• Title, Summary, Keyword: 최고관리자

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A Verification on the Effectiveness of Middle Managers' Emotional Leadership in Food Service Management Companies (위탁급식업체 중간관리자의 감성리더십 효과성 검증)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ah;Jung, Hyun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.488-498
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    • 2007
  • The purposes of this study were to: a) provide evidences concerning the effects of emotional leadership b) examine the impacts of emotional leadership on employee-related variables, 'job satisfaction', 'organizational commitment', 'organizational performance' and 'turnover intention', and c) identify a conceptual framework underlying emotional leadership. A survey was conducted from August 23 to November 3, 2005 to collect data from mid-level managers in food service company headquarters (N=219). Statistical analyses were completed using SPSS Win (12.0) for descriptive, reliability, factor and correlation analyses and AMOS (5.0) for confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The main results of this study were as follows. First, the managers gave the highest point to their leaders in the emotional leadership competence 'organizational awareness : reading the currents, decision networks, and politics at the organizational level' and gave the lowest point in the emotional leadership competence 'influence: wielding effective tactics for persuasion'. Second, the means of job satisfaction was above the midpoint (3 points). Employees' job satisfaction with 'coworkers' was relatively high. However, the extents of satisfaction with 'payroll' 'promotion', and 'work environment' were relatively low. Third, the organizational commitment was above the midpoint (3 points). In the organizational commitment, 'loyalty' factor was higher than 'commitment' factor. Fourth, the means of organizational performance was above the midpoint. The highest organizational performance variable was 'internal efficiency; trying to reduce cost' and the lowest organizational performance variable was 'internal fairness ; equitable treatment and all are treated with respect with no regard to status and grade'. Fifth, most respondents intended on 'thinking of quitting ; towards turnover process'. Sixth, the test of hypothesis using structural equation modeling found that emotional leadership produced p[Isitive effects on job attitude and job performance. Emotional leadership enhanced job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and in turn, employees' attitude positive effects on organizational performance; emotional leadership also had a direct impact on organizational performance

Thermal Environments of Children's Parks during Heat Wave Period (폭염 시 어린이공원의 온열환경)

  • Ryu, Nam-Hyong;Lee, Chun-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.84-97
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    • 2016
  • This study was to investigate the user's thermal environments of the children's parks according to pavements and sunscreen types during periods of heat waves. The measurements were conducted at the sand pits, rubber chip pavement, shelters, and green shade ground of the two children's parks located in Jinju, Korea(Chilam: $N\;35^{\circ}11^{\prime}1.4{^{\prime}^{\prim}}$, $E\;128^{\circ}5^{\prime}31.7{^{\prime}^{\prime}}$, elevation 38m, Gaho: $N\;35^{\circ}09^{\prime}56.8{^{\prime}^{\prime}}$, $E\;128^{\circ}6^{\prime}41.1{^{\prime}^{\prime}}$, elevation 24m) over three days during 11-13, August, 2016. The highest ambient air temperatures at the Jinju Meteorological Office during the three measurement days were $35.9{\sim}36.8^{\circ}C$, which corresponded with the extremely hot weather. A series of experiments measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity, black globe temperature, and long-wave and short-wave radiation of the six directions 0.6 m above ground level. The wet bulb globe temperature(WBGT) and the universal thermal climatic index(UTCI) were used to evaluate thermal stress. Surface temperature images of the play equipment were also taken using infrared thermography. Surface temperatures of the play equipment and grounds were used to evaluate burn risk through contact with playground materials. The results showed the following. The maximum air temperatures averaged over 1-hour period for three days were $36.6{\sim}39.4^{\circ}C$. The sun shades reduced those temperatures by up to $2.8^{\circ}C$(green shade) and $1.0^{\circ}C/2.3^{\circ}C$(shelters). The minimum relative humidity values averaged over 1-hour period for three days were 44~50%. The sun shades increased those humidity values by up to 6%(green shade) and 4%/6%(shelters). The risk of heat related illness at the measurement sites of the children's parks were extreme and high in the daytime hours. The maximum WBGT values averaged over a 30-minute period for three days were $31.2{\sim}33.6^{\circ}C$. The sun shades reduced those WBGT values by up to $2.4^{\circ}C$(green shade) and $0.5^{\circ}C/2.1^{\circ}C$(shelters) compared to sandpits, but would not block the risk of heat related illness in the daytime hours. The category of heat stress at the measurement sites of the children's parks were extreme and very strong in the daytime hours. The maximum UTCI values averaged over a 30-minute period for three days were $39.9{\sim}48.1^{\circ}C$. The sun shades reduced those UTCI values by up to $7.8^{\circ}C$(green shade) and $4.1^{\circ}C/8.2^{\circ}C$(shelters) compared to sandpits, but could not lower heat stress category from extreme and very strong to strong and moderate in the daytime hours. According to the burn threshold criteria when skin was in contact with playground materials, the maximum surface temperature of the stainless steels($70.8^{\circ}C$) surpassed three seconds $60^{\circ}C$ threshold for uncoated steel, that of the rubber chip($76.5^{\circ}C$) surpassed five seconds $74^{\circ}C$ threshold for the plastic, that of the plastic slide($68.5^{\circ}C$) and seats($71.0^{\circ}C$) surpassed the one min $60^{\circ}C$ threshold for plastic, respectively. The surface temperatures of shaded play equipment were lower approximately $20^{\circ}C$ than those of play equipment exposed to the sun. Therefore, sun shades can block the risk of burns in daytime hours. Because of the extreme and high risk of heat related illness and extreme and high heat stress at the children's parks during periods of heat waves, parents and administrators must protect children from the use of playgrounds. The risk of burn when contact with play equipments and grounds at the children's parks during periods of heat waves, was very high. The sun shades are essential to block the risk of burn from play equipments and grounds at the children's parks during heat waves.

