• Title/Summary/Keyword: 편년

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A Study on the Character and Historical Significance of Sanskrit Roof Tiles in the Hoeamsa Temple of Yangju City (양주 회암사지 출토 범자 진언명(眞言銘) 기와의 특징과 의의)

  • Eom, Gi-Pyo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.4-25
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    • 2017
  • The Hoeamsa Temple of Yangju City was established at least during the late Korea Dynasty. This temple was rebuilt several times with the support of the royal family from the late Korea Dynasty to the early Joseon Dynasty. It was continually rebuilt in association with JiGong monk, HyeKeun monk, and MuHak monk. Hoeamsa temple was leading the Buddhist culture as a Buddhist center of the Joseon Dynasty . It was destroyed in the late Joseon Period. This site has been excavated several times since 1997. Various roofing tiles were unearthed. Of these tiles the edge of eaves are the artifacts showing the best features of this era. In this temple site has been excavated a variety of Sanskrit roof tiles. These tiles were made using superior technique. On the roof tiles are engraved Sanskrit mantras with a variety of 1 to 9 words. The jeongbeopkkye mantra(oṃ raṃ) and six-word mantra(oṃ ma ṇi pa dme hūṃ) were discovered the most. These mantras were believe to expel several evils from the Buddhist temple. It must have been that the six-word mantra culture became prevalent and provided a turning point in the history of Korean Buddhism. We can clearly know when some of the Sanskrit roof tiles were first manufactured. These roof tiles are the absolute standard of the other Sanskrit roof tiles excavated from different Buddhist temples. The master craftsmen must have been very skilled, understood the mantra very well, and had deep faith in the Sanskrit mantra. Hoeamsa Temple is a milestone in studying the Sanskrit roof tiles. More studies on various aspects are expected to be followed.

The Development of Earthenware Kilns in Bongsan-ri Archaeological Site, Osong: Implications for Pre- and Post-1950 AD Absolute Age Determination (AD 1950년 전후 고고유적의 절대연대측정에 대한 고찰: 오송 봉산리 옹기가마 유적을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Myung Jin;Son, Myoung Soo;Kim, Tae Hong;Sung, Ki Seok
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.481-492
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    • 2018
  • We conducted TL/OSL dating for the earthenware kilns in the Bongsan-ri archaeological site, Osong, which was occupied from the late nineteenth to the late twentieth century. With the SAR-TL/OSL method, paleodose was determined from the equivalent dose during the burial period($ED_{burial}$), the background dose($ED_{BG}$), the fading correction factor(f), and the overestimation correction factor(C). The annual dose rates and their provenance were evaluated from the measurement of natural radionuclides $^{238}U$, $^{232}Th$, and $^{40}K$. Because the comprehensive absolute age was provided by combining the resulting TL/OSL and radiocarbon data, we concluded that, for the absolute chronology of a modern archaeological site, TL/OSL dating and radiocarbon dating must be carried out together and summed. The construction and occupation of earthenware kilns in the Bongsan-ri site had changed from stage I (No.5, 6 kilns), to stage II (No.1, 2, 3 kilns), to stage III (No.4) in chronological order. When Bayesian statistics were applied, we found that the absolute ages of occupation for stages I, II, and III correspond to AD $1910{\pm}23$, AD $1970{\pm}10$, and AD $1987{\pm}4$. These results were in good agreement with the archaeological context or chronology.

The Styles and Chronicle Years of Lotus Flower Patterns of the Shape of Straight and Pointed Petals of Baekjae (백제 판단첨형식 연화문의 형식과 편년)

  • Cho, Weon Chang
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.132-153
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    • 2009
  • A lotus flower pattern of the shape of straight and pointed petals has the forms whose lotus flowers are pointed, and is one of the representative forms of lotus flower pattern of Baekjae along with a round and a triangle protruded style. This style of lotus flower pattern was applied to roof-end tiles, halos of Buddhist images, containers of Buddha's bones, head supports, etc. from the Hanseong period to the Sabi period of Baekjae. However most of lotus flower patterns that remain today were used for the tiles of the Sabi period. Many of them were produced under the influence of the Northern Dynasties and the Southern Dynasties of China, and of Goryeo, which implies the active cultural exchange of Baekjae at that time. Among the present lotus flower patterns of the shape of the straight and pointed petals, that of the earliest time is from Gyeongdang district of Poongnab mud castle and belongs to the mid-fifth century. However there is a higher chance that the gradual subsequent excavation and research will find some tiles of the earlier period and other styles can also be unearthed.

