• Title, Summary, Keyword: 평균밀도 보정방법

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Determination of Attenuation Collection Methods According to the Type of Radioactive Waste Drums (방사성폐기물드럼 종류별 감쇠보정방법의 결정)

  • Kwak, Sang-Soo;Choi, Byung-I1;Yoon, Suk-Jung;Lee, Ik-Whan;Kang, Duck-Won;Sung, Ki-Bang
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.309-317
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    • 1997
  • The measured radioactivity of gamma-emitting radionuclides in each radioactive waste drum using the non-destructive waste assay method is underestimated than real radioactivity in radioactive waste drum because the gamma-rays are attenuated within the medium. Therefore, the measured radioactivity should be corrected for the attenuation of gamma-rays. For the correction of the attenuation of gamma-rays, the attenuation correction method should be applied differently by considering the distribution and density of medium in radioactive wastes drum generated from nuclear power plants. In this study, the model drums were fabricated for simulating five types of radioactive waste drums generated from nuclear power plant and the optimum methods of the attenuation correction were experimentally determined to analyze the activity of radionuclides in the waste drum accurately using the segmented gamma scanning system. With the determination of the attenuation correction methods from the experimental results the transmission method and the average density method for the miscellaneous waste drum, the transmission method and the differential peak absorption method for the shielded miscellaneous waste drum were used to measure the density of medium in waste drums. Also, the average density method and the differential peak absorption method for the spent resin drum, the paraffin solidified drum, and the spent filter drum were used.

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The Impact of Tissue Inhomogeneity Corrections in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer with Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (전립선암의 세기조절 방사선 치료시 밀도보정의 효과)

  • Han Youngyih;Park Won;Huh Seung Jae
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: To investigate the effects of tissue inhomogeneity corrections on the dose delivered to prostate cancer patients treated with Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: For five prostate cancer patients, IMRT treatment plans were generated using 6 MV or 10 MV X-rays. In each plan, seven equally spaced ports of photon beams were directed to the isocenter, neglecting the tissue heterogeneity in the body. The dose at the isocenter, mean dose, maximum dose, minimum dose and volume that received more than 95% of the isocenter dose in the planning target volume ( $V_{p>95%}$) were measured. The maximum doses to the rectum and the bladder, and the volumes that received more than 50, 75 and 90% of the prescribed dose were measured. Treatment plans were then recomputed using tissue inhomogeneity correction maintaining the intensity profiles and monitor units of each port. The prescription point dose and other dosimetric parameters were remeasured. Results: The inhomogeneity correction reduced the prescription point dose by an average 4.9 and 4.0% with 6 and 10 MV X-rays, respectively. The average reductions of the $V_{p>95%}$ were 0.8 and 0.9% with the 6 and 10 MV X-rays, respectively. The mean doses in the PTV were reduced by an average of 4.2 and 3.4% with the 6 and 10 MV X-rays, respectively. The irradiated volume parameters in the rectum and bladder were less decreased; less than 2.1 % (1.2%) of the reduction in the rectum (bladder). The average reductions in the mean dose were 1.0 and 0.5% in the rectum and bladder, respectively. Conclusions: Neglect of tissue inhomogeneity in the IMRT treatment of prostate cancer gives rise to a notable overestimation of the dose delivered to the target, whereas the impact of tissue inhomogeneity correction to the surrounding critical organs is less significant.

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A Framework for Size Distribution of Noncohesive Sediment (비점착성 유사의 입도 분포 모형에 관한 Framework)