A Validation of The Korean Version of Eating Attitude Test-26 (한국판 식사태도검사-26(The Eating Attitude Test-26 : KEAT-26) 의 타당화)

  • Rhee, Min-Kyu;Go, Young-Taek;Lee, Hye-Kyung;Whang, Eul-Ji;Lee, Young-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.153-163
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    • 2001
  • This study was attempted to investigate the discriminant validity of Korean version of Eating Attitude Test-26(KEAT-26) and to provide the sensitivity, specificity and efficiency according to cutting score, which may be useful to determine the optimal cutoff point on various purposes. The KEAT-26 was administered to 108 female patients with eating disorders, 179 female participants in body slimming center, 120 female athletic college students, 227 female college students, and 183 healthy normal women. Validity was tested by ANOVA and ROC curve analysis. The results revealed that the total score of the KEAT-26 showed a statistically significance between groups and that the score of the KEAT-26 of eating disorders group was significantly higher than that of the other groups in post hoc test. In comparison of the 4 subfactor score of the KEAT-26 between groups, significant differences in main effect within groups were found in all subfactors except factor IV. ROC curve analysis showed 80% of efficiency to discriminate eating disorders group from normal control group using cutoff score on maximum discriminant efficiency and 69% of efficiency to discriminate eating disorders group from high risk groups for eating disorders. Each cutoff score on maximum in efficiency was as follows ; 25 between eating disorders group and participants in body slimming center, 19 between eating disorders group and healthy normal woman, 23 between eating disorders group and athletic college students, 21 between eating disorders group and college students. Using 22(T score 65) of the KEAT-26 as the cutoff score, sensitivity was 54%, specificity was 84%, and overall efficiency was 80%. These results indicate that the KEAT-26 has a good discriminant validity in Korean population and also suggest that the KEAT-26 may be useful assessment tool to screen the disordered eating problems on clinical and epidemiological purposes.

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Research on the New and Senior Security Guard's State Anxiety before Task Performance (신입경호원과 선임경호원 간의 업무수행 전 상태불안에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Joo-Sub;Park, Jeong-hun
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.23
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    • pp.109-131
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    • 2010
  • This research analyzed how the new and senior security guards employed privately are influenced on their task performance by the factors operated before task performance: cognitive state anxiety, physical state anxiety and state confidence which are the sub-factors of the Competitive State Anxiety(CSAI-II) according to the educational background, career, gender and athletic capacity. First, as for the new and senior security guards' state anxiety before task performance, the senior guards felt the cognitive anxiety more than the new guards, but there was not a distinct difference statistically. Therefore, it is estimated that there is little difference in the level of cognitive anxiety between the new security guards with insufficient career and the seniors. Second, the level of the physical state anxiety was shown higher from the senior guards than from the new ones and had a distinct difference. However, it seems to be derived from the extent of physical development as the seniors are at the time of vigorous physical development. Third, the level of state anxiety had no distinct difference between them statistically though the new security guards felt it higher than the seniors. Fourth, the state confidence was shown higher from the seniors than from the new and had a distinct difference statistically, also. Fifth, as for gender, the male and female guards did not have a difference so much in the cognitive and physical state anxiety, and state confidence. Sixth, as a whole, the state anxiety was highest as for the security guards with athletic capacity level 1 and 2. Those with the level 2, and 3 and the level above 7 felt it less than those with the level 5-6, which had a distinct difference in statistics. The manager of the new and senior security guards should make them dispel anxiety in piece of mind through physical and mental education encouraging them to have self-confidence, practical training, and psychological training based on the analysis of causes of various cases.

