• Title, Summary, Keyword: 파밤나방

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Pathogenicity of Spodoptera exigua Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus and Cross Infection of Baculoviruses to the Beet Armyworm, S. exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (파밤나방 핵다각체병바이러스의 병원성과 곤충간상바이러스의 파밤나방에 대한 교차감염에 관한 연구)

  • 임대준;최귀문;강석권
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.212-218
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    • 1991
  • Pathogenicity of Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SeMNPV) against the host insect and 8 species of lepidopterous insects and cross infection of baculoviruses to third instar of S. exigua larvae were studied to determine as a biocontrol agent for S. exigua. The median lethal concentrations($LC_{50}$)of the SeMNPV to egg mass was $2.855\times10^5$ PIBs/ml and higher than that to the larvae of S. exigua. Mortality of the SeMNPV in third ins tar larvae was more increased than that in first and fifth instar of S. exigua larvae by 1.16 and 4.11 times, respectively. The median lethal times($LT_{50}$) to $1.56\times10^6$ PIBs/ml was in the range of 4.25 to 5.04 days. Infectivity of the SeMNPV against eight species of lepidopterous insects was showed only in the host insect, S. exigua. Autographa cali/ornica MNPV, Mamestra barassicae MNPV, and Trichoplusia ni MNPV were cross-infected to third instar of S. exigua larvae among ten of baculoviruses tested.

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Comparative effects of nicotine and diazinon on larval mortality and activity of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in Helicoverpa assulta and Spodoptera exigua (담배나방과 파밤나방의 유충사망률과 cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases의 활성에 미치는 니코틴과 다이아지논의 영향)

  • 이정호;부경생
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.225-235
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    • 1993
  • This study was carried out to investigate effects of diazinon, an organophosphate, and nicotine, a plant~originated toxic chemical, on larval mortality and activity of cytochrome P-45D monooxygenases, a major detoxifwation enzyme system, in Helicoverpa assulta and Spodoptera exigua. Diazinon treatment gave a higher mortaliLy to H. assulta larvae than S. exigua larvae. In contrast to the case of diazinon, nicotine caused a higher mortahty to S. exigua than to H. assulla larvae. It was partly due to the fact that nicotine induced the actiVIty of midgut cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MFO) more than diazinon did in If assulta larvae. When If. aSSlllta larvae were reared on their host p\am. NicotwlIa tuoocum leaves, other componentS were mostly metabolized with the exception of dietary nicotine.

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Penetrations of flupyrazofos against Plutella xylostella(Lepidoptera :Yponomeutidae) and Spodoptera exigua(Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) (배추좀나방과 파밤나방에 대한 flupyrazofos의 체벽 투과량)

  • Lee, Sang-Guei;Hwang, Chang-Yeon;Han, Man-Jong;Yoo, Jai-Ki;Lee, Hoi-Seon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.44-50
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    • 2000
  • Tolerance mechanism to flupyrazofos was examined with Plutella xylostella (L.) and Spodoptera exigua by investigating the penetration rate of flupyrazofos into larvae body. On determining effective washing of $^{14}C$-flupyrazofos, the washing volume to recover over 98% of $^{14}C$-flupyrazofos was observed at three times (each time: 1 mL). To select a suitable solvent, the recovery rates of each solvent in 3rd instar larvae of DBM were above 98%, but the washing rates of acetone, hexane and ethyl-acetate were 85.1%, 67.2% and 68.4%, respectively. In the BAW larvae, although the recovery rates of each solvent were above 99%, the washing rates of acetone, hexane and ethyl-acetate were 83.5%, 65.9% and 71.7%, respectively. The $PT_{50}$ values of $^{14}C$-flupyrazofos were 0.731 h (44 min) in the DBM larva and 0.504 h (30 min) in the BAW larva. Radiocarbon in acetone washing (external fraction) decreased more quickly in the BAW larva than in the DBM larva, and amount of radiocarbon in larvae body increased more quickly with time in the DBM larva than in the BAW larva. In contrast, amount of radiocarbon in excreta increased more rapidly with time in the BAW larva than in the DBM larva.