  • Byun, Jisun;Son, Minwoo;Park, Byeoung Eun;Moon, Hyejin
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.282-282
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    • 2017
  • 모래, 실트 및 자갈과 같은 비점착성 유사는 하천에서의 이동 형태에 따라 소류사와 부유사로 구분된다. 부유사는 난류로 인해 흐름 내에서 부유 상태로 이동하는 유사로, 대부분의 자연 하천에서 유사는 부유사 형태로 이송된다. 유수동역학적 조건 하에서 이동하는 부유사의 입도 분포는 유사 입자의 부유와 퇴적에 따라 불규칙적으로 변화하기 때문에 여러 연구에서 주요한 문제로 다뤄지고 있다. 부유사의 입도 분포는 흐름 유속, 부유사의 부유 높이, 하상 재료의 특성 등에 따라 변화하며, 로그 정규분포를 따르는 것으로 알려져 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 여러 다양한 하천 흐름 조건에서 부유사의 입도 분포를 모의할 수 있는 입도 분포 모형에 관한 개념적 틀(Framework)을 제안한다. 유사 입자의 입도 분포 모의는 추계학적 방법의 적용을 통해 얻어진다. 본래 점착성 유사의 입도 분포를 모의하기 위한 추계학적 입도 분포 모형으로부터 제안된 개념적 틀로, 다양한 흐름 조건 하에서 특정 확률 분포형을 띠는 입도 분포를 모의할 수 있다. 점착성 유사의 이동 모형에서는 점착성을 띠는 유사 입자들의 응집 현상에 따른 크기 변화를 모의하기 위한 응집 모형이 필수적이다. 시간에 따른 크기 변화를 모의하는 응집 모형에서, 흐름 내 여러 특성들에 의해 결정되는 응집 인자와 달리 파괴 인자의 경우 불규칙적 난류 운동으로 인해 무작위한 특성을 띤다. 모형에서 요구되는 파괴 인자를 특정 확률 분포형을 띠는 난수로 고려함으로써 점착성 유사의 입도 분포 모형이 개발되었다. 이 때, 점착성 유사는 프랙탈 구조를 가지는 것으로 가정하기 때문에 크기에 따라 밀도와 침강 속도가 변화한다. 반면 비점착성 유사는 크기에 따른 밀도 변화가 일어나지 않으므로, 고정된 밀도와 프랙탈 차원을 적용하여 점착성 유사의 입도 분포모형으로부터 비점착성 유사의 입도 분포 모의가 가능할 것으로 판단된다. 이러한 추계학적 방법의 적용을 통해, 하나의 경계 조건으로 대변되는 하상 특성에 따른 단점 또한 보완될 것으로 예측된다. 예를 들어 로그 정규 분포를 띤다고 가정할 때 보정을 통해 결정해야하는 변수는 평균과 분산으로 두 개가 요구된다. 유사의 평균 크기로부터 확률분포형의 평균값이 결정되면, 하상에 존재하는 유사의 특성에 따른 입도 분포의 분산은 난수의 분산을 결정함으로써 모의할 수 있다.

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An Experimental Method for the Scatter Correction of MV Images Using Scatter to Primary Ratios (SPRs) (산란선 대 일차선비(SPR)를 이용한 MV 영상의 산란 보정을 위한 실험적 방법)

  • Jeon, Hosang;Park, Dahl;Lee, Jayeong;Nam, Jiho;Kim, Wontaek;Ki, Yongkan;Kim, Donghyun;Lee, Ju Hye;Kim, Dongwon
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2014
  • In general radiotherapy, mega-voltage (MV) x-ray images are widely used as the unique method to verify radio-therapeutic fields. But, the image quality of MV images is much lower than that of kilo-voltage x-ray images due to scatter interactions. Since 1990s, studies for the scatter correction have performed with digital-based MV imaging systems. In this study, a novel method for the scatter correction is suggested using scatter to primary ratio (SPR), instead of conventional methods such as digital image processing or scatter kernel calculations. We measured two MV images with and without a solid water phantom describing a patient body with given imaging conditions, and calculated un-attenuated ratios. Then, we obtained SPR distributions for the scatter correction. For experimental validation, a line-pair (LP) phantom using several Al bars and a clinical pelvis MV image was used. As the result, scatter signals of the LP phantom image were successfully reduced so that original density distribution of the phantom was restored. Moreover, image contrast values increased after SPR correction at all ROIs of the clinical image. The mean value of increases was 48%. The SPR correction method suggested in this study has high reliability because it is based on actually measured data. Also, this method can be easily adopted in clinics without additional cost. We expected that the SPR correction can be an effective method to improve the quality of MV image guided radiotherapy.