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Opportunity Tree Framework Design For Optimization of Software Development Project Performance (소프트웨어 개발 프로젝트 성능의 최적화를 위한 Opportunity Tree 모델 설계)

  • Song Ki-Won;Lee Kyung-Whan
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartD
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    • v.12D no.3
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    • pp.417-428
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    • 2005
  • Today, IT organizations perform projects with vision related to marketing and financial profit. The objective of realizing the vision is to improve the project performing ability in terms of QCD. Organizations have made a lot of efforts to achieve this objective through process improvement. Large companies such as IBM, Ford, and GE have made over $80\%$ of success through business process re-engineering using information technology instead of business improvement effect by computers. It is important to collect, analyze and manage the data on performed projects to achieve the objective, but quantitative measurement is difficult as software is invisible and the effect and efficiency caused by process change are not visibly identified. Therefore, it is not easy to extract the strategy of improvement. This paper measures and analyzes the project performance, focusing on organizations' external effectiveness and internal efficiency (Qualify, Delivery, Cycle time, and Waste). Based on the measured project performance scores, an OT (Opportunity Tree) model was designed for optimizing the project performance. The process of design is as follows. First, meta data are derived from projects and analyzed by quantitative GQM(Goal-Question-Metric) questionnaire. Then, the project performance model is designed with the data obtained from the quantitative GQM questionnaire and organization's performance score for each area is calculated. The value is revised by integrating the measured scores by area vision weights from all stakeholders (CEO, middle-class managers, developer, investor, and custom). Through this, routes for improvement are presented and an optimized improvement method is suggested. Existing methods to improve software process have been highly effective in division of processes' but somewhat unsatisfactory in structural function to develop and systemically manage strategies by applying the processes to Projects. The proposed OT model provides a solution to this problem. The OT model is useful to provide an optimal improvement method in line with organization's goals and can reduce risks which may occur in the course of improving process if it is applied with proposed methods. In addition, satisfaction about the improvement strategy can be improved by obtaining input about vision weight from all stakeholders through the qualitative questionnaire and by reflecting it to the calculation. The OT is also useful to optimize the expansion of market and financial performance by controlling the ability of Quality, Delivery, Cycle time, and Waste.

Assessment of Foodservice and Cooking Program for Children Attending Community Child Centers in Korea (지역아동센터를 이용하는 아동을 위한 급식 및 요리활동 프로그램의 적용효과 평가)

  • Kwon, Sooyoun;Yeoh, Yoonjae
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a foodservice and cooking program for children attending community child centers in Korea. The foodservice and cooking program included a reference menu, nutrition and hygiene class for foodservice managers, as well as cooking classes for children during the winter or summer vacation in 2015. In order to evaluate the program, a survey was conducted before and after the program. A total of 1,120 children who participated in the program completed questionnaires regarding eating behaviors, food intake, and their opinions and levels of satisfaction with the program. The scores of children's eating behaviors increased significantly from 59.71 to 63.62 out of 85 points (p<0.001). A significant increase was detected in children's food intake. Vegetable intake, which received the lowest scores, increased significantly from 3.63 to 3.81 out of 5 points (p<0.001). The score for opinions and satisfaction concerning the program was 28.34 out of 35 points. These results suggest that the foodservice and cooking program could be helpful in promoting healthy food habits in children attending community child centers.

Development and evaluation of Pre-Parenthood Education Program for high school students based on Home Economics subject (고등학생을 위한 가정교과 기반 예비부모교육 프로그램 개발 및 평가)

  • Noh, Heui-Yeon;Cho, Jae Soon;Chae, Jung Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.161-193
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate pre-parenthood education program(PPEP) based on Home Economics(HE) subject for high school students. The development and evaluation of PPEP based on HE subject in this study followed ADDIE model except implementation through 4 processes such as analysis, design, development, and evaluation. First, program development directions were set in three aspects such as 'general development', 'contents', and 'teaching and learning methods'. Themes of the program are 11 in total such as '1. Parenting, what is being a parent', '2. Choosing your spouse, happy marital relationship, the best gift to your children', '3. Pregnancy and birth, a moving meeting with a new life', '4. Taking care of a new born infant for 24 hours', '5. Taking care of infants, relationship with my lovely baby, attachment', '6. Taking care of young children, my child from another planet', '7. Parents and children in healthy family', '8. Parent-child relationship, wise parents to make effective interaction with their children', '9. Parents safety manager at home,', '10. Practice to take care of infants', and '11. Practice of community nurturing support service development'. In particular, learning activities of the program have major characteristics such as 1) utilization of cases including practice problems related to parenting, 2) community exchange activities utilizing learned knowledge and techniques, 3) actual life project activities utilizing learning contents related with parenting, 4) activities inducing positive changes in current life of high school students, and 5) practice activities for the necessities of life such as food, clothing and shelter supporting development of children. Second, the program was developed according to the design. Teaching-learning plans and materials for 17 classes were developed according to 11 themes. The developed plans include class flow and teacher's reference. It starts with receiving a class-related message from a virtual child at the introduction stage and ended with replying to the message by summarizing contents of the class and making a promise as a parent-to-be. That is the basic frame of class flow. Learning materials included various plans and reports necessary for learning activities and they are prepared in details so that they can be play the role of textbooks in regular curriculum. Third, evaluation of developed program was executed by a 5 point Likert scale survey on 13 HE experts on two aspects of program development process and program development results. In the evaluation of development process, mean value was 4.61 and index of content validity was 97.4%. For development results, mean value was 4.37 and index of content validity was 86.9%. These values showed that validity in the development process and results in this study was highly secured and confirmed that PPEP based on HE was appropriate and valid to enhance parent qualifications of high school learners.