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Toxicological and Electrophysiological Activities of Pyrethroids between Larvae of Diamondback Moth, plutella xylostella and Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (배추좀나방과 파밤나방의 pyrethroids약제에 대한 감수성 및 전기적 신경 반응 비교)

  • Ham, Sun-Hee;Ahn, Hee-Geun;Yang, Jeong-Oh;Yoon, Chang-Mann;Kim, Gil-Hah
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2009
  • Based on the insecticidal efficacy by insecticide treatment methods, neurophysiological responses were compared with the larvae of diamondback moth (DBM) and beet armyworm (BAW) using pyrethroids working on nervous system. By body spray method, all pyrethroids were showed lower insecticidal activity below 50% on the larvae of DBM and BAW. By leaf dipping method, DBM larvae were showed the insecticidal activity as 100% at 50 ppm deltamethrin, 80.0% at fenvalervate and 63.3% at permethrin. However, BAW larvae were showed lower insecticidal activity as similar as control in all concentration. In order to examine electrophysiological response on nervous system on DBM and BAW larvae when treated three insecticides, we investigated the voltage and reaction degree. The voltage of DBM were responded as high as $10^{-7}M$ in deltamethrin, $10^{-5}M$ in fenvalerate and $10^{-3}M$ in permethrin. However, those of BAW were showed dull responses with small variation of voltage to all three insecticides.

In vivo Metabolism of Flupyrazofos into Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (배추좀나방과 파밤나방의 채내에서 Flupyrazofos의 대사)

  • Lee, Sang-Guei;Lee, Hoi-Seon;Hwang, Chang-Yeon;Han, Man-Jong;Park, Hyung-Man
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.224-229
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    • 2002
  • In vivo metabolism study was carried out to find out the biochemical or metabolic tolerance mechanism between Diamond backmoth (DBM), Plutella xylostella and Beet armywarm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua to flupyrazofos. They showed some differences between the DBM and BAW. About 20% of flupyrazofos applied to the 3rd instar larvae of DBM was metabolized within 1 h and about 50% of that was metabolized within 4 h. The metabolites of flupyrazofos-oxon in 3rd instar larvae of DBM were increased 10 times more at 4 h than 1 h after application. The amounts of flupyrazol were nearly same between at 1 h and 4 h. The amount of unknown and origin increased 2 and 3 times more at 1 h than 4 h after application, respectively. In the 4th instar BAW larva, about 50% of flupyrazofos was metabolized within 1 h and about 70% of that was metabolized within 4 h. As metabolites, the amounts of flupyrazofos-oxon increased 2 times more at 4 h than 1 h after application. The amounts of flupyrazol increased 4 times more at 4 h than 1 h after application. The amount of unknown and origin increased 2.5 and 2 times more at 4 h than 1 h after application, respectively. From the study, it is supposed that hydrolytic enzyme, esterase, cleave the alkyl bond of flupyrazofos and conjugates with flupyrazofos. This seems to be the main tolerance mechanism of BAW to flupyrazofos.

Insecticidal Effect of an Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana ANU1 to Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella by Different Temperature and Humidity Conditions (파밤나방과 배추좀나방에 대한 곤충병원성 곰팡이 Beauveria bassiana ANU1의 온도와 습도조건에 따른 살충효과)

  • Lee, Jung-Bok;Park, Youngjin
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2015
  • Entomopathogenic fungi have been studied to develop for biological control agents as an alternative to chemical control agents in insect pest management. Two Lepidopteran insects, Spodoptera exigua and Plutella xylostella, are serious insect pests infested various crops, but not effectively controlled by commercial chemical pesticides due to its high insecticide resistance. A fungal isolate was isolated from S. exigua larvae collected from green onion field in Andong, Korea. To identify the fungal isolate, 18srRNA sequence for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and ${\beta}$-tubulin regions were sequenced. The ITS and ${\beta}$-tubulin sequence were highly matched to Beauveria bassiana and morphological characteristics also was fit to known B. bassiana. Finally, isolated fungus has identified as B. bassiana and named B. bassiana ANU1. The result of bioassay, median lethal concentrations were $2.7{\times}10^3$ and $0.9{\times}10^3conidia/ml$ and medial lethal times were 65.6 and 60.8 h to S. exigua and P. xylostella, respectively. B. bassiana ANU1 showed high pathogenicity to two insect pests from $20^{\circ}C$ to $30^{\circ}C$ at 50% relative humidity (RH) and more than 40% RH at $25^{\circ}C$ with $10^7conidia/ml$ of concentration.

Insecticidal Activity of Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 against the Different Stages of Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (곤충병원성 곰팡이 Metarhizium anisopliae FT83의 파밤나방 생육단계별 살충활성)

  • Han, Ji Hee;Kim, Jeong Jun;Lee, SangYeob
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.417-421
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    • 2014
  • The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua is pest which is difficult to control. For eco-friendly beet armyworm managements, we isolated entomopathogenic fungi from soil samples by insect-bait method using Tenebrio molitor and conducted bioassay to larvae of beet armyworm. The result of bioassay, a selected strain Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 caused 100% mortality against first ~ third instar larva of S. exigua at $1{\times}10^8conidia/ml$ and medial lethal time ($LT_{50}$) were 0.5 days, 2.6 days and 2.5 days respectively. Mortality against fourth and fifth larvae were $83.3{\pm}6.2%$ and $86.0{\pm}5.7%$ and medial lethal time ($LT_{50}$) were 4.2 days and 3.6 days respectively. Mortality against pupae and eggs of S. exigua were 100%. M. anisopliae FT83 showed high virulence at all developmental stages of S. exigua.

