• Title/Summary/Keyword: 편년

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A Study of Shilla (新羅) Roof-end Tile Which Has The Same Design But Different Form (신라 동문이형 막새기와에 대한 소고 - 경주지역에서 채집된 3종 8점을 중심으로 -)

  • Park Hong-Kook
    • KOMUNHWA
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    • no.57
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    • pp.129-144
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    • 2001
  • The roof-end tile among Korean old roof tiles has been recognized as a short cut to the study of roof tiles. Because the roof-end tile was stamped out with the design in fashion or preferred by the people at that time. So many researchers and scholars hav

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Metallurgical Analysis of Iron Artifacts Excavated from the Yeongsan River Basin (영산강유역 출토 철기유물의 미세조직 분석)

  • Lee, Jae-Sung;Kim, Soo-Ki
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.18
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    • pp.33-50
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    • 2006
  • Around Yeongsan river basin, there are Yeongkwang Gundong, Muan Inpyeong Tombs, Muu Gusan-ri Tombs and Hampyeong Guksan remain from which a lot of iron artifacts were excavated. Among them, 6 iron artifacts were chosen, and their microstructures were analyzed. As a result, Iron artifacts were produced sponge iron by the low temperature reduction process and a part of microstructure have the possibility that steel made by decarburizing. And also, by tempering the parts which need high strength, the iron artifacts had high strength and by distributing the weakness of the tempered structure to the nearby untempered parts, their breaking was prevented and they had the durability. These skills were used then. Especially these skills were found to be used in the 2nd century by high skilled people because an iron axe excavated at Yeongkwang Gundong of 2nd century by the historical record showed that the skill was used. Also microstructures were found to show the possibility that the iron technology was inherited to the late 5th century. When producing iron artifacts made of sponge iron containing small amount of carbon, that was made by the production process repeating molding, carburizing, heat treatment and hammering.

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$^{14}C$ Dates from Late Paleolithic Sites and Chronological Implications in Korea (한국의 구석기유적의 탄소연대측정치와 편년문제)

  • 배기동
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 2001
  • In total, 29 $^{14}C$ dates were obtained from Paleolithic sites in the Korean peninsula. If not the dates from the Sorori peat layers, the number will be less than 20. Low boundary of Upper Paleolithic could be estimated by some early of the dates from Blade stone industries. Couple of $^{14}C$ dates indicate that beginning of Upper Paleolithic industries could approach to 40 K BP, but it is premature to establish fine chronology of Upper Paleolithic. Some of the $^{14}C$ dates of microlithic industries probably represent too earlier age than generally thought. Tentatively, the beginning of microlithic industries may go back to an age of slightly older than 20 K BP, as indicated in Janghungri, Sokchangni, Noeundong etc. The obtained $^{14}C$ dates at present are very important for construction of Paleolithic chronology. but it is necessary to accumulate for more $^{14}C$ dates in future along with results from other dating techniques and to reconstruct site formation processes for obtaining objective age of stone industries.

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SEM-EDS를 이용한 고대문화의 해석 - 고대의 유리구슬 -

  • Kim, Gyu-Ho;Heo, U-Yeong
    • 한국전자현미경학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.40-44
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    • 1999
  • 기록이 없는 과거 역사에 대한 연구는 문화재라는 간접적인 자료를 통하여 이루어지고 있다. 지금까지의 문화재 연구는 외형적인 특성을 연구하는 고고학이나 미술사의 분야만으로 국한하였으나 점차 내형적인 특성을 연구하는 과학적인 분석기술도 다양하게 응용되고 있다. 문화재의 특성적 성분을 분석하여 원료, 제작방법, 시대, 그리고 지역으로 그룹화한다면 문화재의 특성과 함께 지역, 시대에 따른 문화적 형태와 수준, 그리고 문화의 유입 경로 등에 대한 자료를 제시할 수 있다. 분 연구에서는 유리나 도자기 유약 등의 문화재를 분석할 경우에 대한 SEM-EDS의 정량분석 조건들을 설정하고 경남 김해 양동리고분에서 출토된 고대 유리구슬에 대하여 직접 적용하여 보았다. 분석 결과, 매장되었던 고대 유리에서는 풍화층이 존재하며 이에 대한 분석조건과 정량분석의 문제점들을 고찰하였다. 이를 기초로 하여 적용한 양동리고분의 유리구슬은 알칼리계 유리로 칼리계 유리는 AD 1C, 소다계 유리는 AD 2C말$\sim$3C초부터 나타난 것으로 추정된다. 그리고 유리의 색상은 전이금속 동(Cu), 철(Fe), 그리고 망간(Mn)의 함유량과 밀접한 관계가 있음을 보인다. 이 분석 결과에 따라 고대 유리구슬의 성분 함유량이 원료, 색상, 유구편년, 그리고 지역에 따라 그룹이 형성될 수 있음을 확인하였다.