A cohort study on blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration of workers in storage battery factory (축전지 공장 근로자들의 혈중 Zinc Protoporphyrin에 대한 코호트 연구)

  • Jeon, Man-Joong;Lee, Joong-Jeong;SaKong, Joon;Kim, Chang-Yoon;Kim, Jung-Man;Chung, Jong-Hak
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.112-126
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    • 1998
  • To investigate the effectiveness of the interventions in working environment and personal hygiene for the occupational exposure to the lead, the blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations of 131 workers (100 exposed subjects and 31 controls) of a newly established battery factory were analyzed. They were measured in every 3 months up to 18 months. Ai. lead concentration (Pb-A) of the workplaces was also checked for 3 times in 6 months interval from August 1987. Environmental intervention included the local exhaust ventilation and vacuum cleaning of the floor. Intervention of the personal hygiene included the daily change of clothes, compulsory shower after work and hand washing before meal, prohibition of cigarette smoking and food consumption at the work site and wearing mask. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the controls was $16.45{\pm}4.83{\mu}g/d\ell$ at the preemployment examination and slightly increased to $17.77{\pm}5.59{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 6 months. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the exposed subjects who were employed before the factory was in operation (Group A) was $17.36{\pm}5.20{\mu}g/d\ell$ on employment and it was increased to $23.00{\pm}13.06{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 3 months. The blood ZPP concentration was increased to $27.25{\pm}6.40{\mu}g/d\ell$ on 6 months (p<0.01) after the employment which was 1 month after the initiation of intervention program. It did not increase thereafter and ranged between $25.48{\mu}g/d\ell$ and $26.61{\mu}g/d\ell$ in the subsequent 4 results. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the exposed subjects who were employed after the factory had been in operation but before the intervention program was initiated (Group B) was $14.34{\pm}6.10{\mu}g/d\ell$ on employment and it was increased to $28.97{\pm}7.14{\mu}g/d\ell$ (p<0.01) in 3 months later(1 month after the intervention). The values of subsequent 4 tests were maintained between $26.96{\mu}g/d\ell$and $27.96{\mu}g/d\ell$. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the exposed subjects who were employed after intervention program had been started (Group C) was$21.34{\pm}5.25{\mu}g/d\ell$ on employment and it was gradually increased to $23.37{\pm}3.86{\mu}g/d\ell$ (p<0.01) after 3 months, $23.93{\pm}3.64{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 6 months, $25.50{\pm}3.01{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 9 months, and $25.50{\pm}3.10{\mu}g/d\ell$ after 12 months. Workplaces were classified into 4 parts according to Pb-A. The Pb-A of part I, the highest areas, were $0.365mg/m^3$, and after the intervention the levels were decreased to $0.216mg/m^3$ and$0.208mg/m^3$ in follow-up test. The Pb-A of part II which was resulted in lowe. value than part I was decreased from $0.232mg/m^3$ to $0.148mg/m^3$, and $0.120mg/m^3$ after the intervention. The Pb-A of part III was tested after the intervention and resulted in $0.124mg/m^3$ in January 1988 and $0.181mg/m^3$ in August 1988. The Pb-A of part IV was also tested after the intervention and resulted in $0.110mg/m^3$ in August 1988. There was no consistent relationship between Pb-A and blood ZPP concentration. The blood ZPP concentration of the group A and B workers in the part of the highest Pb-A were lower than those of the workers in the parts of lower Pb-A. The blood ZPP concentration of the workers in the part of the lowest Pb-A increased more rapidly. The blood ZPP concentration of the group C workers was the highest in part III. These findings suggest that the intervention in personal hygiene is more effective than environmental intervention, and it should be carried out from the first day of employment and to both the exposed subjects, blue color workers and the controls, white color workers.

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