Control Effects of different Concentrations and Mixtures of the commercial Bacillus thuringiensis Products against Moths (Bacillus thuringiensis 제품의 농도 및 혼합 조건에 따른 나방류 방제 효과)

  • Kim, Jeong Jun;Zhu, Hong;Han, Ji Hee;Lee, Sangyeob;Park, Hong-Hyun;Lee, Sang Guei
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.387-390
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    • 2012
  • Beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and tobacco cutworm (S. litura) are insect pests causing damage in many economically important vegetables in Korea. Bacillus thuringiensis, commonly known as Bt, has been available as an alternative insecticide for many years. Five commercial Bt products and the mixtures evaluate the control efficacy against three kinds of moths. These commercial Bt products had high control efficacy against $2^{nd}$ instar of diamondback moth, but didn't show high mortality against beet armyworm and tobacco cutworm. Mixtures of Bt products didn't have synergistic effects to the tested moths. Also application of twice and four times the recommended concentration didn't improve the control effects against the tested three species of moths.

Biological Control of Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Entomopathogenic Nematodes(Steinernematid and Heterorhabditid) in Greenhouse (시설재배지에서 곤충병원성 선충, Steinernematid와 Heterorhabditid를 이용한 파밤나방(Spodoptera exigua)의 생물적 방제)

  • Kim, Hyeong-Hwan;Cho, Sung-Rae;Lee, Dong-Woon;Lee, Sang-Myeong;Choo, Ho-Yul
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.335-343
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    • 2006
  • Five strains of Korean entomopathogenic nematodes(EPN), steinernematids and heterorhabditids(Steinernama carpocapsae GSN1, Steinernema sp. GSNUS-10, Steinernama sp. GSNUS-14, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hamyang, Heterorhabditis sp. GSNUH-1) were evaluated and tried in petri dish, pot, and vegetable greenhouses for environmentally friendly control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. $LC_{50}$ values of five EPN strains against beet armyworm was different depending on nematode strain and beet armyworm instar. $LC_{50}$ value of Steinernema carpocapse GSN1(GSN1) was 3.8-5.1 infective juveniles(Ijs) in 2nd to 4th instars of beet armyworm. Pathogenicity of five EPN strains against beet armyworm different in nematode strain, concentration, application times, and vegetable species in pot and greenhouse. Steinernema spp. was more effective than Heterorhabditis spp. against beet armyworm. Two or three times of applications of EPN were found to be effective regardless of nematode strain and concentration in pot and greenhouse. ENP showed different reactions on vegetable species. Efficacy of EPN was higher on Chinese cabbage than that on cabbage and kale. GSN1 was one of the most effective nematodes and 100,000 infective juveniles per $m^2$(720,000 Ijs/$7.2m^2=1{\times}10^9$Ijs/ha) resulted in higher mortality in greenhouse.

Control Thresholds for the Management of Beet Army Worm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) on Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum L.) (파에서 파밤나방 요방제 수준 설정)

  • Kim, Seon-Gon;Kim, Do-Ik;Kang, Beom-Ryong;Choi, Kyeong-Ju
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.431-435
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    • 2007
  • Control thresholds for the management of beet army worm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae) were evaluated on welsh onion of two different planting time. Two inoculation times were tested for each planting and the number of inoculated larva was 5, 10, 20, 40 per twenty plants. The injured rate of leaves was 33.5% to 10.9% at 7th September at 40 to 5 larva inoculation plot on the five days planting. That of leaves was 20.5% at 40 larva on the twenty days planting. The yields of welsh onion on non-inoculation plot were 4,395 kg per 10a. The rate of reduced yields was 49.2%(1,774.2 kg) and 36.5%(2,220.5 kg) at 40 larva inoculation on the 5 and 20 days planting, respectively. The linear relationships between population density and yield reduction were as following; it was Y=-43.474X + 3419.6 ($R^2\;=\;0.9698$) for 5 days and Y=-32.977X + 3518.9 ($R^2\;=\;0.9928$) for 20 days. Based on these results the control threshold level was estimated to be 1.8 larva for 5 days and 4.6 larva for 20 days per 20 plant. The more damaged leaves by S. exigua larva, the more yield reduction on welsh onion.