Corrections on CH4 Fluxes Measured in a Rice Paddy by Eddy Covariance Method with an Open-path Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (개회로 파장 변조 분광법과 에디 공분산 방법으로 논에서 관측된 CH4 플럭스 자료의 보정)

  • Kang, Namgoo;Yun, Juyeol;Talucder, M.S.A.;Moon, Minkyu;Kang, Minseok;Shim, Kyo-Moon;Kim, Joon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2015
  • $CH_4$ is a trace gas and one of the key greenhouse gases, which requires continuous and systematic monitoring. The application of eddy covariance technique for $CH_4$ flux measurement requires a fast-response, laser-based spectroscopy. The eddy covariance measurements have been used to monitor $CO_2$ fluxes and their data processing procedures have been standardized and well documented. However, such processes for $CH_4$ fluxes are still lacking. In this note, we report the first measurement of $CH_4$ flux in a rice paddy by employing the eddy covariance technique with a recently commercialized wavelength modulation spectroscopy. $CH_4$ fluxes were measured for five consecutive days before and after the rice transplanting at the Gimje flux monitoring site in 2012. The commercially available $EddyPro^{TM}$ program was used to process these data, following the KoFlux protocol for data-processing. In this process, we quantified and documented the effects of three key corrections: (1) frequency response correction, (2) air density correction, and (3) spectroscopic correction. The effects of these corrections were different between daytime and nighttime, and their magnitudes were greater with larger $CH_4$ fluxes. Overall, the magnitude of $CH_4$ flux increased on average by 20-25% after the corrections. The National Center for AgroMeteorology (www.ncam.kr) will soon release an updated KoFlux program to public users, which includes the spectroscopic correction and the gap-filling of $CH_4$ flux.

Analysis of the cause of dose delivery errors due to changes in abdominal gas volume during MRgART pancreatic cancer (췌장암 MRgART시 복부가스용적 변화에 의한 선량전달오류 원인 분석)

  • Ha, Min Yong;Son, Sang Jun;Kim, Chan Yong;Lee, Je Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.32
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    • pp.73-83
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to confirm the matching of the electron density between tissue and gas due to variation of abdominal gas volume in MRgART (Magnetic Resonance-guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy) for pancreatic cancer patients, and to confirm the effect on the dose change and treatment time. Materials and Methods: We compared the PTV and OAR doses of the initial plan and the AGC(Abdominal gas correction) plans to one pancreatic cancer patient who treated with MRgART using the ViewRay MRIdian System (Viewray, USA) at this clinic. In the 4fx AGC plans, Beam ON(%) according to the patient's motion error was checked to confirm the effect of abdominal gas volume on treatment time. Results: Comparing the Initial plan with the average value of AGC plan, the dose difference was -7 to 0.1% in OAR and decreased by 0.16% on average, and in PTV, the dose decreased by 4.5% to 5.5% and decreased by 5.1% on average. In Adaptive treatment, as the abdominal gas volume increased, the Beam ON(%) decreased. Conclusion: Abdominal gas volume variation causes dose change due to inaccurate electron density matching between tissue and gas. In addition, if the abdominal gas volume increases, the Beam ON(%) decreases, and the treatment time may increase due to the motion error of the patient. Therefore, in MRgART, it is necessary to check the electron density matching and minimize the variability of the abdominal gas.