Evaluation of construction era of Pungnabtoseong earthen wall, Seoul by using OSL dating (OSL 연대측정을 통한 풍납토성 축조연대 산출)

  • Kim, Myung-Jin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.324-332
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    • 2012
  • Construction era of Pungnabtoseong earthen wall is one of the most popular controversial issues in Korean archaeological research. For the evaluation of construction era, OSL dating was carried out using seven pottery pieces collected in each construction stage. From TL/OSL characteristics, and the results of absolute zeroing test and recovery test, it was proved that the pottery samples were completely bleached. The reliable paleodose was evaluated by using the SAR method with preheat at $220^{\circ}C$, and the pottery OSL age was determined from the ratio of paleodose to annual dose rate. Considering the resultant OSL ages, archaeological context and the related 14C ages, the first construction era was determined as $294{\pm}52$ yrs AD ($1{\sigma}$ SE). Also we found that the enlargement of construction stage III was $328{\pm}30$ yrs AD ($1{\sigma}$ SE) and final construction was finished within $400{\pm}76$ yrs AD ($1{\sigma}$ SE). Therefore, it is suggested that the construction of Pungnabtoseong earthen wall was firstly started in the late $3^{rd}$ century AD and several enlargements and repairs had been carried out, before the transfer of the capital of Baekje dynasty to Woongjin (Gongju) at 475 AD.

Archaeomagnetic Dating of a Layer of Baked Earth on Daegu Buinsa Site (대구 부인사 유적 소토층의 고고지자기 연대)

  • Sung, Hyong Mi
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2012
  • Issues of chronology on archaeological remains or relics have been a storm-center of controversy when various archaeological researches have been done. Sometimes there is a limit for figuring out issues of chronology by archaeological research. In that case, the field of natural science is often needed to work out issues of chronology. Among various subjects in natural science, archaeomagnetism plays an important role in dating archaeological remains for baked earth bearing relics. In particular, archaeomagnetism is of use for sites where directly excavated dating proxy is unavailable. Terrestrial magnetism changes along with the passage of time and leaves trace by many kinds of residual magnetization which could be called fossil of terrestrial magnetism. Archaeomagnetic dating method is used to assign a date to the archaeological remains in which baked earth is found by measuring the changes of terrestrial magnetism through the thermal remanent magnetization retained in baked earth. This study aims to constrain the age of fire at Buinsa, Daege, Korea using 27 samples that were collected from a layer of baked earth. Buinsa is famous for the place where kept the first edition of Tripitaka Koreana, which was lost in fire at the second invasion of mongolia. In addition, there is a record that there was revolt around this region in A.D.1203. According to archaeomagnetic dating, ages of A.D.1150~1200 and A.D.1130~1210 were assigned for the two building sites in Buinsa, respectively. To this end, it can be concluded that the layer of baked earth on the two building sites in Buinsa recorded the vestige of fire caused by revolt.

The Last Interglacial Sea Levels Estimated from the Morphostratigraphic Comparison of the Late Pleistocene Fluvial Terraces in the Eastern Coast of Korea (한국 동해안에 있어서 최종간빙기의 구정선고도 연구 후기 경신세 하성단구의 지형층서적 대비의 관점에서)

  • 최성길
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-26
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    • 1993
  • The estimation of the Last Interglacial sea level was made by using the thalassostatic terrace which had been developed in the lower reach of Namdaechon river in Kangneung, eastern coastal area of Korea. The fluvial terraces, which have been developed since late Pleistocene, were investigated. The main findings were as follows; 1) That Kangneung terrace I had been formed in the climax period of the Last Interglacial (Oxygen isotope stage 5e) was revealed. It was estimated that Kangneung terrace II had been formed during a certain warmer period between the climax period of the Last Interglacial and the early Last Glacial(probably Oxygen isotope stage 5c or 5a). 2) Being judged from the relative heights of the Kangneung terrace I and II, the sea levels of the formation periods of these terraces were estimated to have been relatively 17~20m and l0m higher than the present sea level, respectively. 3) The formation periods of the Wangsan terrace I and II were supposed to be the early and late Last Glacial respectively, being judged from the following 3 details ; a) the characteristics of the terrace deposits, b) the relation Wangsan terrace II to the buried valley floor, and c) the cross phenomena of the above two terraces to the Kangneung terraces. 4) The formation period of the pseudogleyed red soil in the Kangneung terrace I was estimated to be the middle or late period of the Last Interglacial.

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Archaeomagnetic Study on Archaeological Sites in Jeju Region (제주지역 유적에 대한 고고지자기학적 연구)

  • Sung, Hyong Mi
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2017
  • A total of 16 precious archaeomagnetic dating data were obtained from various historic sites including fired soils from eight archaeological sites on Jeju Island. We researched the measurement results of 12 pieces of data from before the Common Era (BCE), and four pieces of data from after the Common Era. First, the BCE data could be divided into three groups (A, B, and C) based on the difference in the archaeomagnetic data. By comparing the data accumulated in other parts of Korea and referring to the archaeological years, the order of the groups was as follows: A group (Bronze Age~Early Iron Age) ${\rightarrow}$ B group (Early Iron Age when the circular rim eomtodae pottery was excavated) ${\rightarrow}$ C group (Early Iron Age when triangulated rim jeomtodae pottery was excavated), with A group being the earliest data group and C group being the latest data group. In addition, the data after the Common Era could be used to determine the archaeomagnetic dating of the archaeological sites. Through the archaeomagnetic dating of Jeju's archaeological sites for the BCE period, the relative order of the relics was determined, and for the period after the Common Era, the absolute age of the historic sites was obtained. They are expected to be used diversely in the chronological study of Jeju.

