• Title/Summary/Keyword: 편년

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A Study on the Hipped-and-Gable-Roof Framework of Muryangsujeon of Buseoksa Temple (부석사 무량수전 측면 지붕부 결구의 구성방식에 관한 재고(再考) - 중국 원대(元代) 이전 목조건축과의 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • Cha, Ju-hwan
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.78-103
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    • 2016
  • This research is a study on the side framework structure of the hipped and gable roof of Muryangsujeon at Buseoksa Temple. There is a record that Muryangsujeon was deconstructed and repaired in the period of Japanese Occupancy, and its authenticity has continuously been called into question because the structure of the hipped and gable side roofs, and the bonding of the rafters and eaves were not in good order and very different from those of Joseon Dynasty. Scholars date it differently. It is either dated at 13th century or 12th century. This study compares the non-planar configuration of the middle and front proportions of Muryangsujeon's hipped-and-gable-roof framework with those of the Tang(唐) and Song(宋) Dynasties in China. It concludes that the hipped-and-gable-roof framework of those architecture were built with the same technique. The style of architecture that side rafters directly touch the internal security (梁), like in Muryangsujeon, is not usual even among the hipped and garble roofs of the Tang(唐) and Song(宋) Dynasties. The technique of constructing the hipped roofs developed much further after the Tang Dynasty because they began to use garble eaves to build the side structure. The technique seems to have developed greatly by the period of Ming and Qing Dynasties. It also seems that the parallel-flat (平行輻射椽) rafter, which is the form of rafters used between the parallelrafter period and the half-flat-rafter period is very similar to the construction style of the current rafters of Muryangsujeon. However, the Muryangsujeon's eaves do not touch the corner rafter from the middle part. This seems to be a unique style, which is not common in China. In conclusion, the style of the side roof framework of Muryangsujeon at Buseoksa Temple is not of the China's southern regions, but of the northern regions of Tang(唐), Song(宋) and Liao(遼) Dynasties. And when considering the construction year and proportions of the middle front and side front on the same flat, this must be an ancient technique of the northeastern regions of Asia. Since it is likely that the structure of the side roof framework of Muryangsujeon at Buseoksa Temple has not been altered but is a unique style of hipped and gable roofs, this roof can serve as a good guide to restoring the hipped and garble roofs of the pre-Goyreo Dynasty period.

A Study on Inscribed Celadons Excavated from the Goryeo Palace Site (고려궁성 출토 명문·기호 청자 고찰)

  • Park, Jiyoung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.122-141
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    • 2019
  • This study aimed to provide new interpretations of the ceramics excavated from the archaeological site of the royal palace of Goryeo (918~1392), where only limited access was permitted due to its location in Gaeseong, North Korea. The interpretations were based on the existing understanding of the arrangement of the palace buildings at the site and historical records. The study of the general aspects of the celadons discovered during eight excavations at the Goryeo Palace site in Gaeseong revealed that most of the vessels found at the site were produced during the early and middle phases of the Goryeo dynasty. The study involved classifying the celadons bearing inscribed texts and symbols into 18 different types according to their characteristic features and periods of production. The inscribed celadons have provided detailed information of the site where they were found, thereby making it possible to make strong presumptions about the date of construction, function, and status of the building in the palace connected with the discoveries. The excavations from the Goryeo Palace site and related historical literature suggest that the celadons bearing the inscription "Sojeon (燒錢)" were used during the first half of the 13th century, although the existing view had been that they were used during the second half of the century. This new conclusion is based on the use of the symbols ${\circ}$ and ${\odot}$, the celadons found together with the Sojeon-inscribed celadons, the date of the celadons bearing the inscription "Seong (成)," and the location of their discovery behind the site of Seongyeongjeon (aka Hoegyeongjeon) Hall, which had been one of the main palace buildings. The Taoist rituals performed for the safety of the Goryeo dynasty were largely held at Ganganjeon (aka Daegwanjeon) Hall in the western part of the royal palace during the second half of the 13th century. It was mostly in the first half of the 13th century just before the transfer of the Goryeo government from Gaeseong to Ganghwa (1232~1270) that the Taoist rituals were held at the location near Seongyeongjeon Hall, where archaeologists found the Sojeon-inscribed celadons. Therefore, the large number of celadon cups with holders, including those inscribed with Sojeon, discovered during the eighth excavation of the palace site suggests that they were used for the rituals held at Seongyeongjeon Hall during the first half of the 13th century.