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Dose Evaluation of Dental Artifacts Using MVCT in Head and Neck (두경부암 환자의 MVCT를 이용한 치아 인공물 보정에 따른 선량평가)

  • Shin, Chung Hun;Yun, In Ha;Jeon, Su Dong;Kim, Jeong Mi;Kim, Ho Jin;Back, Geum Mun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: Metals induce metal artifact during CT-image for therapy planning, and it occurs images distortion, which affects the volumetric measurement and radiation calculation. In the case of using megavoltage computed tomography(MVCT), the volume of metals can be measured as similar to true volume due to minimal metal artifact outcome. In this study, radiation assessment was conducted by comparing teeth volume from images of kVCT and MVCT of head and neck cancer patients, then assigning to kVCT image to calculate radiation after obtaining the similar volume of true teeth volume from MVCT. Also, formal IR image was able to verify the accuracy of radiation calculation. Material and method: 5 head and neck cancer patients who had intensity-modulated radiation therapy from Radixact® Series were of the subject in this study. Calculations of radiation when constraining true teeth volume out of kVCT image(A-CT) and when designated specific HU after teeth assigned using MVCT image were compared with formal IR image. Treatment planning was devised at the same constraints and mean dose was measured at the radiation assess points. The points were anterior of the teeth, between PTV and the teeth, the interior of PTV near the teeth, and the teeth where 5cm distance from PTV. Result: A difference of metals volume from kVCT and MVCT image was mean 3.49±2.61cc, maximum 7.43cc. PTV was limited to where the internal teeth were fully contained. The results of PTV dose evaluation showed that the average CI value of the kVCT treatment planning without the artifact correction was 0.86, and the average CI value of the kVCT with the artifact correction using MVCT image was 0.9. Conclusion: When the Treatment Planning was made without correction of metal artifacts, the dose of PTV was underestimated, indicating that dose uncertainty occurred. When the computerized treatment plan was made without correction of metal artifacts, the dose of PTV was underestimated, indicating that dose uncertainty occurred.

중력이상을 이용한 한반도 모호면 추출에 관한 연구

  • 김정우;조진동;김원균;민경덕;황재하;이윤수;박찬홍;황종선
    • Proceedings of the KSEEG Conference
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    • pp.258-264
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    • 2003
  • 중력이상 및 수치고도모델을 이용하여 한반도 모호면 심도를 추출하였다 중력이상값은 인공위성고도레이더 관폭값을 주로 이용한 전지구 모델을 이용하여 데이터영역 뿐 만 아니라 주파수영역에서도 자료의 균질성을 확보하였다. 모호면 추출은 Kim et al. [2000a]에 의해 제안된 스펙트럼 대비법 및 후리에급수를 이용한 파워스펙트럼분석법을 이용하였다. 전자는 지각근형을 전제로, 지형에 의한 중력효과와 후리에어 중력이상을 파동수영역에서 대비하여 모호면의 심도를 계산하는 방법이고, 후자는 완전부우게 중력이상으로부터 푸리에변환을 이용하여 지하 밀도 변화층의 심도를 계산하는 방법이다. 이 두 모호면은 서로 0.53의 상관관계를 갖고 있으며, 이는 모호면 산출의 방법론적인 차이 및 계산상의 오차인 것으로 사료된다. 이렇게 두 가지 독립적인 방법으로 추출된 모호면을 하나로 통합하기 위한 한 방법으로, 두 모호면의 차이를 계산한 후, 이를 최소자승법을 이용, 두 모호면을 보정하였다. 결과적으로 한반도의 최종 모호면의 평균심도는 32.0km, 표준편차는 2.5km 이며, 최소, 최대 심도는 20.3, 36.6km으로 나타났다. 이 경우 지형에 의한 중력효과는 스펙트럼대비법에 의해 제거된 결과이나, 한반도의 지각이 완전한 지각판 내에 놓여 있어서 Airy-Heiskanin 지각균형설의 가정이 타당성이 있는가, 혹은 국부적인 응력장에 의해 한반도의 지각이 과연 얼마나 지지되고 있는가 하는 것에 대한 추가적인 연구가 필요하며, 이에 앞서, 일정한 밀도차를 갖는 연속적인 밀도변화층이 존재한다는 가정이 반드시 필요하다.에는 관련성을 갖고 있으며, 이는 유류 분해정도를 파악하는 지시자로써 특정 무기 오염물질을 이용할 수 있을 가능성이 있으므로 좀더 이들 관계성에 대한 연구가 진행될 필요성이 있다고 판단된다.고 과학적으로 분석할 수 있는 방법이 될 수 있을 것으로 기대된다. 의미를 되새기는 것으로 짧은 연구를 시작하겠다. 등은 활성 값이 70% 이상으로 퇴적물 독성이 상대적으로 낮았다. 이중나선 DNA 함량은 28.4 % - 49%로 대조군에 비해서 감소가 크다. 대부분의 정점이 대조군의 30% 내외로 정점 간의 차이는 크지는 않다. 그러나 다른 측정자료와 같이 정점 22에서 18%로 최소치를 나타내고, 정점 2, 12에서 20% 내외의 값을 보인다. 종합적으로 볼 때 오염물질의 유입이 크고, 광양제철 인근 정점 들이 모두 다른 정점에 비해서 낮아서, 퇴적물 독성이 높은 정점으로 조사되었다.hiwo의 광합성 능력은 낮은 농도들에서는 대조구와 유사하였으나, 5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l의 높은 농도에서는 초기에 매우 낮은 광합성 능력을 보이다가 시간이 경과하면서 대조군보다 더 높은 경향을 나타냈다. 이러한 결과는 식물플랑크톤이 benso[a]pyrene의 낮은 농도에서 노출될 때는 이 물질을 탄소원으로 사용할 가능성이 있음을 시사한다. 본 연구의 결과들은 연안해역에 benso[a]pyrene과 같은 지속성 유기오염물질이 유입되었을 때 내정여부에 따라 식물플랑크톤 군집내 종 천이와 일차생산력에 크게 영향을 미칠 수 있음을 시사한다.TEX>5.2개)였으며, 등급별 회수율은 각각 GI(8.5%), GII

