• Title/Summary/Keyword: 편년

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Tree-Ring Dating of Korean Traditional Furnitures: A Case Study on Cabinet and Chest (전통목가구의 연륜연대측정 : 장(欌)과 반닫이 사례연구)

  • Park, Won-Kyu;Kim, Yo-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2005
  • Tree-ring chronologies can be used to date historical buildings or furnitures by matching them with chronologies of living trees. Tree-ring dating gives a calendar year to each tree ring and produces the cutting dates of logs or woods. In this study, we intend to extend our tree-ring dating applications to Korean furnitures. As a case study, we examined two traditional furnitures, one cabinet 'Jang' and the other chest, 'Bandaji'. The cutting date of the cabinet woods was A.D. 1839. The date of the outmost ring in the chest was A.D. 1904. Due to no bark present, the cutting date of the chest was only estimated as $1930{\pm}10$ by 'sapwood rings' estimation method. Ring-width pattern of the latter one also indicated that the origin of the chest must be Kangwon province. This case study suggests that tree-ring dating would be a useful and accurate method to identify the critical dates for the chronicles of Korean traditional furnitures.

Sedimentary Characteristics and Chronology of Loess-paleosol Sequence in Jeongjang-ri, Geochang basin, Gyeongnam Province (경남 거창분지 정창리 뢰스-고토양 연속층의 퇴적물 특성과 편년)

  • Hwang, Sang-Ill;Kang, Chang-Hyeok;Yoon, Soon-Ock
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2011
  • The physical and chemical characteristics of loess-paleosol sequence in Jeongjang-ri, Geochang basin are examined using the magnetic susceptibility measurement, grain size analysis, OSL age dating, major, rare earth and trace elements analysis. The grain size characteristics of the loess-palesol sequence are obviously different from those of river sediment forming river terrace deposits and the Chinese Loess Plateau. The loess-paleosol sequence consisting of L1, L1LL1, L1S1, L1L2, S1 and L2 from top to bottom is estimated to MIS 2~MIS 6 and the river terrace to MIS 7. The compositions of major, rare earth and trace elements indicate that the sequence show more weathered characteristics than the Chinese Loess Plateau and originated from the Chinese Loess Plateau. These features are in harmony with the previous studies in Korea.

Radiocarbon Dating of a Wooden Board from Mado Shipwreck No. 4 Using Wiggle Matching (위글 매치를 이용한 마도4호선의 방사성탄소연대 측정)

  • Nam, Tae Gwang;Hong, Kwang Hui;Lee, Ji Hee
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to carry out radiocarbon dating using a wiggle match, of wooden boards and grains from the Mado shipwreck No. 4, which was excavated from Mado in Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do. The result of the wiggle matching for four decennial tree-ring samples of the stern plank produced a ${\pm}2{\sigma}$ radiocarbon date (95.4% confidence interval) of A.D. 1337-1356 or A.D. 1412-1429. The grains produced a ${\pm}2{\sigma}$ radiocarbon date (95.4% confidence interval) of A.D. 1415-1455. This indicated that the Mado shipwreck No. 4 belonged to the early or middle of the 15th century. These radiocarbon dating results correlate with the date that was speculated by archaeologists according to the ship's structure and ceramic style.

A Scientific Analysis of Gold Crowns in Silla (신라 금관의 성분 조성 분석)

  • Shin, Yongbi;Yu, Heisun;Yun, Eunyoung
    • Conservation Science in Museum
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    • v.16
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    • pp.46-55
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    • 2015
  • This study examines the ratio of alloy components of six gold crowns discovered in six Silla tombs; Gyo-dong, the north tomb of Hwangnamdaechong, Geumgwanchong, Cheonmachong, Geumnyeongchong and Seobongchong. Concretely, the study looks at whether and how crowns from these various tombs differ in terms of the ratio of alloy components. The analysis of the six Silla crowns found that all of them were made of gold and silver alloy. When comparing the ratio of alloy components in crowns and type of crowns, the Gyo-dong crown which is the oldest of them showed the highest content of gold. Crowns from Hwangnamdaechong and Geumgwanchong in the middle to late 5th century, showed a similar content of gold. Gold content of crowns from the late 5th century to early 6th century tombs decreased in order Cheonmachong, Geumnyeongchong and Seobongchong, thus it confirmed that the older the tomb, the higher its gold content.