Characteristics and Production Period of Goryo(高麗) Iron 'Sung(成)' Inscribed Celadon (고려(高麗) 철화(鐵畵) '성(成)' 명청자(銘靑瓷)의 특징(特徵)과 제작시기(製作時期))

  • Han, Sung Uk
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.61-78
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    • 2008
  • Celadons painted in underglaze iron brown 'Sung(成)' inscription are characteristic celadons excavated only at the No. 7 kiln site located at Sadang-ri(沙堂里), Daegu-myeon(大口面), Gangjin-gun(康津郡), Jeollanamdo(全羅南道), Korea and has inscription in the inner center of the foot by brush. The inscription was marked where it is not easily seen. it can be assumed that since it showed a variety of hand writings, many people were involved in manufacturing these celadons and the 'Sung' inscription was marked after workshop rather than manufacturer. It was also found that quality of glaze, paste, shape, pattern and firing method were same and these were manufactured with the same techniques in the same period. Kinds of these celadons were mainly sets of tablewares including bowl with handle, bowl, plate, cup, bowl with cover and bottle. Raised relief designs using extrusion technic were especially preferred rather than incised designs and inlaid designs. Cases of using inlaid designs were not frequently found compared to incised designs, thus it can be assumed that in this period, inlaid designs were not generally used. Special designs having the meaning of authority or dignity such as chrysanthemum, peony, parrot and lotus plate designs were not found. Foot was molded with 'U' type except some bowls with cover and plates and firing was done after glazing the whole surface of the ceramic with the support of quartzite at 3 to 4 places of inner bottom of foot. Production period of these celadons with 'Sung' inscription can not be confirmed from other excavation sites outside of No. 7 kiln site at Sadang-ri since there are no other excavation sites whose relics bear 'Sung' inscription. Through comparison research with other relics bear the characteristics of these celadons from tombs, temple sites, shipwrecks, production period of these celadons with 'Sung' inscription can be assumed as second quarter of 13th century. And since the quality of these celadons are generally inferior to the top-quality celadons which were supplied to royal familes and high-ranking aristocrats, it can be deducted that these celadons with 'Sung' inscription were supplied to classes lower than royal familes and high-ranking aristocrats. So it is considered that Celadons with 'Sung' inscription have a great significance as a chronological material to complement the blank of the first half of the 13th century because most of celadons with raised relief designs and engraved relief designs were attributed to 12th century, the period of prosperity.

Archaeomagnetic Study on Roof Tile Kilns of Goryeo Period in Gyeonggi Region (경기지역 고려시대 기와가마에 대한 고고지자기학적 연구)

  • Sung, Hyong Mi
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2016
  • At the archaeological site, there are a variety of fired soil remains with which archaeomagnetic dating is measured, and there are also different kinds of kilns equipped with favorable plasticity conditions, so quality data can be gained. Among them, roof tile kilns indicate fairly great results of archaeomagnetic measuring. This should be associated with the properties of soil consisting of the kilns. With a lot of experimental results, it has been found that the fired soil samples of roof tile kilns have formed very stable residual magnetization. This author conducted archaeomagnetic research to present archaeomagnetic results of measuring about roof tile kilns from Goryeo in Gyeonggi. With the archaeomagnetic data of measuring 21 samples, this researcher tried to estimate the archaeomagnetic dating of roof tile kilns from Goryeo in Gyeonggi and divided them into three groups, group A (A.D.900~1150), group B (A.D.1150~1250), and group C (A.D.1300~1400) to figure out their relative order and arrange them in order. Through this kind of archaeomagnetic research, it will be possible to identify the dating of 21 roof tile kilns from Goryeo in Gyeonggi and also contribute considerably to chronological research on roof tile kilns from Goryeo. In the body, the remains and kilns belonging to each group are presented in detail.