Formation Process of Pottery with Lighting Design in Northeastern Region of the Korean Peninsula (한반도 동북지역 뇌문토기 변천과정)

  • Kim, Jae-youn
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.40
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    • pp.137-167
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    • 2007
  • This paper is aimed to study the late Neolithic Age in North Korea in order to closely examine a transition process into the Bronze Age in the Korean peninsula. Thus, the pottery with lightning design was selected as target data. Since the pottery with lightning design is fundamental data that North Korea's archeologists have used for chronological recordings of the late Neolithic Age in the northwest region, the parallel relationship between the eastern and the western region was established with comparison of pottery with lightning design in the northeastern region. The examination focuses on data that cover the target region of the pottery with lightning design of the adjacent Southern Primorskii region including the counterpart of the northwestern and the northeastern region. As a result, some attribute analyses revealed that the pottery with lightning design was affected by the counterpart of the northwestern region near the Yalu River. Prior to genealogical and chronological recordings of the pottery with lightning design in the northeastern region, the pottery with lightning design in the northwestern region was recorded chronologically in order to examine its specific development process. Consequently, in the second period of the Neolithic Age, the pottery with lightning design in the northwestern region was assumed to have an impact on the counterpart in the northeastern region. The classification of the pottery with lightning design in the northeastern region shall be based on 4-period development. According to this classification, the pottery, which was found in the Tumen river basin, was thought to belong to the first period. The pottery went through genealogy differentiation in the second period and when entering into the third period, the pottery spread to inland of south Primorskii. The pottery was assumed to exist in the southern Primorskii region until the tip end (the fourth period) of the Neolithic Age. It is assumed that considering the fact that climate change led to the agriculture movement, Zaisanovka culture, i.e. the late Ne Neolithic Age, moved to the southern Primorskii region along the Tumen River basin.

The Study of Absolute Dating on Jinju Janghungri Kiln site. (진주 장흥리 와요지 유적의 절대편년연구)

  • Yi, Hyeon-Ju;Kim, Dae-Wung;Hong, Jong-Ouk;Shim, Il-Wun
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.189-202
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    • 2005
  • This study carried out to understand thermoluminescence dating of ancient tiles at Jinju Janghungri Kilin site. Also radiocarbon dating by the benzene synthesis method and Liquid scintillation counting method were performed for comparison for the agedetermination of charcoal sample at the obtained same site.1st and 2nd glow curve were obtained according to the typical method thermoluminescence. Plateau tests of revealed the proper temperature range to be $300~440^{\circ}C$ Palaeodose average values were formed to the 2.44Gy.Annual dose of ancient tiles was calculated from soil samples and ancient tiles it self by measuring alpha radiation dose, potassium concentrations and water contents respectively. Annual dose average values were calculated to be 7.012mGy/yr.The radiocarbon age(BP year) was converted to calibrated age(AD/BC year) using high precision curve. Radiocarbon ages were calculated to be AD 15~17 .Comparison of samples with their radiocarbon and thermoluminescence ages for revealed the in range the AD 15~17. This result means that the measured absolute ages are in good agreement with each other within the margin of error.

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New Perspectives in Pottery Typology of Korean Archaeology - Related to the Typology of Chungdo-Type Pottery from the Youngdong Region - (토기의 형식분류론에서 제기되는 몇 가지 문제에 대하여 - 영동지역 출토「중도식」토기편년과 관련하여 -)

  • Lee, Jun-Ho
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.36
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    • pp.87-104
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    • 2003
  • The Chungdo-type Pottery Culture, distributed through the middle part of the Korean peninsula, is chronologically located in the very former stage of the advent of ancient states. It has two different traditions of pottery manufacturing technique which are totally different in choosing raw materials, shaping, fixing and firing. It seems that two different traditions had been selectively applied by pottery type. In order to understand this peculiar cultural aspect, the pottery typology needs to be different from those applied to cultures where pottery was made and used under the single manufacturing tradition. This study tries to find the new pottery typology which best fits for the understanding the chronology of the Chungdo-Type Pottery Culture. For this purpose, I examined existing typologies, recognized their problems, and then build a new typology. As a result, I found that the former typologies misinterpreted the relative frequencies of each pottery type as different function or region. In this article, I propose the new pottery typology as building a primary classification within each function and region, and then synthesizing all of primary classifications. This new typology eliminates the factors of function and region in understanding the chronology of the Chungdo-Type Pottery Culture, and assorts the regional distinction by comparing pottery types in each region.