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Theoretical Study for the Structures and Binding Energies of HOOO-(H2O)n (n=1~5) Cluster (HOOO-(H2O)n (n=1~5) 클러스터의 구조와 에너지에 대한 이론적 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Min;Hong, Sung-Yoon;Kim, Seung-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.59 no.5
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    • pp.387-396
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    • 2015
  • The DFT and ab initio calculations have been performed to elucidate hydrogen interaction of HOOO-(H2O)n (n=1~5) clusters. The optimized geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and binding energies are predicted at various levels of theory. The trans conformer of HOOO monomer is predicted to be thermodynamically more stable than cis form at the CCSD(T) level of theory. For HOOO-(H2O)n clusters, the geometries are optimized at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and CAM-B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ levels of theory. The binding energy of HOOO-H2O cluster is predicted to be 6.05 kcal/mol at the MP2//CAM-B3LYP/ aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory after zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE) and basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction. The average binding energy per H2O is increased according to adding a H2O moiety in HOOO-(H2O)n clusters up to 7.2 kcal/mol for n=5.

Theoretical Investigation for the Structures and Binding Energies of H2O3 and Water (H2O) Clusters (H2O3과 물(H2O) 클러스터들의 분자구조와 열역학적 안정성에 대한 이론적 연구)

  • Seo, Hyun-il;Kim, Jong-Min;Song, Hui-Sung;Kim, Seung-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.61 no.6
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    • pp.328-338
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    • 2017
  • The density functional theory(DFT) and ab initio calculations have been applied to investigate hydrogen interaction of $H_2O_3(H_2O)_n$ clusters(n=1-5). The structures, IR spectra, and H-bonding energies are calculated at various levels of theory. The $trans-H_2O_3$ monomer is predicted to be thermodynamically more stable than cis form at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level of theory. For clusters, the geometries are optimized at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The binding energy of $H_2O_3-H_2O$ cluster is predicted to be -6.39 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T)//MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory after zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE) and basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction. This result implies that $H_2O_3$ is a stronger proton donor(acid) than either $H_2O$ or $H_2O_2$. The average binding energies per $H_2O$ are predicted to be 8.25 kcal/mol for n=2, 7.22 kcal/mol for n=3, 8.50 kcal/mol for n=4, and 8.16 kcal/mol for n=5.