Characteristics of White Pigments Used in Jiho Oh and Bonung Gu's Paintings Produced in Modern and Contemporary Period (근·현대 시대 오지호와 구본웅 유화작품에 사용된 백색계 안료의 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Jung Heum;Kim, Hwan Ju;Park, Hye Sun;Lim, Sung Jin
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.371-380
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    • 2017
  • To investigate the pigments used in modern and contemporary oil paintings, thirty-two paintings by Jiho Oh and Bonung Gu were selected. The white pigment found in the ground and painting layers was identified as lead white (hydrocerussite), zinc white (zinc oxide), titanium white (titanium dioxide in anatase or rutile forms), calcite (calcium carbonate), and barite (barium sulfate). Further, this indicated that pigments differ according to the artist and date of the painting's creation. However, both Oh and Gu used zinc white during the modern and contemporary period, while lead white was replaced by titanium white, barite and calcite. Compared with the overseas studies on pigments and oil paints, the change patterns of pigments were the same with them but the periods of the use were partially different. It seems to be due to the fact that South Korea is linked to the historical background of the art material which was imported from Japan instead of Western countries. Therefore, it is inevitable that any change in the white pigments used for domestic oil paintings occurred at a different time from global transitions. If the results of this study are used in the analysis of art works it is suggested that a database recording such aspects as material properties of oil paints, artistic techniques, and chronology would become important for future conservation science and the study of art history.

A Characteristics on the Ancient Glass Beads Excavated from the Site of Hapgang-ri in Sejong, Korea (세종 합강리 유적 출토 고대 유리구슬의 특성 연구)

  • kim, Eun a;Kim, Gyu Ho;Kang, Ji Won;Yun, Cheon Su
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.405-420
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    • 2020
  • A convergence research was conducted on glass beads excavated at the ruins of Hapgang-ri, Sejong, using the archeology and conservation approach. The period of appearance of Jugu Towangmyo in the ruins of Hapgang-ri can be estimated to begin in the late 2nd century; for Jugu Towangmyo No. 15, the period spans from the late 2nd to early 3rd century. Form, color, and manufacturing techniques of complete glass beads were examined, and the cross-sections and chemical composition of 16 samples were observed. Based on these analyses, the glass beads were divided into blue, purple, and red colors. The blue-colored beads could be further sub-divided based on their gloss and brightness; in contrast, the red-colored beads were highly uniform with regard to these parameters. Based on the stripe and bubble arrangement on the surface of the glass beads, their drawing technique was identified. Traces of heat treatment or polishing were observed at the ends of the beads. According to their chemical composition, the 16 samples were classified into 3 potash glass and 13 soda glass groups; in the latter, the properties of the stabilizers were divided according to the blue and red bead colors. The stabilizers of the red beads are unique in that they allow the distinction among beads excavated in other areas in South Korea owing to their compositional differences. Colorants in blue- and red-colored beads are cobalt (containing MnO), and copper and iron, respectively.

Thermoluminescence Dating of Pottery Shards by Subtraction Method (Subtraction 방법을 이용한 TL 연대측정법에 의한 토기 시편의 절대연대 결정)

  • Shin, Hyun-Sang;Lee, Chang-Woo;Nam, Young-Mee;Jee, Kwang-Yong;Park, Byung-Bin
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.403-411
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    • 2000
  • This study described a method of thermoluminescence dating of pottery shards using subtraction method. TL measurement was achieved using two different types of samples prepared by quartz inclusion method and fine-grain technique. Fine grains (size range: $5-10{\mu}m$) were separated by suspending grounded pottery samples into acetone solution and sedimentation quantitatively. In quartz inclusion method quartz grains in the size range of 90 to $125{\mu}m$ diameter were obtained by extracting the quartz crystals embed in the pottery shards and etching them with 1.0 M HF solutions. The archaeological dose of both the quartz and fine grains was determined from the dose calibration curves obtained from sequential irradiation of $^{137}Cs$ gamma and $^{241}Am$ alpha source to the samples and TL measurement of natural samples, in which the alpha dose of 4.60 Gy for the Packjae pottery was obtained using subtraction method. Annual alpha dose rates ($3.05{\pm}0.11$ mGy/yr.) were determined by the analysis of U, Th contents in the pottery shards and evaluation of the values with Bell's equation. Dividing the alpha dose accumulated in the pottery shards by the annual alpha dose rate, we found age of approximately $1508{\pm}80$ years B.P. (AD. ca. 492 yr.) for the Packjae pottery. It matches well with the archeological age estimate (middle of 5th century) within 10 percent uncertainty and thereby conforms the age of the pottery sample.