제주지방 매장문화재의 발굴과 보존

  • 강창화
    • KOMUNHWA
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    • no.56
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    • pp.215-245
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    • 2000
  • 필자는 이 글을 통해 제주도 고고학 발달사를 크게 4기로 구분하여 보았다. 제1기는 1945년 이전 일제강점기에 유적과 유물을 단순하게 보고하는 수준에 머물렀던 시기이고 제2기는 1945년에서 1983년 기간으로 향토사가와 한국 본토의 고고$\cdot$역사학자들의 부분적인 학술조사가 있었던 시기이다. 따라서 1$\~$2기는 제주 고고학의 기본적인 틀을 잡지 못한 단계라고 할 수 있다. 제3기는 1984년부터 1995년까지로 제주고고학에 있어 본격적인 발굴이 진행되지만 대부분이 긴급 발굴에 해당하고 소규모적인 발굴이었다. 하지만 이 시기에 와서 그 동안 발굴했던 자료와 그 이전의 발굴자료를 모아 나름대로 제주고고학의 시대 편년, 문화 변천 등의 기본적인 틀과 방향을 설정한 시기이기도 하다. 제4기는 1996년 이후 현재까지로 제주고고학의 기본적인 틀 속에서 이를 보완하고 새로운 선사문화의 단계를 설정하는 연구들이 진행 중이다. 이를 뒷받침하는 계기는 제주 고산리유적, 삼양동유적 등이 연차적, 계획적, 대대적으로 발굴되면서 많은 자료가 나왔기 때문이다. 또한 고고학의 범위가 선사시대에 국한되지 않고 제주목관아지, 성읍객사지, 법화사지, 존자암지, 수정사지, 고내현청터 등 역사유적의 출토자료에 대한 관심이 더욱 집중되기에 이르렀다. 제주도내 매장문화재는 발굴된 유적 대부분이 지정되어 있는 상태이다. 제주목관아지(사적 390호), 항파두리성(사적 396호), 고산리유적(사적 412호), 삼양동유적(사적 416호)로 지정되었다. 제주도 지석묘는 총 24기가 지방기념물로 지정되어 있으며 발굴했던 선사유적 중 곽지패총, 북촌리바위그늘집자리, 용담동무덤유적이 지정되어 있다. 역사유적 중 법화사지, 존자암지가 지정되었고 일부 유적지는 복원 중이다. 제주도 문화재를 보존하고 활용하기 위해서는 강화된 새로운 문화재법의 적절한 활용, 매장문화재 발굴 전문기관 설립, 발굴된 문화재의 원상보존, 문화재 주소록 작성, 문화재 행정 전문인력의 확보, 제주문화재의 상징물 선정과 활용, 지역문화재홍보위원의 위촉과 다양한 문화유산 프로그램의 개발을 들었다.

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A Study on the Hipped-and-Gable-Roof Framework of Muryangsujeon of Buseoksa Temple (부석사 무량수전 측면 지붕부 결구의 구성방식에 관한 재고(再考) - 중국 원대(元代) 이전 목조건축과의 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • Cha, Ju-hwan
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.78-103
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    • 2016
  • This research is a study on the side framework structure of the hipped and gable roof of Muryangsujeon at Buseoksa Temple. There is a record that Muryangsujeon was deconstructed and repaired in the period of Japanese Occupancy, and its authenticity has continuously been called into question because the structure of the hipped and gable side roofs, and the bonding of the rafters and eaves were not in good order and very different from those of Joseon Dynasty. Scholars date it differently. It is either dated at 13th century or 12th century. This study compares the non-planar configuration of the middle and front proportions of Muryangsujeon's hipped-and-gable-roof framework with those of the Tang(唐) and Song(宋) Dynasties in China. It concludes that the hipped-and-gable-roof framework of those architecture were built with the same technique. The style of architecture that side rafters directly touch the internal security (梁), like in Muryangsujeon, is not usual even among the hipped and garble roofs of the Tang(唐) and Song(宋) Dynasties. The technique of constructing the hipped roofs developed much further after the Tang Dynasty because they began to use garble eaves to build the side structure. The technique seems to have developed greatly by the period of Ming and Qing Dynasties. It also seems that the parallel-flat (平行輻射椽) rafter, which is the form of rafters used between the parallelrafter period and the half-flat-rafter period is very similar to the construction style of the current rafters of Muryangsujeon. However, the Muryangsujeon's eaves do not touch the corner rafter from the middle part. This seems to be a unique style, which is not common in China. In conclusion, the style of the side roof framework of Muryangsujeon at Buseoksa Temple is not of the China's southern regions, but of the northern regions of Tang(唐), Song(宋) and Liao(遼) Dynasties. And when considering the construction year and proportions of the middle front and side front on the same flat, this must be an ancient technique of the northeastern regions of Asia. Since it is likely that the structure of the side roof framework of Muryangsujeon at Buseoksa Temple has not been altered but is a unique style of hipped and gable roofs, this roof can serve as a good guide to restoring the hipped and garble roofs of the pre-Goyreo Dynasty period.