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An Archaeological Study on the Foundations of Five Palaces of the Joseon Period (조선시대 5대 궁궐 건물지 기초의 고고학적 연구)

  • Choi, Inhwa
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.120-137
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    • 2021
  • There were five palaces built during the Joseon Period. Gyeongbokgung Palace was the first one, founded in the 4th year of King Taejo (1395), and depending on the historical interpretation, Changdeokgung Palace, Changgyeonggung Palace, Gyeongungung Palace (Deoksugung), and Gyeongdeokgung Palace (Gyeonghuigung) were also built. The palaces represent the best architecture of the time. In addition, the palaces of the Joseon period have been rebuilt several times, so they contain the architectural history of the Joseon period over the last 500 years. In this paper, all the excavations of five palaces in the Joseon Period were surveyed, and the foundations of the buildings were analyzed. In particular, the aim of this paper is to investigate Jeoksim (foundations of buildings under cornerstone) to understand the characteristics of each palace by period. Accordingly, the changes of the construction techniques of the foundations of the palaces were studied. There are a total of 23 types of Jeoksim. All five palaces have a certain type (I~V) of construction technique, thus it was confirmed that there was a certain pattern in the method of constructing the foundations of palace buildings in the Joseon Dynasty. In addition, Jeoksim was mainly built by certain materials and construction methods (I-1) during the 14th to the 17th century, but new types of Jeoksim were built in the palaces starting from the 18th century, during the reign of King Jeongjo. In the 19th century, when King Gojong sat on the throne, the Jeoksim was built in various shapes, materials, and in 22 types of construction methods. Up to now, research on the remains of palaces were mainly conducted on the Gyeongbokgung Palace, so it was not possible to confirm the foundations of 17th-18th century buildings, where reconstruction had stopped after the Imjin War in 1592. However, through this study, it was possible to classify the transition periodsstheir features periods of palace building foundation construction from the 14th to the 20th century by comparing the remains of five palace building sites.

A Method for Establishing Chronology of Cloud Patterns Based on the Cover Patterns of Oegyujanggak Uigwe Books in the Late Joseon Period (외규장각 의궤 책의 문양을 통한 운보문 편년 설정 방법)

  • Lee, Eunjoo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.18-37
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    • 2019
  • This study derived a method for establishing the chronology of cloud patterns by examining the arrangement of the treasure motifs in the cloud pattern used in the relevant pattern-decorated book covers of 89 Oegyujanggak Uigwe books, which are currently housed in the National Museum of Korea. The cloud pattern with a treasure motif was used in the covers of a total of 89 books from King Hyojong Gukjangdogam Uigwe (1659) to Sadoseja Garyedogam Uigwe (1744), spanning 86 years. First, to analyze the cloud pattern, it should be broken down into smaller parts to the extent that the different shapes of treasure motifs can be recognized. Secondly, the method of decoding the pattern is as follows: First, check whether the pattern is arranged in one or two directions from the vertex of the cloud's head, and determine the direction of the cloud tail. Then, decode the treasure motif's arrangement starting from the vertex of the cloud's head toward the direction the tail of manja is headed. Record the findings of this decoding process by categorizing them. Thirdly, as a result of the analysis, a total of 28 types of cloud patterns with treasure motifs were identified in 89 books. There were 45 types of treasure motifs used in such patterns. Finally, we have concluded that applying the method of decoding the treasure motif in the cloud pattern to portraits, excavated costumes, and various relics can be useful to establish the chronology of cloud patterns in the late Joseon period. The method suggested in this study is called 'The Reading Method of Chronology in Cloud Pattern with Treasure Motifs' (also 'Jeung-ha Cloud Pattern Reading Method').