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Analysis of the Mix Ratio of Lime Mortar used in Joseon Dynasty Seongnam Godeung-dong Barrier Tombs (성남 고등동 회곽묘 삼물회의 배합비 분석)

  • Lee, Sangok;Bae, Gowoon;Chung, Kwangyong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.34-51
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    • 2020
  • In order to clarify the lime-based building method used in the Joseon Dynasty, lime materials, production techniques, and mixing methods recorded in ancient literature were examined. In ancient Joseon Dynasty literature, the use of low grade limestone as a raw material was recorded, and the use of pozzolanic materials such as Hwangtoh, white clay, and roof tile powder as mixing aids to enhance the strength of lime was recorded. In addition, various lime hydration and mixing methods were recorded, and based on re-experiments carried out with regards to this, a physical property evaluation was deemed to be required in accordance with the various types of raw lime materials, lime hydration methods, and mixture ratios. In the early Joseon Dynasty, lime was used for various aspects, but frequent problems were experienced due to lack of supply and poor production techniques. In the late Joseon Dynasty, lime production techniques developed along with mass production. Based on analysis of the manufacturing techniques of Hoegwagmyo lime mortar in the 16th and 18th centuries during the Joseon Dynasty, it was found that mixing ratios and the methods described in the ancient literature had been applied. It was confirmed that the mixing ratio differed depending on mixing materials and lime quality. Since the mixing ratio of Hoegwagmyo lime mortar changed over time and it was produced strictly on the basis of a guidebook, it is believed that if continuous scientific analysis of the Hoegwagmyo lime mortar production method were carried out, this would be helpful for ascertaining the chronological methodology of Hoegwagmyo.

Late Holocene Environment and Vegetation Change of Eurimji Reservoir, Jecheon, Korea (홀로세말 의림지 호소환경과 식생변천 고찰)

  • Kang, Sang-Joon;Yi, Sang-Heon;Kim, Ju-Yong
    • The Korean Journal of Quaternary Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.34-47
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    • 2009
  • AMS radiocarbon dates indicated that Eurimji reservoir, located at Jecheon City, Chungbuk Province, has been formed during the late Holocene Epoch. The sedimentary sequence at bottom reveals histories in hydrology, climate conditions and past vegetation dynamics. Ages controlled sedimentological and palynological analyses on ER 3-1 Core contribute to reconstruct paleoclimate and past hydrological conditions. These analyses suggest that lower interval (307.5m~309.5m elevations) of the ER 3-1 Core was deposited in stable from 1,920 yrBP to 1,420 yrBP, but upper layer sediment above these elevations was composed of reworked sediments during the pre and post 2,000 yrBP. Pollen assemblage indicates that watershed vegetation of the Eurimji reservoir, during the period of 1,920 yrBP~1,420 yrBP, was closely comparable to modern vegetation dominated Pinus and Quercus mixed vegetation. Also, riparian including Alnus, Fraxinus and Salix were inhabited along the banks of stream, and aquatics such as Typha, Nymphaea and Persicaria flourished at shore of the reservoir. According to cultural chronicle, it infers that the Eurimji reservoir was formed from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age or the beginning of ancient society. An integrated data suggested that Quercus-Pinus-Abies mixed forest flourished under cool and dry climate conditions during 3,200 yrBP~200 yrBP.

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The Geomorphological Development of Coastal Terraces at Jigyeong-Ri, the Areal Boundary between Gyeongju- and Ulsan City on the Southeast Coast of Korea (한국 남동해안 경주-울산 경계지역 지경리 일대 해안단굴 지형발달)

  • 황상일;윤순옥;박한산
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.490-504
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    • 2003
  • The existence of coastal terraces, HH(High higher) surfaces found at Gampo of southeast coast and at Jeongdongjin of the central east coast were confirmed at Jjgyeong-Ri, the areal border between Gyeongjuand Ulsan city on the southeast coast of Korea Peninsula. Especially this study reports HH JK-surface located on the 155m a.s.l, which is the highest altitude among the ancient shorelines of the coastal terraces in Korea. The HH surfaces on the study area are classified into HH JK at 155m, HH I at 140m and HH II at 115m, and each formation stage is related to MIS 17(720∼690ka BP), MIS 15(630∼560ka BP) and MIS 13(510∼480ka BP) respectively. The HH-surfaces remain to be larger than those of H- and L-surfaces. The reason is caused by the unique factors of the coastal geology and morphology on the study area during the formation stage. And also the areal difference by the magnitude of upheaval doesn't exist from north to south because the altitude system of ancient shoreline on each coastal terrace is same along the east coast. The upheaval rate of the eastern coastal areas was measured in the relation to the ancient shoreline and formation stage among the coastal terraces such as HH JK-, HH I-, HH II, H I- and H II surface, and was almost same as 0.23mm/y.