The comparison and chronology of the lower marine terraces in the mid-eastern coast of Korean peninsula (韓反島 中部東海岸 低位海成段丘의 對比와 編年)

  • ;Choi, Seong-Gil
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.103-119
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    • 1995
  • This Paper aims to compare the lower marine terraces distributed from Muckho to Gangneung in the mid-eastern coast of Korean peninsula by the geomorphic method of using characteristies of terrace features and terrace deposits, paleosol, and fossil cryogenic structures, and to estimate the age of the lower marine terraces on the basis of the comparisons of those with the characteristics of thalassostatic terrace in adjacent rivers. The 1ower marine terraces in this area can be classified into two levels, i.e., lower marine terrace I and II surfaces, in desending order, according to the difference of former shoreline altitude. The former shoreline heights of the lowerm marine terrace I and II surfaces are 18m and 10m, respectiveiy. The width of the I surface is broader and distributed more continuousiy than that of II surface. Daejin I surface in Muckho coast, and Myeongju and Anin terrace in Gangneung coast could be classified into the lower marine terrace I surface, and Daejin II surfaCe into II surface. The Surface of ancient shore platform of the lower marine terrace I and II surfaces were weathered, and the color of the terrace deposit ranges from red to reddish brown. And this terrace deposit is covered with slope deposit of Last Glacial or fossil periglacial structures (platy structure and vecicle) of Last Glacial are formed in terrace deposit. These facts indicate that the lower marine terrace I and II surfaces had been formed before the Last Glacial, and then affected by chemical weathering under warm environment, finally followed by cold period. But the deposit of the lower marine terrace I surface is more weathered than that of II surface. And pseudogleyed red soil, which is developed in I but not in II surface, could be judged to have been formed in the Last Interglacial culmination stage (Oxygen isotope stage 5e). Therefore, in terms of the degree of weathering of the terrace deposit and the existence of pseudogleyed red soil, the age of both terrace is thought to be a little different. And the characteristics of the above mentioned II surface are accord with those of thalassostatic terrace formed in middle or late period of the Last Interglacial (5e or 5a). Thus on the basis of above all points, the lower marine terrace I and II surfaces in this area could be seen to have formed in the Last Interglacial culmination stage and middle or late period of the Last Interglacial, respectively. Because the lower mamine terrace I surface is broadry distributed in the eastern coast of Korea nPeninsula, the surface could be used to be a key surface in studying Quaternary marine terraces.

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Characteristics and Production Period of Goryo(高麗) Iron 'Sung(成)' Inscribed Celadon (고려(高麗) 철화(鐵畵) '성(成)' 명청자(銘靑瓷)의 특징(特徵)과 제작시기(製作時期))

  • Han, Sung Uk
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.61-78
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    • 2008
  • Celadons painted in underglaze iron brown 'Sung(成)' inscription are characteristic celadons excavated only at the No. 7 kiln site located at Sadang-ri(沙堂里), Daegu-myeon(大口面), Gangjin-gun(康津郡), Jeollanamdo(全羅南道), Korea and has inscription in the inner center of the foot by brush. The inscription was marked where it is not easily seen. it can be assumed that since it showed a variety of hand writings, many people were involved in manufacturing these celadons and the 'Sung' inscription was marked after workshop rather than manufacturer. It was also found that quality of glaze, paste, shape, pattern and firing method were same and these were manufactured with the same techniques in the same period. Kinds of these celadons were mainly sets of tablewares including bowl with handle, bowl, plate, cup, bowl with cover and bottle. Raised relief designs using extrusion technic were especially preferred rather than incised designs and inlaid designs. Cases of using inlaid designs were not frequently found compared to incised designs, thus it can be assumed that in this period, inlaid designs were not generally used. Special designs having the meaning of authority or dignity such as chrysanthemum, peony, parrot and lotus plate designs were not found. Foot was molded with 'U' type except some bowls with cover and plates and firing was done after glazing the whole surface of the ceramic with the support of quartzite at 3 to 4 places of inner bottom of foot. Production period of these celadons with 'Sung' inscription can not be confirmed from other excavation sites outside of No. 7 kiln site at Sadang-ri since there are no other excavation sites whose relics bear 'Sung' inscription. Through comparison research with other relics bear the characteristics of these celadons from tombs, temple sites, shipwrecks, production period of these celadons with 'Sung' inscription can be assumed as second quarter of 13th century. And since the quality of these celadons are generally inferior to the top-quality celadons which were supplied to royal familes and high-ranking aristocrats, it can be deducted that these celadons with 'Sung' inscription were supplied to classes lower than royal familes and high-ranking aristocrats. So it is considered that Celadons with 'Sung' inscription have a great significance as a chronological material to complement the blank of the first half of the 13th century because most of celadons with raised relief designs and engraved relief designs were attributed to 12th century, the period of prosperity.

