : to select the evidences to testify their uncertain preconceptions, and to obtain the confirmation evidences about their preconceptions. And each evidence selection types, again, could be subclassified as three and two respectively. When students observed the conflictual observations, all accepted the observation itself. For supporting observational evidences, almost of all students showed the error of 'acceptance of antecedent' in the syllogism, that is, they did not required the succeeding supporting observations. Students' reponses on the conflictual observational evidences were classified as two: to reject the hard core of preconceptions, and to modify the students' auxiliary ideas related to the hard core with preserving the hard core. The first type reponses were, again, could be classified as three subtypes but, in all cases, students introduced new concept to explain the conflictual evidences. This responses indicated that Lakatosian rather than Popperian view is more acceptable to understand the students' reponses on the conflictual evidences. The second type reponses also were classified as three subtypes, and it was found that more middle school students than college education students were involved in this second type. That is, students who did not have perfect understanding of auxiliary ideas related with the hard core of preconceptions were more apt to change or modify theses auxiliary ideas rather than reject the hard core, this means that the quality of understanding of auxiliary ideas also take an important role in the change of hard core concept.

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The Critical Thinking of Philosophy as a Creative Method of Science: Neurophilosophical Explication (창의적 과학방법으로서 철학의 비판적 사고: 신경철학적 해명)

  • Park, Jeyoun
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.144-160
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    • 2013
  • This study is a proposal, which is the trial to explicate, in neurology, on how critical thinking as a creative method of sciences functions. The creative methods of sciences, even at present, are mostly the hypothetical insistences concerning with the logical processes of researches suggested from the philosophers of science; Popper, Kuhn, Hempel, or Lakatos. These insistences do excavate what process or approach can be scoped out of scientists' creativity. I call the tendency or approach of the researches, "Process Approach of Creativity (PAC)". From my view point, any PAC trial does not concern with how creative theories can actually be invented. On the other hand, this study is focused on the philosophical thinking abilities of scientists who invented new great theories. They mostly had some experiences to study philosophy while studying their science fields, thus had critical thinking abilities on their studies. From my point of view, critical thinking in philosophy raised questions as to their fundamental and basic (old) concepts and principles, and thus gave them new creative theories. I will try to explain this from the point of neurophilosophy. From the perspectives coming from "the state space theory of representation" of Paul & Patricia Churchland, the pioneers of neurophilosphy, the "creative theories" are the networks of topographic maps giving new comprehensive explanations and predictions. From these perspectives, I presuppose that the attitude of critical questioning revises the old networks of maps with back-propagation or feedback, and thus, is the generative power of searching new networks of maps. From the presupposition, I can say, it is important that scientists reflect on the basic premises in their academic branches for issuing out extraordinary creativity. The critical attitude of philosophy can make scientists construct the maps of new conceptual scheme by shaking the maps of the old basic premises. From this context, I am able to propose "Critical Thinking Approach of Creativity (CTAC)".