A new glimpse on the foundation of the Bronze Age concept in Korean archaeology (한국 고고학 성립 시기 청동기 연구에 대한 새로운 인식 - 윤무병(1924~2010)의 연구를 중심으로 -)

  • KANG, Inuk
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.154-169
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    • 2021
  • The establishment of the Bronze Age is one of the most important achievements suggested by Korean archaeology shortly after liberation. There is no doubt that Moo-Byung Yoon is the representative figure, who refuted the ambiguous Eneolithic age (金石倂用期) created by Japanese scholars and settled the concept of the Bronze Age. In this article, the author takes a new look at Yoon's institutional role in studying the Bronze Age in Korea. Until now, Yoon's representative achievement has been his typology of the Slender dagger of the Korean Peninsula. However, it is not less important that Yoon also established the Bronze Age concept with the excavation of a dolmen and a Bronze Age subterranean dwelling in Oksok-ni, Paju during the 1960s. Of course, it was not a personal assignment for Yoon. He was aided by Prof. Kim Won-Yong's work, who had introduced newly excavated materials from North Korea and China; these materials gave some insight for establishing the Bronze Age concepts in the 1960 and 1970s. Kim's suggestion about the possibility of a Korean Bronze Age led to Yoon's refined typological study on Korea's bronze wares. However, Yoon's excessive schematic classification of artifacts and reliance on the Japanese chronology became an obstacle for making the Korean Bronze Age isolated from East Asia. As a result, it is regrettable that his research led to the "cultural lag" phenomenon of Bronze Age research. Meanwhile, Japanese archaeology, which had influenced Yoon, also faced a major change. In 2003, the Japanese archaeological community revised the Yayoi culture's beginning around the 1,000 BC. This means a shift in the perception that we should understand Japan's Bronze Age in the context of the East Asian continent. Of course, it is not appropriate to reevaluate or denigrate Yoon's research from the current view. Rather, it is necessary to recognize the limitations of Yoon's time and present a new path to research by combining the archaeological tradition of refining research on the relics he maintained with a new chronological view and a macro view of East Asian archaeology. This is why we should take a new glimpse into Yoon's research.

Taesil Seokham Styles of the Joseon Royal Family (조선왕실(朝鮮王室) 태실석함(胎室石函)의 현황(現況)과 양식변천(樣式變遷))

  • Shim, Hyun Yong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.208-241
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to examine the chronology of Taesil Seokham(Taesil Stone Boxes) stored in Taesil of the Joseon Palace and classify the styles to discuss how these boxes have developed. By doing so, this study defined the archaeological styles of taesil seokhams in the chronological order. Although taesil seokhams are placed when taesil are first created, they do not have any texts engraved on them and it is difficult to gain information only from examining taesil seokham. However, Taejiseok(memorial stones buried in Taesil) and Agibi(gravestones buried in Taesil) were created along with taesil. These resources were examined and compared with literature records to find when each taesil seokhams was created. The critical elements to consider for the chronological arrangement were both the cover and container of the boxes and the transition of their style could be classified into four major stages. In detail, the Joseon Dynasty's taesil seokhams initially inherited the style of the Goryeo Dynasty to be formed into rectangular boxes. Through the transition of the mid and late 15th Century, the semi-circular cover with cylindrical container became the popular style in the late 15th Century. In the late 16th Century, the style of the previous period was further developed to add some decorative elements, such as projecting ornaments, but the ornaments were added for functional purposes rather than artistic purposes. However, the style went back to the semi-circular cover with cylindrical container in the early 17th Century. From the mid 17th Century, various styles appeared with ornaments only on the cover, cone-shaped cover with no ornament, or mortar-like container. However, a new style of cone-shaped cover with ornament emerged between the early and mid 18th Century and continued to stay until the mid 18th Century. In the mid 18th Century, the cover remained unchanged, but the container became a keyhole-shaped space with one side forming a "ㄷ" shape. However, in the late 18th Century, the most typical style of the semi-circular cover with cylindrical container reappeared to show that this is the most universal style. Last, in the mid 19th Century, the cover changed from semi-circular to rectangular with flat top. After this, the taesil seokhams began to disappear. In terms of style, it can be classified into four stages. In the early Joseon Dynasty, the taesil seokhams were underdeveloped and inherited the style of the Goryeo Dynasty (Stage I; 1401~mid-15C), but Joseon's unique style began to develop from the late 15th Century (Stage II; 1477~1641). After that, partial ornaments were added for adornment (Stage III; 1660~1754), but the typical style reappeared in the late 18th Century to finally degrade in the late Joseon Dynasty of the mid 19th Century (Stage IV; 1790~1874). This arrangement of style and chronology would greatly help archaeologists anticipate the time and owner of taesil seokhams even if only taesil seokhams are discovered without any records. * Tae(胎) : Placenta and umbilical cord * Taesil(胎室) : A facility(chamber) of burying Tae(胎) in rite when royal descendants are born.