Production Date and Patrons of Korean Treasure #978: Transcription of the Avatamsaka Sutra (Zhou Version) in Gold on White Paper (보물 제978호 <백지금니대방광불화엄경(白紙金泥大方廣佛華嚴經) 권(卷)29>의 조성 연대 및 발원자 고찰)

  • Won, Seunghyun
    • MISULJARYO - National Museum of Korea Art Journal
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    • v.98
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    • pp.78-103
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    • 2020
  • Transcribed Buddhist sutras generally consist of a frontispiece illustration, sutra illustrations, and sutra text, although some parts may be lost over time. Most transcribed sutras originally include an official record of the transcription (saseonggi) at either the beginning or end of the volume, which document various details of the production, including who commissioned the sutra and when it was transcribed. If such records are unavailable or difficult to decipher, the date of the sutra can only be estimated by comparison to other works with known production dates. This is the case with Korean Treasure #978, the "Transcription of the Avatamsaka Sutra (Zhou Version) in Gold on White Paper" (hereinafter, "Avatamsaka Sutra, Volume 29"), which does not contain any details of its production. Based on formal comparisons, the volume has been estimated to date from the early Joseon period. Important criteria for estimating the production date include the type of calligraphy script and the overall expression of the sutra illustrations. However, these features are missing from some early Joseon sutras, making it difficult to definitively assert which characteristics are representative of the period. Also, transcribed sutras from the late Goryeo period (after 1350) and early Joseon period are often very similar in terms of the expression of the frontispiece illustrations and sutra illustrations. From the late Goryeo period through the early Joseon period, the illustrations of transcribed sutras, which had previously been relatively detailed and realistic, gradually became more formalized and stylized. Significantly, Avatamsaka Sutra, Volume 29 includes illustrations showing both styles of expression (i.e., realistic and formalized). Moreover, the hemp leaf design on the frontispiece and the border around the sutra illustrations are unique features that have never been seen on any other transcribed sutras. Notably, however, Avatamsaka Sutra in Gold on White Paper, Volume 26 (hereinafter, "Avatamsaka Sutra, Volume 26"), which has not yet been introduced in academic research, is complete with frontispiece, sutra illustrations, and sutra text. This sutra is identical to Avatamsaka Sutra, Volume 29 in size, composition, and details, and is thus estimated to have been produced at the same time and by the same patrons. According to the record at the end of the volume, Avatamsaka Sutra, Volume 26 was commissioned in 1348 by Gi Cheol (d. 1365), which corresponds to the estimated date of Avatamsaka Sutra, Volume 29 derived by formal comparison. Based on this new information, Avatamsaka Sutra, Volume 29 was likely produced in the late Goryeo period rather than the early Joseon period, as has previously been presumed. The new study of Avatamsaka Sutra, Volume 26 also seems to confirm that both sutras were transcribed by highly skilled artisans in 1348 of the late Goryeo period, a transitional phase in the expression of sutra illustrations.

A Study on Inscribed Celadons Excavated from the Goryeo Palace Site (고려궁성 출토 명문·기호 청자 고찰)

  • Park, Jiyoung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.122-141
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    • 2019
  • This study aimed to provide new interpretations of the ceramics excavated from the archaeological site of the royal palace of Goryeo (918~1392), where only limited access was permitted due to its location in Gaeseong, North Korea. The interpretations were based on the existing understanding of the arrangement of the palace buildings at the site and historical records. The study of the general aspects of the celadons discovered during eight excavations at the Goryeo Palace site in Gaeseong revealed that most of the vessels found at the site were produced during the early and middle phases of the Goryeo dynasty. The study involved classifying the celadons bearing inscribed texts and symbols into 18 different types according to their characteristic features and periods of production. The inscribed celadons have provided detailed information of the site where they were found, thereby making it possible to make strong presumptions about the date of construction, function, and status of the building in the palace connected with the discoveries. The excavations from the Goryeo Palace site and related historical literature suggest that the celadons bearing the inscription "Sojeon (燒錢)" were used during the first half of the 13th century, although the existing view had been that they were used during the second half of the century. This new conclusion is based on the use of the symbols ${\circ}$ and ${\odot}$, the celadons found together with the Sojeon-inscribed celadons, the date of the celadons bearing the inscription "Seong (成)," and the location of their discovery behind the site of Seongyeongjeon (aka Hoegyeongjeon) Hall, which had been one of the main palace buildings. The Taoist rituals performed for the safety of the Goryeo dynasty were largely held at Ganganjeon (aka Daegwanjeon) Hall in the western part of the royal palace during the second half of the 13th century. It was mostly in the first half of the 13th century just before the transfer of the Goryeo government from Gaeseong to Ganghwa (1232~1270) that the Taoist rituals were held at the location near Seongyeongjeon Hall, where archaeologists found the Sojeon-inscribed celadons. Therefore, the large number of celadon cups with holders, including those inscribed with Sojeon, discovered during the eighth excavation of the palace site suggests that they were used for the rituals held at Seongyeongjeon Hall during the first half of the 13th century.